Full Public Speaking Review

Bias
The predisposition toward a particular viewpoint.
Boolean Operators
Words and symbols that illustrate the relationship between search terms and help the search engine expand or limit results.
Expert Testimony
Testimony that comes from a recognized authority who has conducted extensive research on an issue.
Interlibrary Loan
The process of borrowing materials through one library that belong to another library.
Style Guide
An established set of standards for formatting written documents and citing sources for information within the document.
Specific Purpose Statement
A sentence summarizing the main idea, or claim, which the speech will support. It should be stated clearly toward the beginning of the speech
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Source Credibility
Signs that a person is offering trustworthy information.
Search Engine
Software which uses algorithms to scan an index of existing Internet content for particular terms, and then ranks the results based on their relevance.
Rapport
A cordial relationship between two or more people in which both parties convey respect and understanding for one another.
Lay Testimony
Any testimony based on witnesses’ opinions or perceptions in a given case
Parity
Similarity of information across sources.
Personal Testimony
An individual’s story concerning his or her lived experience, which can be used to illustrate the existence of a particular event or phenomenon.
plagiarism
presenting someone else’s work or words as your own
Analogous Colors
Colors that are next to each other on the color wheel, such as yellow and orange.
Color Palette
The selection of colors that are used throughout a single project.
Complementary Colors
Colors on opposite sides of the color wheel, such as red and green.
Creative Commons License
A designation by the copyright holder of an image or other work that it can be reused. The license identifies what specifically is allowed under what conditions and what credit must be given.
Exploded View
A picture or diagram where an object appears disassembled so the viewer can see the component parts in proper relationship to each other. They are used to show how things fit together and how parts interact to make a whole.
Greyscale
An image that has all the color information removed and replaced with appropriate shades of grey. These images are sometimes referred to as black- and-white.
Line Art
Simplified drawings made only of solid lines without color or shading. They are useful for showing the basic shape and construction of complicated objects.
Noise
In design, it refers to excess information on a slide or image or a cluttered image.
Pecha Kucha
A presentation format that uses exactly 20 slides, and each slide is only viewed for 20 seconds. This format focuses on timing, brevity, and practice.
Pixelation
The blurry appearance of images which are enlarged on a computer beyond their resolution. This often occurs when a small image is stretched to cover an entire slide.
Prezi
A newer type presentation software that allows for non- linear presentations and is more graphically oriented rather than text oriented.
Rule of Thirds
A layout design grid that divides a page into nine equal squares. Placing or aligning content along the grid lines creates a more powerful image.
Sans Serif Font
A type face whose characters do not have the small lines or flourishes at the end points of letters. Sans serif fonts include Arial, Helevetica, and Tahoma.
Serif Font
A type face whose characters have small lines or flourishes at the end points of letters. Serif fonts include Times New Roman, Georgia, and Palatino.
Silhouette
A simplified image of a person or object created from the outline of the image and filled in with a solid color, usually black.
Slide Deck
A term that refers to all the slides in a slideware presentation. It is a more generic term for PowerPoint slides.
Slideware
The software used to display digital slide shows. Examples of slideware include Microsoft PowerPoint, Apple iWork, Keynote, Google Drive Presentation, OpenOffice Impress.
Watermark
A noticeable image or graphic in an image that is placed there primarily to prevent reuse of that image by identifying the owner of the copyright. Often found on online images, it is designed to let you preview the image before you purchase it, at which time, the watermark is removed.
White Space
Empty space in your design that helps direct the viewers’ attention to the parts of the slide that really matter. Use of white space can help reduce clutter on your slide.
Z Pattern
The natural tendency of people from English-speaking countries, among others, to view images in the same way that they read text, that is, left to right, top to bottom. This results in the eye tracking along a Z-shaped path through the image.
Attitude
a learned disposition to respond in a consistently favorable or unfavorable manner with respect to a person, an object, an idea, or an event.
Audience Analysis
A speaker analyzes an audience for demographics, dispositions and knowledge of the topic.
Beliefs
Principles and are more durable than attitudes because beliefs are hinged to ideals and not issues.
Cognitive Dissonance
The psychological discomfort felt when a person is presented with two competing ideas or pieces of evidence.
Demographics
the most recent statistical characteristics of a population.
Demographic Characteristics
facts about the make-up of a population.
Demography
literally a classification of the characteristics of the people.
Inference
the act or process of deriving logical conclusions from premises known or assumed to be true.
Ordered category
a condition of logical or comprehensible arrangement among the separate elements of a group.
Paradigm
a pattern that describes distinct concepts or thoughts in any scientific discipline or other epistemological context.
Psychological Description
a description of the audience’s attitudes, beliefs, and values.
Quantitative Analysis
the process of determining the value of a variable by examining its numerical, measurable characteristics.
Statistic
the study of the collection, organization, analysis, and interpretation of data.
Unacquainted-Audience Presentation
a speech when you are completely unaware of your audience’s characteristics.
Uniqueness
occurs when a topic rises to the level of being exceptional in interest and knowledge to a given audience.
Variable
a characteristic of a unit being observed that may assume more than one of a set of values to which a numerical measure or a category from a classification can be assigned.
Value
a guiding belief that regulates our attitudes.
Value Hierarchy
a person’s value structure placed in relationship to a given value set.
Accident Fallacy
A fallacy that occurs when a generally true statement is applied to a specific case that is unusual.
Ambiguity Fallacy
A fallacy that occurs when a word having more than one meaning appears in the argument.
Analysis
The process of asking what is happening in a message through breaking it into its individual components and asking questions of each section.
Appeal to Authority
A fallacy that occurs when the truth of a proposition is thought to rest in the opinion of a famous other or authority.
Appeal to Ignorance
A fallacy that occurs when we argue something must be accepted because it cannot be proven otherwise.
Appeal to Pity
A fallacy that occurs when an argument attempts to win acceptance by focusing on the unfortunate consequences that will occur if it is not accepted.
Argument
Statements that combine reasoning with evidence to support an assertion.
Bad Reasons Fallacy
A fallacy that occurs when then we assume the conclusion of an argument to be bad because a part of the argument is bad.
Begging the Question
A fallacy that occurs when the conclusion of the argument is also used as one of the premises.
Black and White Fallacy
A fallacy that occurs when the audience is only given two choices.
Composition Fallacy
A fallacy that occurs when we assume that traits inherent in the parts are also present when the parts are combined into a whole.
Critical Thinking
Active thinking in which we evaluate and analyze information in order to determine the best course of action.
Deduction
An argument in which the truth of the premises of the argument guarantee the truth of its conclusion.
Division
A fallacy that occurs when we assume that the trait of a whole occurs when the whole is divided into its parts.
Evaluation
The process of assessing the various claims and premises of an argument to determine their validity.
Evidence
Research, claims, or anything else that is used to support the validity of an assertion.
Fallacy
A flaw or error in reasoning.
Fallacy of Quantitative Logic
A fallacy that occurs when we misuse quantifying words such as “all” or “some.
False Analogy
A fallacy that occurs when there exists a poor connection between two examples used in an argument.
False Cause
A fallacy that occurs when there exists a flawed connection between two events.
Genetic Fallacy
A fallacy that occurs when the individual is attacked.
Hearing
The physiological process of receiving noise and sounds.
Imply
To suggest or convey an idea.
Induction
An argument in which the truth of its propositions lend support to the conclusion.
Infer
To draw a conclusion that rests outside the message.
Interpretation
Explaining and extrapolating the conclusions that we draw from a statement.
Listening
The psychological process of attaching meaning to the sounds and noises we hear.
Masked Man Fallacy
A fallacy that occurs when we substitute parties that are not identical within an argument.
Non sequitor
An argument where the conclusion may be true or false, but in which there exists a disconnect within the argument itself.
Premise
A proposition (statement) supporting or helping to support a conclusion; an assumption that something is true
Red Herring Fallacy
A fallacy that occurs when an irrelevant issue is introduced into the argument.
Self-regulation
The process of reflecting on our pre-existing thoughts and biases and how they may influence what we think about an assertion.
Slippery Slope Fallacy
A fallacy that occurs when we assume one action will initiate a chain of events that culminate in an undesirable event.
Strawman Fallacy
A fallacy that occurs when the actual argument appears to be refuted, but in reality a related point is addressed.
Syllogism
A form of deductive argument in which the conclusion is inferred from the premises. Most syllogisms contain a major premise, a minor premise, and a conclusion.
Avocational Presentations
Presentations outside of a specific occupation in which one engages.
Cohesiveness
The tendency for a group to stick together and remain unified in the pursuit of its instrumental objectives.
Debate
A structured argument in which participants speak for or against a pre-announced proposition. The proposition is worded so that one side has the burden of proof, and that same side has the benefit of speaking first and last. Speakers assume an advocacy role and attempt to persuade the audience, not each other.
Delivery Outline
An abbreviated version of the preparation outline.
Forum
Essentially a question-and-answer format. One or more experts may be questioned by a panel of other experts, journalists, and/or the audience.
Group Communication
The process of creating meanings in the minds of others.
Groupthink
A faulty sense of agreement that occurs when group members seemingly agree but they primarily want to avoid conflict.
Meeting
A structured conversation among a small group of people who gather to accomplish a specific task.
Negotiating Strategy
The overall approach you take when you exchange proposals and counterproposals with another person when discussing a settlement to a conflict.
Panel
A group of experts publicly discussing a topic among themselves. Individually prepared speeches, if any, are limited to very brief opening statements.
Preparation Outline
A full-sentence outline of virtually everything the speaker intends to say. It allows speakers to test the structure, the logic, and persuasive appeals in the speech.
Protocols
Mutually agreed upon ways of interacting.
Small Group
Consists of three to fifteen people who share a common purpose, feel a sense of belonging to the group, and exert influence on each other.
Small Group Interaction
The process by which three or more members of a group exchange verbal and nonverbal messages in an attempt to influence one another.
Social Loafing
The decreased effort of each individual member as the number of a group increases.
Speaking Group
A collection of three or more speakers who come together to accomplish pre-assigned message content goals.
Symposium
A series of short speeches, usually informative, on various aspects of the same general topic. Audience questions often follow.
Team
A coordinated group of people organized to work together to achieve a specific, common goal
Vocational Presentations
Presentations related to a specific occupation.
Acceptance Speech
Gives the recipient an opportunity to express appreciation for the award as well as humility and grace.
After-dinner Speech
audiences expect to be entertained by a speech that informs them about a particular issue. This speech sometimes uses humor to make a serious point.
Ceremonial Speech
includes one of several kinds that celebrate an occasion. More specifically, a ceremonial speech may introduce a speaker, entertain an audience, or inspire people. Another term for ceremonial speech is special occasion speech.
Tribute Speech
speech that pays special accolades to an occasion, extraordinary person, event, idea, or monument. Such a speech is intended to reflect the emotions of the audience.
Commencement Speech
speech is given by a well- known person of local, national, or international acclaim to mark a university or secondary school graduation ceremony.
Epideictic Speech
a ceremonial speech intended to praise or blame.
Identification
A technique used in ceremonial speaking to enhance feelings of familiarity and closeness.
Keynote Address
represents the keynote of a larger idea taking place at a conference or exposition usually organized around a central theme.
Magnification
A technique in ceremonial speaking used to give benefit to the audience, amplify emotion, and exceed audience expectations.
Presentational Speech
serves to highlight the merits of the award recipient and to point out the purpose and significance of the award being given.
Roast
a variation of the toast in which the speaker pays tribute to a person by poking fun at her or him in a friendly way.
Special Occasion Speech
includes one of several kinds that celebrate an occasion. More specifically, it might introduce a speaker, entertain an audience, or inspire people. Another term for special occasion speech is ceremonial speech.
Speech of Introduction
a brief presentation used to introduce the main speaker of an event and to inspire the audience to listen to that speaker.
Toast
a brief tribute to a person or event.
What is the difference between hearing and listening?
Hearing is involuntary. Listening is a conscious process that rewards according to the amount of effort expended.
What is critical listening?
Critical listening includes paying attention, interpreting, comprehending, analyzing and evaluating, remembering, and responding to messages.
What are the benefits of critical listening?
Critical listeners also perform better at work and are less susceptible to unscrupulous leaders and misleading advertising appeals.
How does watching television affect listening?
Most critics correlate heavy television viewing with ineffective listening habits. Heavy television views may develop shortened attention spans and focus more on the entertainment than on the informative or persuasive functions of communication.
What is the usual rate of processing information?
Five hundreds words per minute. The difference between the speed at which people talk and that at which people process ideas and information invites inattention.
How does a listener’s feelings toward the speaker affect listening?
If a listener’s feelings toward a speaker are positive, he may be more attentive, but may also accept anything without question. On the other hand, negative feelings tend to make listeners less attentive and less likely to accept their information or advice.
What is a bad habit of listening?
Listening only for facts is a bad habit that leads to ineffective listening. A person who listens only for words and tries to write down everything a speaker says may miss nonverbal nuances that can greatly affect the meaning of a message.
Define connotative meaning
The emotional or attitudinal reactions that certain words can arouse in listeners.
Define denotative meaning
