GA History Exam UGA

James Edward Oglethorpe
The leader of English Parliament who founded the Georgia colony, in order to create an effective buffer from the Spanish and Spanish controlled Florida.
James Wright
Georgia’s third, and final, royal governor who fled the colony when the American Revolution began
Nancy Morgan Hart
one of the most patriotic women in Georgia, she worked as a spy; she disguised herself as a man and entered British camps trying to gain information; famous for holding six British soldiers at gunpoint who tried to pillage her land.
Yazoo Land Fraud
1795, the sale of western land to four land companies after the governor and members of the General Assembly had been bribed
Governor James Jackson
Overturned Yazoo Act; elected to First Congress; lost reelection
Trail of Tears
Forced journey of the Cherokee Indians from Georgia to a region west of the Mississippi (present day Oklahoma) during which thousands of Cherokees died
Joseph Brown
Governor from Georgia who tried at times to keep his own troops apart from the Confederate forces and insisted on hoarding surplus supplies for his own state’s militias. He believed that his state had seceded so that it didn’t have to follow the dictates of a central government.
Milledgeville
Georgia’s fourth capital and seat of the state government during the Civil War
Henry L. Benning
A jurist who became associate justice of the Supreme Court of Georgia in the 1850s. He then became a vocal advocate for secession and earned the rank of brigadier general during the Civil War
Robert Toombs
A senator and extremist from Georgia who said that the South would never let the federal government be controlled by the Republican party and threatened secession.
William T. Sherman
He commanded the Union army in Tennessee. In September of 1864 his troops captured Atlanta, Georgia. He then headed to take Savannah. This was his famous “march to the sea.”. His troops burned barns and houses, and destroyed the countryside. His march showed a shift in the belief that only military targets should be destroyed. Civilian centers could also be targets.
Rufus Bullock
He served as the Governor of Georgia from 1868 to 1871 during Reconstruction and was the first Republican governor of Georgia. After various allegations of scandal, in 1871 he was obliged by the Ku Klux Klan to resign the governorship.
Tunis Campbell
Represented McIntosh County as a state senator and served as a justice of the peace.Insisted on equal representation of blacks in juries and otherwise championed their rights to the point of making himself an annoyance to the whites. Was sentenced to a year of hard labor for improper conduct.
Populism
Farm-based movement of the late 1800s that arose mainly in the area from Texas to the Dakotas and grew into a joint effort between farmer and labor groups against big business and machine-based politics. The movement became a third party in the election of 1892.
“New South” Crusade
Sought to diversify the Georgia economy; eventually led to the industrialization of the state.
Jim Crow
The system of racial segregation in the South that was created in the late nineteenth century following the end of slavery. These laws written in the 1880s and 1890s mandated segregation in public facilities.
W. E. B. Du Bois
American civil rights activist; wrote the Souls of Black Folk and demanded full racial equality; helped found the NAACP
Rebecca Latimer Felton
She was a civic leader that supported women’s suffrage and temperance as well as strongly disagree with the convict lease system. She was also the first woman to serve in the US Senate
Leo Frank
Jewish factory manager in Atlanta who was convicted of murdering a female employee. A mob lynched him in his jail cell.
County-unit System
It gave each county or district a certain number of votes. The bigger the district, the more votes. This inacurately stated what people wanted and gave rural areas more votes, which did not represent what most people would prefer.
Agricultural Adjustment Administration
Restricted agricultural production in the New Deal era by paying farmers to reduce crop area. Its purpose was to reduce crop surplus so as to effectively raise the value of crops, thereby giving farmers relative stability again.
Herman Talmadge
GA governor; in reaction to Brown vs. BOE he declared that GA will ‘not tolerate the mixing of races in public schools or any other tax supported instutions.” Forcibly took over the Governor’s mansion until it was officially announced he had lost the election.
Martin Luther King, Jr.
U.S. Baptist minister and civil rights leader. A noted orator, he opposed discrimination against blacks by organizing nonviolent resistance and peaceful mass demonstrations. He was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee. Nobel Peace Prize Winner(1964)
1996 Olympic Games
Put georgia on a national stage, and made Atlanta a world known city.
Jimmy Carter
39th President who stressed human rights. Because of the Soviet war in Afghanistan, he enacted an embargo on grain shipments to USSR and boycotted the 1980 Olympics in Moscow; former Georgia governor.