The word’s dictionary definition. Trigger words have strong connotative meanings. They set off extreme emotional reactions that interfere with effective critical listening ability.
What is the difference between a fact and an opinion?
Facts are verifiable units of information that can be confirmed by independent observation. Opinions add interpretations or judgments to facts.
Define inference.
Inferences make projections based on facts
What are passive recipients?
People who mistakenly assume that speakers are solely responsible for public communication
What does critical thinking involve?
Questioning for clarification, reaching one’s own conclusions/decisions after considering the options, being open to new ideas and new perspectives, supporting personal views with reason and evidence, and demanding reasons and evidence from others before accepting what they have to say on an issue.
Define assimilation
A basic form of listening distortion.
What are filtering and contrast effects?
When you believe a person can do no wrong; therefore, you may assimilate everything that they say as always consistent with your beliefs.
Filtering
You hear what you want to hear.
Contrast
You see positions farther away than they really are.
How much of their communication time do adults spend listening?
Half
How much of what people hear do they retain?
25%
How do you improve your listening?
1. Motivate yourself to listen.
2. Don’t daydream.
3. Focus on the message.
4. Withhold judgment.
5. Put biases and personal problems aside.
What is appreciative listening?
Listening for entertainment or pleasure purposes. This is the type of listening we might employ listening to music, watching television, or viewing a movie.
What is auditory association?
The process by which the mind sorts the perceived sound into a category so that heard information is recognized. New stimuli is differentiated by comparing and contrasting with previously heard sounds.
What is a communication loop?
A traditional communication model that has both sender and receiver sharing responsibility for communicating a message, listening, and offering feedback. The sender encodes a message for the receiver to decode.
Constructive Feedback
Focuses on being specific, applicable, immediate, and intends to help the speaker to improve.
“Deaf Spots”
The preconceived notions or beliefs a listener might hold dear that can interfere with listening effectively. These are barriers to having an open mind to receive the sender’s message.
Relational Listening
The active and involved listening we do with people we love and care about.
Pathos
An appeal to the audience’s emotions, trying to trigger sympathy, pity, guilt, or sorrow.
Listening Reminder
A note made by a listener acknowledging intent to focus on the speaker’s message and tune out distractions.
Emotional Trigger
A word, concept, or idea that causes the listener to react emotionally.
Empathetic (Therapeutic) Listening
A level of relationship listening that aims to help the speaker feel heard and understand, also appreciated.
Ethos
A speaker aims to establish credibility
What is the three-step process of hearing?
1. receiving sound in the ear
2. perceiving sound in the brain,
3. and processing the information offered by the sound to associate and distinguish it.
“Listener’s Lean”
Audience members who are intent on what is being said will lean forward.
How do you listen effectively?
Find a reason within themselves to want to hear, understand, interpret, and remember the speaker’s message.
Intrinsic motivation?
wanting to learn the material out of curiosity
External motivation?
wanting to pass a possible quiz
A lost student walks into the class right in the middle of your speech, looks around, says “Excuse me,” and walks out. What would you do?
Answers may vary. Continue the speech calmly as if nothing occurred. Ignore the distraction.
What is identification?
finding a common ground.
What are the 5 types of audience analysis?
1. the situational analysis, 2. the demographic analysis, 3. the psychological analysis, 4. the multicultural analysis, and 5. the topic interest and prior knowledge analysis
How do you tailor a speech to ethnicity?
Don’t try to use words or phrases to “cuddle up” to one race or another.
How do you tailor a speech to age?
Stay away from jargon from one age range or another
How do you tailor a speech to income?
Don’t assume everyone else can afford to do what you suggest.
How do you tailor a speech to sex?
Use words that are not sex/gender-specific.
How do you tailor a speech to religion?
Realize that your audience will likely have a wide
variety of religions represented, and some people may have no religious or spiritual beliefs.
How do you tailor a speech to occupation?
Unless you are speaking at a convention where everyone in your audience works in the same field, make your speech more explanatory.
How do you tailor a speech to education?
l. You need to be careful not to talk down to your audience and not to use fancy sentences and words to try to impress your audience
Why do an audience analysis?
The more you know and understand about your audience and their psychological needs, the better you can prepare your speech and your enhanced confidence will reduce your own speaker anxiety
Rhetorical devices: what are they and how are they used in speeches?
Use of language that is intended to have an effect on its audience. Metaphor, simile, alliteration.
What are the characteristics of an effective decision in small groups?
1. Resources of group members are well used 2. Time is well used. 3. Decision is correct. 4. Decision is put into effect. 5. Problem solving is enhanced
What is a syllogism and how are they used in speaking?
Reasoning beginning with a major premise, then moving to a minor premise, before establishing a specific claim.
What is proof when referencing to speaking in a persuasive manner?
Reasoned arguments, which might consist of facts, statistics, personal testimonies, or narratives, are employed to motivate audiences to think or behave differently than before they heard the speech.
Three maintenance functions in small groups?
1. Encourager of participation: warmly encourages everyone to participate/ gives recognition 2. tension reliever: eases tensions and increases the enjoyment of the group 3. active listener: listens and serves as an interested audience for other members. 4. Trust builder: accepts and supports openness
What is a metaphor and how can it be used effectively?
Comparisons made by speaking of one thing in terms of another. The power of a metaphor is in its ability to create an image that is linked to emotion in the mind of the audience.
Three A’s of Active Listening
Attention
Attitude
Adjustment
What is the difference between manipulative and reasoned persuasion?
Manipulative persuasion is based solely on motion and reasoned persuasion is based on data, evidence, reason and logos.
Status quo
the existing state of affairs
How is the audience the main determining factor when you are working on a speech?
Not considering audience will put your speech at risk of not corresponding with the information needs of your audience, and further jeopardize your credibility as a speaker.
What is audience demographics and why are they important to know about as a speaker?
Detailed accounts of human population characteristics, such as age, gender, education, occupation, language, ethnicity, culture, background knowledge, needs and interests, and previously held attitudes, beliefs, and values. Important for persuasion.
Problem-Solving design?
A pattern that first presents a problem and then advances a solution. Useful when your topic presents a situation that needs to be addressed.
What is a Motivated-Sequence?
an organizational pattern that attempts to convince the audience to respond to a need that is delineated in the speech
What are the 5 steps of the motivated sequence organization style?
1. The attention step
2. The need step
3. The satisfaction step
4. In the visualization step
5. The action appeal step
Refutation design?
Designed to introduce arguments, undermine opponents’ arguments , rebuild arguments, and clarify own arguments.
The attention step
should get the audience’s attention as well as describe your goals and preview the speech.
The need step
should provide a description of the problem as well as the consequences that may result if the problem goes unresolved. In this step, the speaker should also alert audience members to their role in mitigating the issue.
The satisfaction step
used to outline your solutions to the problems you have previously outlined as well as deal with any objections that may arise.
the visualization step
audience members are asked to picture what will happen if your solutions are implemented and what will happen if they do not come to fruition.
The action appeal step
should be used to make a direct appeal for action. I
Backing
Foundational evidence which supports a claim, such as examples, statistics, or testimony.
Causal Pattern
A speech designed to explain a cause-effect relationship between two phenomena.
Causal Reasoning
The process of formulating an argument by examining related events to determine which one caused the other.
Claim
The proposition you want the
audience to accept.
Coercion
A process whereby thoughts or behaviors are altered through deceptive or harmful methods.
Data
Preliminary evidence on which a
claim is based.
Deductive Reasoning
The process of formulating an argument by moving from a general premise to a specific conclusion.
Direct Method Pattern
A speech designed to present a claim with a list of several supporting pieces of data.
Evaluation Criteria
A set of standards for judging the
merit of a proposition.
Fallacies
Errors in reasoning that occur when a speaker fails to use appropriate or applicable evidence for their argument.
Hostile Audience
An audience that is opposed to the speaker or to the persuasive proposition.
Inductive Reasoning
The process of formulating an argument by moving from specific instances to a generalization.
Neutral Audience
An audience that is neither open nor opposed to the persuasive proposition.
Persuasion
The art of influencing or reinforcing people’s beliefs, attitudes, values, or actions.
Persuasive Speeches
Speeches which aim to convince an audience to think or behave in a particular way.
Proposition of Fact
An argument that seeks to establish whether something is true or false.
Proposition of Policy
An argument that seeks to establish an appropriate course of action.
Proposition of Value
An argument that seeks to establish the relative worth of something.
Receptive Audience
An audience that is generally supportive of, or open to, the persuasive proposition.
Refutation Pattern
A speech designed to anticipate the negative response of an audience, to bring attention to the tensions between the two sides of the argument, and to explain why the audience should change their views.
Speeches to Actuate
Persuasive speeches which seek to change or motivate particular behaviors.
Speeches to Convince
Persuasive speeches which seek to establish agreement about a particular topic.
Warrant
The (often unstated) connection between data and claim.
How do your listening behaviors change in the following situations: A) At a concert, B) In class, C) At the dinner table with your parents, D) In a doctor’s office? What are the distractions and other barriers to listening you might encounter in each setting? What might you do to overcome the barriers to effective listening in each situation?
How can you communicate non-verbally that you are listening?
Nod, smile, lean forward
What are some considerations in offering constructive feedback?
Identify the three main barriers to listening. Which of these barriers is most problematic for you? What
can you do about it?
You are prejudiced or biased by race, gender, age, religion, accent, and/or past experiences. Distractions.Expecting Others to Share Your Personal Beliefs and Values.
What challenges does a speaker face when delivering a speech to a multicultural audience?
Any attempt at public speaking that is not sensitive to the plurality of the audience in such an increasingly diverse and multicultural world is almost certainly bound to fail.
What value does performing a Likert-type testing of attitudes give the speaker?
A small Likert-type test will tell you where your audience, generally speaking, stands on a highly charged or polarizing issues.
Under what circumstances would a speaker make inferences about an audience during the course of an audience analysis?
when you can identify patterns in your evidence that indicate something is expected to happen again or should hold true based upon previous experiences.
Explain the difference between critical thinking and being critical. Why should we care?
Being critical is not the same thing as criticizing. When we criticize something, we point out the flaws and errors in it, exercising a negative value judgment on it. Our goal with criticizing is less about understanding than about negatively evaluating. It’s important to remember that critical thinking is not just criticizing
List and discuss at least three ways that we use logic and argumentation in our daily lives.
If I say, “There is plenty of pasta, so you should have some more,” am I implying or inferring that you have not eaten enough?
Television commercials that use pictures of starving children and sad music as a way to get you to donate money are an example of what type of fallacy?
Other than slides, list three types of visual aids that can be used in a presentation and give an example of each.
What are the ways that visual aids can benefit a presentation? Harm a presentation?
Explain the different purposes and content of handouts as compared to slide shows.
Describe the benefits of white space in design.
Discuss the pros and cons of having a large amount of text on a slide.
List and explain two considerations when using color in your slides.
Think of an instance in which you knew you were being persuaded. What were you being persuaded to do? Was the persuader focused on changing your beliefs, attitudes, values, or actions? How do you know?
Draft a proposition of fact, proposition of value, and proposition of policy for one or more of the following topics: a. Shortening class time
b. Pro-anorexia images on social networking sites c. Airline fees
You have been invited to speak to administrators about increasing alumni support for the school. What steps will you take to build your ethos for this audience? What logical appeals will you make? How will you appeal to their emotions?
Identify the following fallacies (adapted from Labossiere, 1995):
a. If those actions were not illegal, they would not be prohibited by law.
b. Our team had a losing record until we won the last three games. I wore blue socks in the last three games. Blue socks are lucky, and if I keep wearing them, we can’t lose!
c. The store Joe works at changed the dress code, requiring him to buy all new work clothes. When he went to the manager to complain, she told him that no one else voiced concern, so he must be the only one who had that problem.
d. Your roommate has invited his classmate, Annie, over to work on a project. Before Annie arrives, your roommate explains that she will probably be late because she never helps with the work and always leaves him to take care of everything.
Imagine you are giving a speech in which you hope to convince audience members to begin retirement planning while they are still in their twenties. Which of the organizational patterns described above best fits this topic? Why? Describe its advantages over the other organization styles for the specific purpose.
What is the purpose of a special occasion speech?
Discuss the influence of epideictic speaking on what we know about special occasion speaking today.
Generate a definition and purpose for each type of special occasion speech.
Compare and contrast presenting an award with receiving an award.
What do you think are the most important guidelines for an effective after-dinner speech?
Be tailored to the audience and occasion, have a thesis statement or idea, include claims that have support, and of course, incorporate humor
Why is it a good idea to keep a special occasion speech short (whenever possible)?
What does it mean to “finesse the obvious” in a special occasion speech?
What should be the main purpose of humor in a special occasion speech? What steps can you take to use humor effectively?
List and explain the four coordination elements.
Describe the difference between a group, a team, and a speaking group.
What are the two most common categories of conflict?
Describe the difference between process and product assessment.
What are the four common types of group presentations?
Define relevant messages.
Which of the following skills learned in a public-speaking course are among the skills most sought after by an employer?

a. ethically adapting information to listeners
b. organizing ideas
c. persuading others
d. holding listeners’ attention
e. all of the above

e. all of the above
According to several recent studies quoted in your text, the most important skills employers are seeking in college graduates are:

a. enthusiasm and work experience.
b. good speaking and presentation skills.
c. technical and competence in the work area.
d. attractive appearance and poise.

b. good speaking and presentation skills.
An example of how the nonverbal communication of public speakers is more formal than nonverbal behavior in ordinary conversation is that people engaged in ordinary conversation:

a. often sit or stand further apart.
b. gesture spontaneously.
c. plan their movements and avoid moving about restlessly.
d. both A and C
e. all of the above

b. gesture spontaneously.
One way public speaking and conversation are similar is that both are:

a. formal.
b. planned.
c. audience-centered.
d. less fluid.

c. audience-centered.
In his speech about volunteering for the American Red Cross, Jacob used a lot of slang words, sat and leaned on the table in front of the class, and was dressed very casually. Which of the following statements best describes this situation?

a. Jacob adapted to his audience by making his speech more informal.
b. Jacob violated the audience’s space by sitting and leaning on the table in front of class.
c. Jacob ignored the rule that public speaking is more formal than conversation.
d. Jacob did nothing wrong by approaching this topic in a casual manner.

c. Jacob ignored the rule that public speaking is more formal than conversation.
Translating ideas and images in the speaker’s mind into verbal or nonverbal messages that an audience can understand is termed:

a. feedback.
b. decoding.
c. encoding.
d. listening.

c. encoding.
During a speech, an audience member stands up and asks a question, to everyone’s surprise. According to your text, is the audience member’s behavior appropriate?

a. Yes; question and answer sessions are quite common in public speaking.
b. No; the audience member should have remained seated to ask his or her question.
c. No; the audience member did not maintain clearly defined roles of speaker and listener.
d. Yes; in this day and age of informality, speakers should expect audiences to respond out loud.

c. No; the audience member did not maintain clearly defined roles of speaker and listener.
An audience member is worried about an upcoming exam and is unlikely to remember much of what the speaker says. This is a type of:

a. external noise.
b. internal noise.
c. physical noise.
d. educational noise.

b. internal noise.
During the first day of speeches you had a bad sinus infection and your ears were plugged so you couldn’t hear the speakers. You were experiencing:

a. physical noise.
b. physiological noise.
c. psychological noise.
d. pseudo noise.

b. physiological noise.
The environment or situation in which a speech occurs is known as:

a. feedback.
b. a channel.
c. communication.
d. context.

d. context.
A speaker transmits a message through two channels:

a. visual and nonverbal.
b. voice and inflection.
c. visual and auditory.
d. auditory and eye contact.

c. visual and auditory.
The context of a public-speaking experience includes such elements as:

a. the time.
b. the place.
c. the speaker’s cultural traditions and expectations.
d. the audience’s cultural traditions and expectations.
e. all of the above.

e. all of the above.
Smiles, head nods, eye contact, and clapping from audience members are all forms of :

a. encoding.
b. decoding.
c. internal noise.
d. feedback.

d. feedback.
This is another term for the use of words and symbols to achieve a goal:

a. transaction
b. declamation
c. interaction
d. rhetoric

d. rhetoric
If you delivered an already famous address of the British orator Edmund Burke, you would be practicing the art of:

a. declamation.
b. interpretation.
c. oration.
d. elocution.

a. declamation.
This is the expression of emotion through posture, movement, gestures, facial expression, and voice:

a. declamation
b. elocution
c. rhetoric
d. transaction

b. elocution
Which of the following is an example of the new era of speech making in the 21st century?

a. Listening to a speaker at a town meeting.
b. A soldier watching her son’s graduation address via Skype.
c. Someone re-enacting the “I have a Dream” speech
d. The President giving the “State of the Union” address

b. A soldier watching her son’s graduation address via Skype.
Which of these is NOT a way in which public speaking differs from conversation?

a. public speaking is planned; conversation is spontaneous
b. public speaking is informal; conversation is formal
c. public speaking roles are clearly defined; conversational roles are fluid
d. public speaking is formal; conversation is informal

b. public speaking is informal; conversation is formal
Sam got up to give his speech in public speaking class. He began walking around the audience, high-fiving his classmates and began his speech saying, “Hey! What up Dawgs?” What difference between conversation and public speaking did Sam NOT understand?