Reconstruction
the period after the Civil War in the United States when the southern states were reorganized and reintegrated into the Union
Jim Crow
Laws written to separate blacks and whites in public areas/meant African Americans had unequal opportunities in housing, work, education, and government
segregation
a social system that provides separate facilities for minority groups
voting restrictions
poll taxes, literacy test, grandfather clause, property requirements aimed at disenfranching black voters
W.E.B. Du Bois
fought for African American rights. Helped to found Niagra Movement in 1905 to fight for and establish equal rights. This movement later led to the establishment of the NAACP
Rebecca Latimer Felton
She was a civic leader that supported women’s suffrage and temperance as well as strongly disagree with the convict lease system.
Leo Frank
American Jew lynched in Atlanta for the murder of a white girl superintendent of a pencil factory
Mary Phagan
girl who was supposedly raped by leo Frank
the county-unit system
allotted votes by county, with little regard for population differences, or example, three rural counties with a combined population of 7,000 just as much clout in statewide elections as Fulton County, with its 550,000 inhabitants
Robert Elliott Burns
wrote about his torturous imprisonment exposes abuses in the Georgia prison system
I Am a Fugitive from a Georgia Chain Gang
book by Robert Elliott Burns chronicling his imprisonment and escape
convict lease system
allowed private companies to rent persons convicted of serious crimes
Tobacco Road
A novel from the 1930s by Erskine Caldwell, about a family of sharecroppers from Georgia and their many tragedies ; a “Tobacco Road” is a poor shantytown, usually in the rural South, and usually populated by whites.
God’s Little Acre
A novel from the 1930s by Erskine Caldwell, about a family of sharecroppers from Georgia and their many tragedies.
boll weevil
grayish weevil that lays its eggs in cotton bolls destroying the cotton
Great Depression
the economic crisis beginning with the stock market crash in 1929 and continuing through the 1930s
Franklin D. Roosevelt
President of the US during Great Depression and World War II
New Deal
the historic period (1933-1940) in the U.S. during which President Franklin Roosevelt’s economic policies were implemented
Agricultural Adjustment Administration
Paid farmers to destroy surplus and limit production ; An unintended consequence of the policy, however, was to put farmers out of work, causing even greater numbers to seek other means of employment.
Warm Springs
natural wonders visited by FDR to treat his polio
Ben Epps
considered to be the father of aviation in the state
Athens
Ben Epps field 1907
Charles Lindbergh
1923 flew his first solo flight at Souther Field in Americus
William B. Hartsfield
mayor of Atlanta from 1936 to 1961; targeted Democrats and Blacks and offered improvements
Hartsfield Airport
It is named after William Hartsfield, father of atlanta aviation, and (later)Maynard Jackson, the first black mayor. It increases trade and international businesses can travel to Atlanta.
Eastern Air Lines
used Hartsfield as a major hub
Delta Air Lines
moved its headquarters to Atlanta in 1941
Empire State of the South
title given to largest slaveholding state in the south
Joseph E Brown Governor
disliked centralized Federal and Confederate power
Robert Toombs
secretary of state, strong advocate for secession
Alexander Stephens
Vice president of the confedacy
1861
When the Georgia Secession Convention held in Milledgeville
Cobb Brothers
Howell presided over Confederacy’s organizing ; Thomas authored the constitution
Henry L. Benning
lawyer, legislator, judge on the Georgia Supreme Court, and a Confederate general during the American Civil War. He is also noted for the U.S. Army’s fort named in his honor
William T. Sherman
general who burned Georgia marching thru Atlanta to Savannah, 1864
Field Order 15
Sherman’s special order granting 400,000 acres of land to newly freed black families in forty-acre segments; likely origin of the phrase “forty acres and a mule”
Andersonville
Horrific POW camp infamous for atrocities and prisoner mistreatment
Reconstruction
Process to readmit Southern states to the Union, 1865-1871
460,000
Number of slaves freed during and after the war
Freedmen’s Bureau
established by Congress to aid African Americans undergoing the transition from slavery to freedom in the aftermath of the Civil War
Ku Klux Klan
Terrorist organization devoted to racial inequality, suffering and evil, established 1868
Black Legislators
27 duly elected were expelled from the General Assembly leading Congress to impose martial law and ban Georgia’s congressmen
Racist bullshit
Sometimes it seems like the history of Georgia is solely compromised of this single element
Rufus Bullock
first Republican to be elected to Governor, fought for equality and brought industry to the state, falsely accused of corruption
John B. Gordon
general and clansman, lost Gubernatorial contest to Rufus Bullock
1870
Georgia readmitted to the Union