a. public speaking is more formal than conversation
b. public speaking requires planning
c. the roles of the audience and speaker are clearly defined in public speaking
d. Nothing; Sam’s behavior was just fine.

a. public speaking is more formal than conversation
Which of the following is the most important element of the public speaking process, according to your text?

a. audience
b. speaker
c. manuscript
d. podium

a. audience
Churches services that encourage call-and-response speaker audience interaction is seemingly in violation of which of the differences between public speaking and conversation?

a. Public speaking is more prepared than conversation
b. Public speaking is also more formal than conservation
c. Public Speaking involves more clearly defined roles for the speaker and audience.
d. None of these

c. Public Speaking involves more clearly defined roles for the speaker and audience.
Which of the following is NOT true of “understanding your nervousness”?

a. No one ever gets nervous.
b. Almost everyone gets nervous.
c. Anxiety can be useful.
d. People feel more nervous than they look.

a. No one ever gets nervous.
Which of the following is NOT a reason for people possibly experiencing communication apprehension?

a. fear of humiliation
b. fear of making mistakes
c. personal insecurity
d. unable to communicate

d. unable to communicate
If you have had previous experience in public speaking, you tend to be less sensitive to apprehension, and you have a lower heart rate when speaking. What is likely to be your style of communication apprehension?

a. average
b. insensitive
c. inflexible
d. confrontation

b. insensitive
With this style of communication apprehension, heart rate is the highest when speaking publicly; some people use this high level to enhance their performance and use the fear to motivate them to prepare and be at their best.

a. average
b. insensitive
c. inflexible
d. confrontation

c. inflexible
How can anxiety be useful?

a. It can’t be useful.
b. It can help you seek speaking opportunities.
c. It can help you be energetic and positive.
d. It can make you nauseous.

c. It can help you be energetic and positive.
What style of communication apprehension do you have if, like many people, you have a very high heart rate as you begin presenting a speech, and then your heart rate tapers off to more average levels?

a. average
b. insensitive
c. inflexible
d. confrontational

d. confrontational
Which style of communication apprehension is generally associated with channeling nervous energy to improve public speaking?

a. average
b. insensitive
c. inflexible
d. confrontational

c. inflexible
Having a generally positive approach to public speaking and rating one’s own performance as the highest comes under which style of communication apprehension?

a. average
b. insensitive
c. inflexible
d. confrontational

a. average
Susan had been planning her speech about owls for an elementary school audience. She had extensive information about their habitat, hunting habits, and prey. She showed graphic pictures of hunting owls to her audience. Many children cried and were frightened by her speech. Susan didn’t understand why. What did Susan do wrong?

a. She didn’t make any mistakes.
b. She failed to know her audience.
c. She procrastinated in preparing her speech.
d. She didn’t channel her nervous energy.

b. She failed to know her audience.
Most speakers who procrastinate in preparing their speeches

a. will sound much more spontaneous and relaxed.
b. will be assured that the speech content is current and fresh.
c. will feel more speaker apprehension.
d. will be more interested in the topic.

c. will feel more speaker apprehension.
Which of the following is NOT a strategy for building your confidence?

a. be prepared
b. imagining your audience in their underwear
c. knowing your audience
d. selecting an appropriate topic

b. imagining your audience in their underwear
Fred was assigned to give a 4-6 minute speech. He chose to speak on basketball, because he thought he knew a lot. He wrote down five words on index cards to jog his memory. He said everything he wanted to say but just began rambling in hopes of meeting the time requirements. Where did Fred go wrong?

a. Nothing, Fred did a good job.
b. Fred did not properly prepare his speech.
c. Fred did not know his audience.
d. Fred should have visualized his success.

b. Fred did not properly prepare his speech.
Even though Wilber’s public speaking teacher had encouraged him to practice and prepare notes, he was convinced he did not need them. He got up on the day of his speech and rambled. His audience was not amused or engaged. What was Wilbur’s biggest mistake?

a. Wilbur did not prepare.
b. Wilbur didn’t make any mistakes.
c. Wilbur didn’t channel his nervous energy.
d. Wilbur didn’t use deep breathing techniques.

a. Wilbur did not prepare.
Nathan decided to do his speech on why students should attend college in his public speaking class. The class was bored and uninterested. What did Nathan fail to do?

a. be prepared
b. select an appropriate topic
c. know the introduction and conclusion
d. visualize success

b. select an appropriate topic
Which one of the following is NOT a true comment about the introduction part of the speech in relation to managing nervousness and anxiety?
a. You are likely to feel the most anxious during the opening moments of your speech.
b. You should memorize the introduction word for word.
c. Being familiar with the introduction will help you feel more comfortable about the entire speech.
d. It is a good idea to have a clear plan for how you will start your speech.
b. You should memorize the introduction word for word.
When speakers squeeze and relax their muscles while waiting for their turn to speak, without calling attention to what they are doing, it reflects a strategy of coping with nervousness referred to as
a. speech visualization.
b. adapting to the speaking environment.
c. channeling your nervous energy.
d. speech preparation.
c. channeling your nervous energy.
Kecia was giving a speech on the importance of hospice care. She was speaking to a group of health care workers. She visited the environment where she was speaking and set up her office to look like the environment she would be speaking in. What strategy was Kecia using to control her nervousness?
a. She made her rehearsal realistic.
b. She sought speaking opportunities.
c. She understood her nervousness.
d. She used communication as action.
a. She made her rehearsal realistic.
Which of these is NOT a discreet way to channel your nervous energy?
a. scream loudly
b. take a leisurely walk
c. grab the edges of a chair
d. tense and release the hand and leg muscles
a. scream loudly
Jackie was giving a speech on horses. She loves horses and she was excited to talk about horses. She imagined how happy she would be to share the information with her audience and how glad they would be to hear the information. What strategy was Jackie using to manage her anxiety?
a. She visualized her success.
b. She used deep-breathing techniques.
c. She sang a song to lift her spirits.
d. She recreated her speaking environment.
a. She visualized her success.
Sally was sitting backstage waiting to be introduced. As she sat, she reminded herself that she was going to do well and that she was more than prepared to give this speech. What was Sally doing to reduce her anxiety?
a. having a mental pep talk
b. being prepared
c. focusing on her fear
d. seeking speaking opportunities
a. having a mental pep talk
Which of the following is an example of positive self-talk?
a. I am the worst speaker in the room.
b. I am going to trip and fall once I’m up there.
c. I’m going to sound stupid.
d. I am well-prepared and have a solid, well-crafted speech.
d. I am well-prepared and have a solid, well-crafted speech.
Which of the following is a good strategy to use while speaking to calm speaker anxiety?

a. look for positive listener support
b. focus on your fear
c. make sure your notes are visibly shaking
d. don’t be prepared

a. look for positive listener support
Kobe was quiet, but he was very passionate about his topic—insuring quality food for pets. He wanted everyone to know how important this was and he worked and practiced on his speech; not how nervous he would be to give it. What strategy was Kobe using?
a. being prepared
b. focusing on the message and not on the fear
c. knowing the introduction and conclusion
d. looking for positive listener support
b. focusing on the message and not on the fear
As an audience member, Kelly tries to make eye contact with the speakers and smile and nod with encouragement. What technique is Kelly helping the speakers with
a. deep breathing techniques
b. channeling nervous energy
c. positive listener support
d. visualizing success
c. positive listener support
Ellie was very nervous about her first speech coming up in the speech class. She was a freshman, and so she began working with several clubs on campus and volunteered to do several presentations before her first formal one in class. What was Ellie’s strategy to combat her nervousness?
a. Ellie sought speaking opportunities.
b. Ellie recreated her speaking environment.
c. Ellie focused on her anxiety, not her speech.
d. Nothing, Ellie just doesn’t know how to say no.
a. Ellie sought speaking opportunities.
According to the National Communication Association, _____ is fundamental to responsible thinking, decision making, and the development of relationships and communities within and across contexts, cultures, channels, and media.
a. free speech
b. truth
c. ethnocentric communication
d. ethical communication
d. ethical communication
Eric wanted to use an excerpt from a Nightline episode, as both an audiovisual aid and a source for his speech. But he only agreed with and wanted to use one of the two guests’ interactions with Ted Koppel, so he edited out the second guest and showed the edited videotape. Was this ethical?
a. Yes; this kind of “sound biting” goes on all the time and is completely ethical.
b. No; this kind of “sound biting” violates the ethical guideline of using sound evidence and reasoning.
c. Yes; this technique is ethical because the speaker has the audience’s best interests at heart.
d. No; by editing the show, Eric is plagiarizing Nightline a serious ethical violation.
b. No; this kind of “sound biting” violates the ethical guideline of using sound evidence and reasoning.
Which of the following would NOT need to be cited?
a. direct quotation from a source
b. statistical information
c. common knowledge
d. a picture downloaded off of the internet
c. common knowledge
Lisa had an interesting assignment from her professor, but she wasn’t sure how to do it. She borrowed her roommate’s paper, changed the names and locations and passed it off as her own. Is this ethical?
a. Yes, she changed the places to make it her own.
b. No, you should never look at someone’s paper, even for ideas.
c. No, she stole her roommate’s paper, pure and simple.
d. Yes, the professor was asking too much for her to write a paper.
c. No, she stole her roommate’s paper, pure and simple.
Marty is having problems coming up with an idea for a speech. He knows his fraternity keeps files of old tests, papers, and speeches and decides to look through these for an idea. He finds a great speech about bats, their value to ecology, and their habitat. He likes this speech so much that he decides to use it largely intact but goes to the Internet to update the sources. Which of the following statements best describes this situation?
a. This is an ethical violation known as plagiarism.
b. This is a violation of individuals’ freedom of speech.
c. This is not plagiarism because the fraternity’s files are general knowledge.
d. This is not plagiarism; it’s an example of good time management.
a. This is an ethical violation known as plagiarism.
When citing your sources orally in a speech, you should
a. say “quote, unquote.”
b. make quote signs with your fingers.
c. state briefly the author, title, and year.
d. give the full Internet address.
c. state briefly the author, title, and year.
With regard for those “gray areas” of ethics pertaining to the use of sources in a speech, it is suggested that
a. when in doubt, document all of your sources in a speech.
b. when in doubt, omit sources from your speech.
c. when in doubt, include sources in a written bibliography, but don’t cite them orally.
d. when in doubt, use common knowledge rather than published sources.
a. when in doubt, document all of your sources in a speech.
In a speech on breast cancer, you decide to use the latest information from the National Breast Cancer Foundation website, www.nationalbreastcancer.org. What is the proper way to cite this source in your speech?
a. “According to www.nationalbreastcancer.org…”
b. “According to National Breast Cancer Foundation researchers, in their October 2004 article titled, ‘NBCF Supports M. D. Anderson Cancer Center’s Breakthrough Cancer Research’, found at www.nationalbreastcancer.org…”
c. “The National Breast Cancer Foundation in 2011 stated…”
d. These sources should only be cited in the bibliography, not during the speech.
c. “The National Breast Cancer Foundation in 2011 stated…”
Patrick was giving a speech on Henry the VIII and when he used information that wasn’t original, he simply made “air quotes” with his fingers. Is this the proper way to cite sources?
a. Yes, the air quotes indicated the material was quoted.
b. Yes, no one cares if information is original or not.
c. No, he did not provide proper source information including the author, source, and date.
d. No, what he did was just annoying.
c. No, he did not provide proper source information including the author, source, and date.
_____ is a speaker’s believability.
a. Ethics
b. Credibility
c. Attire
d. Hairstyle
b. Credibility
Because we hear so many sounds simultaneously, the first stage of listening is to
a. attend.
b. select.
c. understand.
d. remember.
b. select.
When we, as listeners, focus on the message, we are said to
a. attend.
b. understand.
c. select.
d. remember.
a. attend.
When listeners assign meaning and make sense of what they heard, they have _____ the message.
a. selected
b. attended
c. understood
d. remembered
c. understood
When, as a listener, you relate what you hear to an experience that you had as a teenager, you are
a. attending.
b. selecting.
c. understanding.
d. remembering.
d. remembering.
When listeners can recall ideas and information presented to them, they are said to
a. attend.
b. select.
c. remember.
d. understand.
c. remember.
Because much of our day is spent listening, there may be times we “tune out” when information is being sent to us. This process is called
a. psychological noise.
b. information fatigue.
c. psychological distractions.
d. information overload.
d. information overload.
You’ve been to four classes in one day. In each class, you’ve listened to a lecture and taken notes. By the time you get to your night class, you feel like you just can’t take in another word. What are you experiencing?
a. lack of academic discipline
b. attention deficit disorder
c. information overload
d. information prejudice
c. information overload
When Jenny was sitting in class on a gorgeous Friday afternoon, thinking about the weekend trip she was leaving for right after class, she was having trouble focusing. What listening barrier was Jenny experiencing?
a. information overload
b. receiver apprehension
c. overcoming personal concerns
d. counteracting prejudice
c. overcoming personal concerns
In her class speech about traditions on her college campus, Angela provides little known facts that she discovered in her research. Is this a good technique?
a. No, because this information is too mundane for the audience to be concerned about.
b. Yes, but only if the little known facts are humorous, because humor is what really keeps an audience’s attention.
c. No; in a class speech you should refrain from too much detail or you will lose the attention of your audience.
d. Yes; using new or little known information is an effective listening technique that helps keep the audience’s attention.
d. Yes; using new or little known information is an effective listening technique that helps keep the audience’s attention.
Tara comes into the classroom early on the day of her speech. She closes the blinds, checks the room temperature, and sets up the transparency machine. Which barrier to listening is Tara trying to overcome?
a. information overload
b. personal concerns
c. outside distractions
d. receiver apprehension
c. outside distractions
When you decide that the speaker’s message will have no value, even before the speech begins, you are experiencing the listening barrier of
a. information overload.
b. personal concerns.
c. jumping to conclusions.
d. prejudice.
d. prejudice.
If you’re worried that your speech to the PTA on the need for more parental volunteerism will cause the audience to lose attention, what should you do?
a. You should build in redundancy and make your major ideas really clear, so as to avoid the speech rate-thought rate difference.
b. You should make the speech as short as possible, while still managing to include your main points.
c. You should probably not do a speech at all if you think the audience will lose attention; instead, simply do a discussion or question-and-answer session.
d. There is really nothing a speaker can do in a situation like this; if the audience loses attention, that is their fault and they should have stayed at home.
a. You should build in redundancy and make your major ideas really clear, so as to avoid the speech rate-thought rate difference.
Listeners who may be uncomfortable or nervous about new information, or fear they may misunderstand or misinterpret the information, are said to have
a. receiver apprehension.
b. information overload.
c. listener distraction.
d. receiver concern
a. receiver apprehension.
Jeb is really very intelligent, but when he gives speeches he tends to go monotone, he mumbles a lot, and he doesn’t move around much or use many gestures. Most listeners have trouble tuning into Jeb, even though his speech content is often excellent. Which tip can you offer the listeners to increase their listening efficiency?
a. Listen with your eyes as well as your ears, because nonverbals speak volumes.
b. Avoid outside distractions that may interfere with your ability to listen effectively.
c. Avoid jumping to conclusions even if you disagree with the speaker’s points.
d. Adapt to the speaker’s delivery by focusing on the message, not the delivery style.
d. Adapt to the speaker’s delivery by focusing on the message, not the delivery style.
In a speech about how Texas became a state, Martina provided three main points and delivered them in a chronological pattern. Two of her classmates, Anna and Donna, were discussing the speech the next day. Anna remembered Martina’s three main points while Donna remembered only the story used in the introduction. Who is the better listener, according to the tips to enhance listening skills?
a. Anna is the better listener because she followed the tip, “listen for major ideas.”
b. Donna is the better listener because she followed the tip, “be a selfish listener.”
c. Anna is the better listener because she followed the tip, “avoid overreacting emotionally.”
d. Donna is the better listener because she followed the tip, “avoid information overload.”
a. Anna is the better listener because she followed the tip, “listen for major ideas.”
As audience members, if we prefer to listen to complex information that is interspersed with facts and details, we are
a. people-oriented listeners.
b. action-oriented listeners.
c. content-oriented listeners.
d. time-oriented listeners.
c. content-oriented listeners.
What type of listening style occurs when you want the speaker to get to the point and state what needs to be done?
a. people-oriented style
b. action-oriented style
c. content-oriented style
d. time-oriented style
b. action-oriented style
While listening to a sociology lecture, you mentally rearrange the ideas being presented, summarize the information, and remain alert for key information. You are considered
a. an average listener.
b. an active listener.
c. an ethical listener.
d. an entertained listener.
b. an active listener.
Evaluating the quality of information, ideas, and arguments presented by a speaker is
a. critical listening
b. critical thinking.
c. fact finding.
d. inference evaluation.
a. critical listening
Robin listened to Rick’s speech on interesting sights for tourists in San Francisco. She analyzed Rick’s effectiveness as a speaker and evaluated the speech as a success. Which three criteria did Robin use for the evaluation and analysis of a speech?
a. The message should be clearly organized, persuasive, and have a smooth delivery.
b. The message should be understood by the audience, achieve its purpose, and be ethical.
c. The message should be reasonable in purpose, well researched, and logical in organization.
d. The message should be useful to the audience, informative, and easily understood.
b. The message should be understood by the audience, achieve its purpose, and be ethical.
The methods and techniques speakers use to achieve their goals while speaking are the
a. symbols that are brought into the speech.
b. rhetorical strategies employed by the speakers.
c. rhetorical criticism used within the presentation.
d. inferences or facts presented during the speech.