Democrats
party of racists and clansmen
Republicans
party of reformers fighting for equality
Redeemers
Democrats working to counter reconstruction and equality
Thirteenth Amendment
officially abolished and continues to prohibit slavery and involuntary servitude; 1864
Fourteenth Amendment
overruled Dred Scott(1857) granting blacks citizenship ; reinforced due process and equal rights; 1868
Fifteenth Amendment
explicitly grants right of citizens to vote regardless of race, color or having been enslaved (!) ; 1870
Redemption
widespread movement to oppress the newly freed ; the term reeks and drips irony like a bloated corpse
the crop-lien system
a way for farmers to get credit before the planting season by borrowing against the value for anticipated harvests ; guess how well this worked for farmers
Bourbon Triumvirate
Joseph E. Brown(ex-Confederate governor), John B. Gordon and Alfred H. Colquitt (ex-Confederate gennerals) maintained power from 1872-1890 focused on industrializing the stated for their own profit
Tunis Campbell
prominent African American politician, fought for equality and justice
Henry W. Grady
editor of the Atlanta Constitution, who spearheaded a crusade to build a prosperous “New South” centered around Atlanta
New South
dream that Georgia might lead the South phoenix like from the ashes as a land of prosperity and equality
Atlanta
state capital 1868
sharecroppers
tenant farmers, serfs, who worked the land they did not own for a meager share of the crops
Populist Party
U.S. political party formed in 1892 representing mainly farmers, favoring free coinage of silver and government control of railroads and other monopolies
Farmers’ Alliance
A Farmers’ organization founded in late 1870s; worked for lower railroad freight rates, lower interest rates, and a change in the governments tight money policy
Thomas E. Watson
ran for vp on Populist Party ticket, in later life he became a racist
Yazoo Land Fraud
land companies bribed GA leaders to sell land cheaply; resulted in U.S. take-over of disputed land
James Jackson
Reformer, wants to clean up the mess made by the Federalists. Plans to repeal the Yazoo deal if elected. Father of Jeffersonian Party in Ga. Swept the election, takes office in 1796, rescinds the Yazoo purchase of year prior.
Trail of Tears
Cherokee were forced to leave their lands traveling over 800 miles more than 4,000 died; 1838
Indian Removal Act 1830
Passed by Congress under the Andrew Jackson administration, this act removed all Indians east of the Mississippi to an “Indian Territory” where they would be “permanently” housed.
Signed the Declaration of Independence
Button Gwinnett, Lyman Hall, and George Walton
Signed U.S. Constitution
Abraham Baldwin and William Few Jr.
Nancy Hart
a female patriot and spy credited with killing several Tories at her home.
Battle of Kettle Creek
battle near Augusta, GA won by the Patriots on February 14, 1779
Augusta
Becomes capital in 1779
Eli Whitney
Invented the cotton gin, 1793
cotton gin
machine which automated cotton processing
Gold Rush
largest discovery of gold east of the Mississippi, 1828
University of Georgia
established 1785
Wesleyan College
first womens college, 1836
James Edward Oglethorpe
created colony, georgia, for English debtors & to protect the other British colonies from Spanish atttack (buffer colony)
James Wright
Georgia’s third royal governor for 16 years who fled the colony when the American Revolution began
Nancy Morgan Hart
from Georgia, she had to defend her home against a group of Loyalist fighters
Board of Trustees
Appointed by King George II in 1732 to govern Georgia until 1752
Debtors
One of the original motivation for the colony
Henry Ellis
Georgia’s second and most popular Royal Governor, he wore a thermometer
Slavery
Was prohibited in Georgia until 1750
John Reynolds
First governor of Georgia, 1752
Yamacraw
Tribe that helped the original settlers
Yamacraw Bluff
Geographic feature that impressed Oglethorpe to build Savannah
Salzburgers
German-speaking Protestant colonists that founded Ebenezer and New Ebenezer
St. Augustine
Built by the Spanish and attacked by Oglethorpe
Fort Frederica
Built by Oglethorpe and attacked by the Spanish
Battle of Bloody Marsh
Victory for Oglethorpe over the Spanish on St. Simons Island in 1742
Mary Musgrove
The chief translator and go-between of Georgia’s early days
Catholics
Barred from Georgia
Jews
Among the earliest settlers
1732
Charter granted
1733
Savannah founded
1752
Becomes Royal Colony, first governor John Reynolds
1750
The shame of slavery begins
1742
Oglethorpe victory at Battle of Bloody Marsh
Governor’s Council
The upper legislative body in Georgia’s Royal Government
Commons House of Assembly
The lower legislative body in Georgia’s Royal Government
Creek
Native Nation the Yamacraw were part of
George II
Granted charter to trustees in 1732
Tomochichi
Chief of the Yamacraw and friend to colonists
Zero
Number of debtors release and sent to settle in Georgia
50 Acres
Amount of land needed to vote in Royal Georgia
500 Acres
Amount of land needed to be a legislator in Royal Georgia