b. rhetorical strategies employed by the speakers.
After listening to a speech by a local politician, Jon had the opportunity to think about the speech. He discovered that evidence was misquoted, there were a number of scare tactics used, and some data was made up to support the claims being made. What did Jon discover?
a. If the speech was understandable to the audience, then the politician could use any means available to present the information to the audience.
b. Not all audiences need current and relevant data to make up their minds.
c. The politician used unethical rhetorical strategies to manipulate the audience.
d. The politician focused on making sure he had an effective and appropriate message.
c. The politician used unethical rhetorical strategies to manipulate the audience.
Krysten just listened to Erin’s speech about the Lord of the Rings trilogy. In her written critique, Krysten made the following comments: “I liked the visuals”, “weak eye contact”, and “the conclusion was good”., Is this a good critique?
a. No; Krysten should have provided more descriptive information to Erin to reflect the specific strengths and weaknesses of the speech.
b. No; Krysten did not talk about the introduction and body of the speech.
c. Yes; Krysten put into writing what she thought was good and what needed work.
d. Yes; Krysten provided sufficient feedback so Erin can make corrections in future speeches.
a. No; Krysten should have provided more descriptive information to Erin to reflect the specific strengths and weaknesses of the speech.
If the speech teacher asked the class to “judge or discuss” the speeches given in class, what would the teacher want from the class?
a. “criticism” or constructive feedback of the speakers
b. talk about what they heard in the speeches that day
c. to give “thumbs up” or “thumbs down”
d. offer rhetorical strategies for future speakers
a. “criticism” or constructive feedback of the speakers
Routine summaries at meetings, reports to the board, sales pitches to clients, and training seminars for co-workers are all examples of
a. public-relations speeches.
b. informative speeches.
c. workplace public speaking.
d. ceremonial public speaking.
c. workplace public speaking.
These speeches are designed to inform the public, strengthen alliances with them, and possibly recommend policy to those outside the work environment.
a. persuasive presentation
b. organizational report
c. public-relations speech
d. news briefing
c. public-relations speech
In a public-relations presentation, the speaker should anticipate and prepare for criticism by
a. defending the position of his/her organization.
b. ignoring any objections, just remaining positive.
c. explaining the organization’s plan more carefully.
d. planning to counter objections and problems.
d. planning to counter objections and problems.
At the monthly meeting of the Chamber of Commerce, a representative from a local tour bus company makes a presentation about the economic advantages of using her company’s services for the visiting dignitaries. What kind of special-occasion speech is this?
a. public-relations speech
b. professional report
c. keynote address
d. ceremonial speech
a. public-relations speech
Heather has been invited to speak to her daughter’s fifth-grade class about her profession. Should Heather approach this presentation somewhat like a report? What is the best advice for Heather, in meeting this challenge?
a. Treat the presentation like a report, but get to the solutions part early to keep the kids listening.
b. Treat the presentation as a public-relations speech, but adjust the language and technical level.
c. Pick a topic and try to teach the class something new, just as their teacher would.
d. Begin by saying, “Most of you know that I’m Mia’s Momma. She made me come. Ha Ha.”
b. Treat the presentation as a public-relations speech, but adjust the language and technical level.
A brief, accurate speech where the goals are to provide information and build another speaker’s credibility is a(n)
a. speech of introduction.
b. toast.
c. commemorative address.
d. award presentation.
a. speech of introduction.
Martina is concerned about her introductory speech for the guest speaker at her banquet. What should Martina keep in mind?
a. Audiences don’t usually listen to introductions of speakers.
b. She should mention why she was chosen for this honor.
c. She should introduce the topic and the speaker, briefly and accurately.
d. She should tell as much about the speaker’s credentials as she can find.
c. She should introduce the topic and the speaker, briefly and accurately.
When offering a brief salute to a special occasion or person, you are giving a(n)
a. eulogy.
b. address.
c. toast.
d. introduction.
c. toast.
What are the two most important rules when making a speech of introduction?
a. Be brief and witty.
b. Be brief and informative.
c. Be brief and accurate.
d. Be accurate and self-serving.
c. Be brief and accurate.
At his best friend’s wedding, Daniel gave a long toast in which he told funny stories about their high school days, past romances—including broken hearts, and his first impressions of his best friend’s new bride. Was this an appropriate toast?
a. Yes; the one should to try to use humor when making a toast.
b. Yes; it is a tradition at American weddings for the best man to try to embarrass the groom.
c. No; this toast was inappropriate because it was personal and it focused too much on the groom.
d. No; toasts should be brief and appropriate for the audience and the occasion.
d. No; toasts should be brief and appropriate for the audience and the occasion.
When called upon to give an impromptu toast at a wedding,
a. tell a joke about unhappy marriages and divorce.
b. tell a long, detailed story about the bride and groom.
c. raise your glass and say, “Bottoms up!”
d. let those gathered and the occasion dictate what you say.
d. let those gathered and the occasion dictate what you say.
Renton has been asked to present his colleague, Rebecca, with the “Journalist of the Year” award. What is important for him to remember to say in this speech?
a. To quickly announce the recipient’s name and let her talk about the award.
b. To talk about the last recipient of the award and his accomplishments.
c. To briefly refer to the occasion and mention the significance of the award.
d. To mention that his colleague has been up for this award twice before.
c. To briefly refer to the occasion and mention the significance of the award.
A special-occasion speech given to mark an anniversary of a special event, the completion of a long task, or high achievement in some field is a(n)
a. toast.
b. acceptance speech.
c. presentation speech.
d. speech of tribute.
d. speech of tribute.
When you make a speech placing someone’s name in nomination for an office or award, what should you be sure to mention?
a. the history and significance of the award or office
b. past winners or office-holders who are in the audience
c. funny stories that might be associated with the nominee
d. the nominee’s qualifications for this award or office
d. the nominee’s qualifications for this award or office
Marianne was so blown away by the announcement that she had won an award that she felt numb on her way to accept it. When she got to the microphone, she began to ramble and then thanked everyone she could think of for voting and supporting her. The speech ran several minutes long and had no organization. Was this appropriate for an acceptance speech?
a. Yes; award winners can take lots of time to thank everyone who encouraged and assisted them.
b. Yes; there are no expectations that award acceptance speeches will be brief and organized.
c. No; impromptu acceptance speeches should be brief, gracious, and as organized as possible.
d. No; award winners are expected to prepare brief remarks in advance of the presentation.
c. No; impromptu acceptance speeches should be brief, gracious, and as organized as possible.
What should the speaker keep in mind when giving an acceptance speech?
a. Use an impromptu delivery so the remarks don’t sound canned.
b. Thank those giving you the award and comment on the significance of the award to you.
c. Be emotional, be sincere, and take as long as you wish.
d. Write out your whole speech, word-for-word on note cards, so you can use them to read from.
b. Thank those giving you the award and comment on the significance of the award to you.
The ceremonial speech, given at or near the beginning of a meeting or a conference, which sets the theme and tone, is a
a. speech of introduction.
b. tribute.
c. keynote address.
d. report.
c. keynote address.
A renowned philanthropist and well-respected national speaker gave the commencement address at Audrey’s graduation ceremony. He spoke of his concerns about rising crime rates for juveniles, of the problem of gang violence, and about crimes against women. Was this appropriate content for a commencement address?
a. No; he should have treated the event like an after-dinner speech—a speech to entertain.
b. No; because he didn’t praise, inspire, or challenge the graduating class.
c. Yes; because it dealt with serious concerns that will continue to face the graduates.
d. Yes; because his approach was different and commencement addresses often become boring.
b. No; because he didn’t praise, inspire, or challenge the graduating class.
Godfrey was asked to be the commencement speaker at the local high school. In the speech, Godfrey talked about his accomplishments, about what he has been doing since his high school graduation 18 years ago and his goals for the future. Unfortunately, this speech didn’t appeal to the audience. Why?
a. The audience really didn’t get to know Godfrey because the speech was too short.
b. Godfrey connected with the audience, but the illustrations he used were dated.
c. The speech Godfrey gave was at the beginning of the commencement which set the tone for the event.
d. Godfrey didn’t praise the graduating class nor have the graduates look toward their own futures.
d. Godfrey didn’t praise the graduating class nor have the graduates look toward their own futures.
On the first anniversary of Ronald Reagan’s death, the Reagan family and a group of close friends gathered at the Reagan Library to talk about Ronald Reagan’s life and accomplishments. Then, former President George H. W. Bush gave a brief speech at the occasion. What is the term used for this kind of speech?
a. presentation speech
b. commencement address
c. speech of dedication
d. commemorative address
d. commemorative address
At Donald’s funeral, Patrick was asked to give the eulogy. In the eulogy, Patrick mentioned Donald’s accomplishments in art, his loving devotion to his family, and how Donald got people to smile with the short stories or jokes he told—he always had people laughing. At the close of the eulogy, Patrick encouraged everyone to keep Donald in their memories and close to their heart. What guidelines did Patrick follow in preparing this eulogy?
a. Remember to mention the achievements of the person who has died and take as much time as necessary to present these ideas.
b. Remember to present all the facts and ideas clearly and do so with little emotion so the family and friends gathered will not be upset further by their loss.
c. Remember the achievements of the person, include personal recollections, and encourage those assembled to move beyond their sorrow.
d. Remember to list all the accomplishments of the person and briefly discuss the personal life of the person who has dies.
c. Remember the achievements of the person, include personal recollections, and encourage those assembled to move beyond their sorrow.
You have been asked to present an after-dinner speech to a local organization; something lighthearted and funny. You’re not a naturally funny person, so this request unnerves you. What should you do?
a. Remember to relate to the audience, use simple humorous stories, have a broad repertoire of stories, and know your information well.
b. Use one of Dave Barry’s old after-dinner speeches and tailor it to the occasion; he’s always funny.
c. Consult humorous sources and joke books and just tell a series of jokes.
d. Turn down the invitation, explaining you don’t have a sense of humor and wouldn’t want to embarrass yourself.
a. Remember to relate to the audience, use simple humorous stories, have a broad repertoire of stories, and know your information well.
A speaker talking about recycling said, “I took a beer bottle to the recycling center, but they wouldn’t take it. They said: “this is the pint of no return.” What humorous verbal strategy did the speaker engage in?
a. a pun
b. a spoonerism
c. a malapropism
d. a hyperbole
a. a pun
A speaker who analyzes the listeners and the occasion and adapts his/her speech according to them is defined as
a. a hard-working speaker.
b. an audience-centered speaker.
c. an over-zealous speaker.
d. a goal-centered speaker.
b. an audience-centered speaker.
Statistical information about characteristics such as age, race, gender, education, and religious views are part of
a. ethnicity.
b. demographics.
c. speech content.
d. socioeconomic status.
b. demographics.
Collecting information about an audience concerning their age range, gender, and ethnicity is part of a
a. situational analysis.
b. demographic analysis.
c. diversity analysis.
d. psychological analysis.
b. demographic analysis.
For his informative speech assignment, Greg has chosen the World Bank as his topic. But before he develops this speech any further, he compiles a questionnaire for the audience to determine their personal knowledge, interest, and attitudes about this issue. What is the term for this technique?
a. formal audience analysis
b. informal audience analysis
c. formal situational analysis
d. informal situational analysis
b. informal audience analysis
To gather formal information about audience members’ attitudes, beliefs, and values, you can
a. observe them before you speak.
b. engage them in conversation prior to the speech.
c. research the group you’re speaking to on the internet or in other publications.
d. ask open-ended and closed-ended questions on a survey.
d. ask open-ended and closed-ended questions on a survey.
You’re deciding on a speech topic, but need some information from your audience. Rather than asking them to divulge out loud their opinions on a couple of topics, you design a short questionnaire. The questionnaire asks whether a person agrees or disagrees with a series of statements regarding various topics. What form of survey are you using?
a. an open-ended, formal audience analysis survey
b. a closed-ended, informal audience analysis survey
c. a closed-ended, formal audience analysis survey
d. an open-ended, informal audience analysis survey
In discovering that the audience members have similar cultural characteristics, are about the same age, and have relatively the same education level–although they don’t have the same socioeconomic background–the speaker is trying to discover
a. audience beliefs.
b. common ground.
c. values.
d. audience feelings.
b
Good speakers should ethically use the information gathered in the audience analysis so that their message will be clearly understood by the audience. This process is called
a. audience reception.
b. audience adaptation.
c. audience knowledge.
d. audience attention.
That portion of a person’s cultural background that relates to a national or religious heritage is known as
a. cultural identity.
b. ethnicity.
c. race.
d. an audience analysis.
What is ethnocentrism?
a. The belief that almost everyone in a cultural group will agree on core belief and values.
b. The attitude that the diverse cultural beliefs around the world should be respected by all.
c. The belief that although cultures are different, they all favor peace and harmony.
d. The attitude that one’s own cultural approach is superior to those of other cultures.
Audience members who place more importance on nonverbal messages than verbal messages from a speaker might be from _____ cultures, whereas those placing more emphasis on what is said than the nonverbal messages might be from _____ cultures.
a. low context; high context
b. low power; high power
c. individualistic; collectivistic
d. high context; low context
d.
The perceived importance and influence of a person’s income, occupation, and education is referred to as
a. ethnicity.
b. cultural identifiers.
c. socioeconomic status.
d. individualism.
It is important to know the approximate education level of your audience because people with more education usually
a. have more income.
b. have a better vocabulary.
c. expect more from a speaker.
d. work harder than other people.
b. have a better vocabulary.
A segment of your audience that you most want to address or influence is the
a. target audience.
b. intended audience.
c. diverse audience.
d. influential audience.
When reflecting the diversity of your audience either separately or with a target audience focus, it is recommended that you
a. focus on one important element to bring the audience together.
b. use repetition patterns to reiterate your point.
c. speak as though the audience is universal.
d. use a variety of strategies to reach the different listeners.
d.using a variety of strategies to reach the different listeners
Trying to determine what an audience believes or thinks about a speech topic is termed as
a. psychological analysis.
b. demographic analysis.
c. informational analysis.
d. environmental analysis.
Which of the following concepts in a psychological analysis are the audience’s concepts of right and wrong, good and bad?
a. beliefs
b. values
c. attitudes
d. feelings
As part of planning for her class speech on the Patriot Act, Brenda passed around a brief questionnaire asking whether her classmates were for or against the Act, did they think parts or the entire Act should change, etc. Was this a good idea?
a. No; by doing the questionnaire, she revealed to the class what her speech topic was going to be.
b. Yes; this is a smart technique of analyzing the audience known as demographic audience analysis.
c. No; the class is a captive audience, so finding out their views ahead of time wasn’t necessary.
d. Yes; this is a form of psychological audience analysis—a good thing to do for any kind of audience.
As a requirement for your biology class, you must attend a speech by a visiting scholar. At this event, you will be a member of what kind of an audience?
a. captive audience
b. voluntary audience
c. demographic audience
d. all of the above
Brent was presenting a speech on childhood diabetes, a disease that he had suffered from for years. He decided not to mention this fact to his audience. Which of the following statements concerning Brent’s speech is more correct?
a. A speaker’s personal experience makes him more credible to his audience.
b. A speaker needs only facts and figures to build his credibility to the audience.
c. A speaker should not mention personal experiences, as it sounds like bragging.
d. A speaker should not mention personal experiences, as it sounds like self-pitying.
A speaker’s personal experience makes him more credible to his audience.
A situational audience analysis includes an evaluation of
a. the attitude, beliefs, and the values that are held by your audience.
b. the age, gender, ethnicity, race, and culture of your audience.
c. the time and place of your speech, the size of your audience, and the occasion.
d. the influence of your audience based on their income, occupation, and education.
Savena needed room to move during her speech, but when she arrived to make her presentation, she learned that she would have to use a microphone affixed to a lectern. Savena’s mistake was not conducting a pre-speech
a. audience analysis.
b. formal demographic analysis.
c. situational analysis.
d. informal psychological analysis.
TJ is giving a speech on reasons why recycling is everyone’s responsibility. During this speech, TJ notices that his audience isn’t making eye contact with him, that there is a lot of restless movement, and that the audience’s faces seem blank. How should TJ respond to this negative feedback?
a. Speak slower so the audience understands.
b. Ignore the audience and stay with his notes.
c. Clarify the point with some significant statistics.
d. Illustrate the point with a funny, personal example.
When Robert asked his class, “How many of you just don’t have enough time to do all the things you want to do in a day?” as his speech introductory device, almost everyone in the audience raised their hands. Robert took this audience reaction as
a. an indication of verbal responsiveness.
b. inappropriate crossing of the lines between speaker and listener.
c. restless movement, which indicated to Robert that he’d better get on with his speech.
d. an indication of nonverbal responsiveness.
Veronica was watching her audience carefully during her speech. After a few minutes, she noticed several class members staring at her with a glazed look in their eyes. She immediately picked up the speed of her speech and moved on to a colorful visual. What was Veronica responding to?
a. psychological audience cues
b. situational feedback
c. nonverbal audience cues
d. listener anxiety
When you discover the listener’s needs, interests, and expectations prior to selecting a topic, you are fulfilling which guideline for selecting a topic?
a. consider yourself
b. consider the occasion
c. consider the audience
d. consider the topic
Emily has been asked to speak to a group of her colleagues at work about a new project, but she wonders, “What do these people already know about this project, and are they excited about it?” These questions reflect Emily’s
a. lack of self-esteem as a public speaker.
b. consideration for the occasion for which she’s speaking.
c. concern about the interests and knowledge of her audience.
d. lack of sophistication in audience analysis techniques.
For his graduation ceremony, Brady decided to give his valedictory address on the topic of “opposition to the rising costs of university tuition”, he failed to
a. consider the occasion.
b. narrow his topic.
c. conduct a demographic analysis.
d. consider the audience.
When you make a list of your own interests, and just begin writing as many topics related to these as you can think of without stopping to consider them, you are using a technique known as
a. topic building.
b. brainstorming.
c. natural topic selection.
d. webbing.
An informative speech has been assigned, so Angel starts to worry about what he can possibly present to his class. That night he takes out a blank sheet of paper and just starts writing down every possible idea for a speech topic that he can think of. What is Angel doing?
a. topic narrowing
b. brainstorming
c. procrastinating
d. searching
It’s the end of the semester, your brain is fried, and you just can’t come up with a creative topic for your persuasive speech. As a last resort, you pick up the daily newspaper and decide on a topic by looking at one of the headlines. Is this advisable?
a. No; it is a form of plagiarism when you get speech topics from a newspaper.
b. No; newspapers offer boring material which do not make for a good topic.
c. Yes, but topics generated from newspapers take much longer to develop than others.
d. Yes; scanning newspaper headlines may be an effective strategy to find a speech topic.
When searching for a speech topic, Web directories, such as Yahoo, are helpful because
a. they have a list of topics divided into categories and subcategories.
b. they present material in many different ways.
c. the information provided in Web directories is always accurate.
d. Web directories will have better ideas for topics than you will.
Is it appropriate to develop a speech topic based on something you heard on a television talk show?
a. No; using televised information for a speech topic is a form of plagiarism.
b. No; most topics discussed on talk shows are inappropriate speech material.
c. Yes, but you have to address the topic the same way the talk show did.
d. Yes; brainstorming ideas from a television program is a good way to develop a topic.
Speeches that you present will be either to inform, to persuade, or to entertain. This goal for your speech is knows as its
a. general purpose.
b. specific purpose.
c. central idea.
d. blueprint.
a. general purpose.
What are the three general purposes?
a. to tell, to show, to teach
b. to annoy, to bore, to irritate
c. to inform, to persuade, to entertain
d. to demonstrate, to manipulate, to coerce
When Elizabeth was asked to be the after-dinner speaker for the senior honors dinner, she responded with great enthusiasm. She viewed this as an opportunity to reflect on their past years at college as well as bring a smile to her fellow seniors’ faces, to make them feel the excitement of the event, and to help them enjoy themselves. In this situation, Elizabeth would be speaking to
a. inform.
b. persuade.
c. convince.
d. entertain.
During your speech you ask your audience to sign a petition increasing the student parking areas. Your general goal is to
a. inform.
b. notify.
c. entertain.
d. persuade.
“At the end of my speech, my audience will be able to list the three different types of Reggae music,” is an example of a
a. central idea.
b. general purpose.
c. specific purpose.
d. blueprint.
This statement is decided solely by the speaker since it depends on the behavioral change the speaker expects from the audience at the end of the speech.
a. general purpose
b. specific purpose
c. central idea
d. functional purpose
In a speech about the importance of establishing a daily exercise routine, Bart sums up his goal for the speech in the following statement: “At the end of my speech, the audience will initiate a daily exercise routine.” You recognize this as a _____ statement.
a. general purpose
b. specific purpose
c. concluding
d. summary
_____ is a complete declarative sentence that summarizes your speech.
a. General purpose
b. Specific purpose
c. Central idea
d. Blueprint
On Barnett’s speech outline appeared the sentence: “Censorship of the music industry violates our First Amendment right to free speech.” You recognize this statement as
a. a general purpose statement.
b. a specific purpose statement.
c. a central idea or thesis.
d. an inflammatory statement.
c.
Allison has written and rewritten the central idea of her speech on “Dog Care.” She finally comes up with “dog care is very difficult.” What is the problem with this central idea?
a. Her central idea is not audience-centered.
b. Her central idea is too confusing.
c. Her central idea is too vague.
d. Her central idea is not a declarative sentence.
Searching for logical divisions in a subject is a strategy for determining your
a. general purpose.
b. specific purpose.
c. preview statement.
d. main ideas.
When you structure your speech topic into main points, based on a reasonable, appropriate progression of ideas, what aspect of organization are you accomplishing?
a. developing a clear central idea
b. narrowing the topic
c. generating supporting material
d. finding logical divisions
The central idea for your speech on “use sunscreen” just will not break itself down into logical divisions. Rather than trying to find another that divides more logically, you would
a. find a chronological pattern for the main ideas.
b. establish reasons why your central idea is true.
c. don’t worry about it, the audience won’t notice anyway.
d. find new supporting material on the topic and start again.
Derrick’s speech on rodeos focused on three different events. His central idea was “the modern rodeo has many interesting events including bronco busting, calf roping, and bull riding.” Derrick’s central idea could be readily broken down into main ideas based on
a. a chronological order or series of steps.
b. reasons to show the central idea is true.
c. logical division of the central idea.
d. the relative importance of each idea.
A combination of your central idea and a summary of your main points is known as the
a. general purpose.
b. specific purpose.
c. central idea.
d. blueprint.
“I’m going to talk about the sport of racquetball, including the history of the game, some of the basic equipment used when playing racquetball, and some of the health benefits derived from the sport.” An audience member would recognize this as
a. an attention-getter.
b. a blueprint statement.
c. a specific purpose.
d. a general purpose.
c
If a speaker says, “tonight, I’m going to discuss with you two reasons why everyone should recycle, including cost-saving benefits and the problems waste creates in the environment,” you recognize this as
a. a general purpose statement.
b. an attention-getting device.
c. a preview of main ideas.
d. a specific purpose statement.
The vast collection of hundreds of thousands of computers accessible to millions of people all over the world is known as
a. a search engine.
b. the Internet.
c. the World Wide Web.
d. cyberspace.
Joe is a former world weight lifter and professional body builder. He is preparing an informative speech on the abuse of steroids in physical fitness. Through his personal experiences, what quality can Joe add to the presentation of his speech?
a. motivation
b. credibility
c. satisfaction
d. persuasion
It is necessary to determine what individual or organization is responsible for a Web site in order to determine its
a. accuracy.
b. accountability.
c. objectivity.
d. diversity.
Jack used primarily Web sources for his informative speech about gun control. However, his over-reliance on the Web site sponsored by the National Rifle Association caused his speech to be slanted in one direction, rather than presenting multiple sides of the issue. Which one of the six criteria for evaluating Web sources did Jack ignore?
a. accountability
b. accuracy
c. objectivity
d. usability
c. objectivity
Carl is researching a speech on euthanasia. He knows that there are some excellent journal articles on the subject, but his university’s small library doesn’t carry the journals in which the articles appear. Carl has only a few days until he must give the speech; what should he do?
a. Carl should use interlibrary loan to see if he can locate the needed journal articles.
b. Carl waited too late to start his research, so he’ll have to use something else instead of the journal articles.
c. Carl should substitute Web site information for the journal articles, because material from the Web is more accurate and current than published journal articles.
d. Carl should use a full-text database, like Academic Search Complete, to attempt to locate complete texts of the journal articles.
Academic Search Complete and ERIC are examples of
a. Web browsers.
b. Web directories.
c. full-text databases.
d. search engines.
These databases combine both index and text, allowing you to locate not only bibliographic information, but the resources themselves through a keyword or subject search.
a. info trac
b. reader’s guide
c. full-text
d. ERIC
Kenisha decided to write her persuasive speech on “Human Cloning.” She didn’t feel comfortable using Internet sources and so relied on books and material from a class she had taken last year. What is the problem with Kenisha’s research?
a. Nothing; books are always the best and most reliable source for any topic.
b. Kenisha needed to interview someone about this subject as well as use the books.
c. Kenisha should have researched newspapers and periodicals for the most recent material.
d. It is not necessary to use the Internet to find the most updated material.
The term “periodicals” refers to
a. books.
b. newspapers.
c. magazines and journals.
d. indexes.
Libraries’ collections of books are generally called
a. open-stacks.
b. closed-stacks.
c. stashes.
d. stacks.
Fred’s community is considering a city-wide smoking ban. He is trying to do research on the effects it will have on small business owners in the community. Which of the following would be the best way for him to gather information?
a. books
b. magazines
c. interviews
d. encyclopedias
Discussing your speech topic with someone who is knowledgeable on the subject is a method of gathering support material known as
a. expert testimony.
b. interviewing.
c. research.
d. peer testimony.
Once you have arranged for an interview with an authority on your speech topic, what is your next task?
a. Ask the interviewee if you may audio or videotape the interview.
b. Conduct the interview with your interviewee as professionally as possible.
c. Plan for the interview by conducting research and planning specific questions.
d. Determine how you will use the interview information in your speech.
After your conversation with a representative from the health and wellness program at a local hospital, you organize your notes and decide which statements to quote in your speech. This form of supporting material is termed as
a. firsthand experience.
b. an interview.
c. research.
d. peer testimony.
Marcie was conducting an interview with the local homeless shelter supervisor. The supervisor kept answering “yes” or “no” to all of Marcie’s questions. Marcie was getting frustrated because she was not getting the material she needed. What was the problem here?
a. Marcie was not at fault; the supervisor was just close minded and not helpful.
b. Marcie had planned only closed-ended questions and forgot to follow up by asking “why?”
c. The supervisor was probably new and inexperienced and didn’t know the answers.
d. It’s just one of those awkward things that happen.
Tracie is gathering sources of support for her persuasive speech on animal testing for medical purposes. She makes use of Web sources and has a great deal of relevant material. However, when outlining the speech, she can’t find the source of many of the facts and statistics she plans to use. What is Tracie’s problem?
a. Tracie forgot to get full citations on her sources, but she can orally cite what she remembers.
b. Tracie needed a preliminary bibliography with all the necessary material to locate the sources.
c. Tracie violated a principle of outlining; never insert supporting material into an outline for a speech.
d. Tracie doesn’t have a problem; the audience trusts her to be truthful and not make up facts.
What is a lengthy illustration with a plot, beginning, climatic point, and end called?
a. a hypothetical illustration
b. a brief illustration
c. an extended illustration
d. a literal illustration
In his speech about drinking and driving, David told the story of what happened to three of his friends. He went into detail about how they had been partying, how they wouldn’t let anyone sober drive them home, and how their lives ended when the car they were in wrapped around a tree in the middle of the night. What kind of supporting material did David use in his speech?
a. a brief illustration
b. an extended illustration
c. a statistic
d. expert testimony
When it is necessary in a speech to explain a term that the audience might not understand, look in a dictionary such as Webster’s for
a. a definition by classification.
b. an operational definition.
c. an original definition.
d. an analogical definition.
What are important guidelines for the use of statistics in a speech?
a. Use reputable, authoritative, and unbiased sources for your statistics.
b. Use statistics that are mainly from secondary sources.
c. Use as many statistics as you can find because they enhance credibility.
d. Report a statistic down to the last decimal point, to be thorough and accurate.
a
Research reports of government agencies, independent survey organizations, or scholars can be considered reliable sources because they are
a. reputable.
b. accessible.
c. effective.
d. varied.
a. reputable.
When someone, who is a recognized authority in a specialized area, states his/her opinion, this is considered as
a. expert testimony.
b. lay testimony.
c. a literary quotation.
d. individual opinion.
It is a good idea to use expert testimony in a speech when your topic
a. requires that you make predictions.
b. is informative.
c. is humorous.
d. is dull.
In his speech about date rape on college campuses, Ryan cites statistics from state and county law enforcement documents; then he includes statistics from incidents on his own campus. Which principle of selecting the best supporting material is Ryan using?
a. proximity
b. suitability
c. variety
d. concreteness
The method a speaker uses to arrange his/her main ideas is termed as the
a. organizational pattern.
b. speaking outline.
c. preliminary outline.
d. last resort.
a. organizational pattern.
When you present the most important or convincing idea first in your speech, you are using the principle of
a. primacy.
b. specificity.
c. complexity.
d. recency.
primacy
For her informative speech, Abigail wanted to tell her audience what they need to consider when purchasing a new computer. Which organizational pattern lends itself best to this topic?
a. topical
b. spatial
c. chronological
d. cause-effect
Organizing ideas within a speech according to the order in which they occurred or should occur employs a
a. topical pattern.
b. chronological pattern.
c. spatial pattern.
d. cause-effect pattern.
When explaining the progress of molecular discoveries, Shanthani began by discussing Mendel’s studies of 1866 about inheritance of biological traits in peas, ending with the recent information about human genome project. Which pattern of organization would best suit Shanthani’s speech?
a. topical
b. spatial
c. chronological
d. cause-effect
Organizing speech ideas according to direction and location is a
a. topical pattern.
b. chronological pattern.
c. spatial pattern.
d. cause-effect pattern.
In her presentation to the school board about plans for the new physical fitness facility, Miss. Anderson described the various workout areas, gyms, locker rooms, and physical therapy facilities. Which organizational pattern was Miss. Anderson using in her presentation?
a. topical
b. spatial
c. problem-solution
d. chronological
If a speech is organized to identify a situation and then discuss the impact of that situation, the speaker has used a
a. topical pattern.
b. chronological pattern.
c. cause-effect pattern.
d. spatial pattern.
Deanna makes the claim in her persuasive speech that unregulated car emissions in major urban areas worldwide contribute to the depletion of the ozone layer, which contributes to global warming. Which type of organizational pattern is reflected in this example?
a. cause-effect
b. topical
c. problem-solution
d. spatial
Bianca began her speech with a vivid description of a typical waiting area in an emergency room of a public hospital. She described the different areas of the emergency room and where each part of the emergency room was located in relationship to the other parts. What organizational pattern can you detect in Bianca’s speech?
a. chronological
b. spatial
c. topical
d. cause-effect
b. spatial
A speech topic that presents an issue that needs resolving can effectively be organized as
a. cause-effect.
b. recency pattern.
c. problem-solution.
d. chronological.
A speech organizational pattern which goes one step beyond cause and effect to discuss ways to alter, fix, or correct an effect is termed as
a. the motivated sequence.
b. a problem-solution pattern.
c. an extended cause-effect pattern.
d. a chronological pattern.
After speakers have organized their main points, what is the next step?
a. arranging points into a logical, effective pattern
b. attaching supporting material to the main points
c. dividing main points into subpoints
d. finding sources of support for main points
Words and gestures, that allow you to move smoothly from one idea to the next throughout the speech, are known as
a. relevant movements.
b. nonverbals.
c. supports.
d. signposts.
b. nonverbals.
Transitions, previews, and summaries are all examples of
a. signposts.
b. main ideas.
c. supporting material.
d. organization.
a. signposts.
Words and phrases, such as “in addition,” “in other words,” and “therefore,” are examples of
a. verbal transitions.
b. organizational material.
c. nonverbal transitions.
d. summary statements.
a. verbal transitions.
A planned pause in a speech may be used as
a. a time to catch your breath.
b. a nonverbal transition.
c. an internal preview.
d. an effective filler.
Telling your audience your main ideas before you begin to develop your speech is a
a. a summary statement.
b. a connector.
c. a preview.
d. a verbal transition.
In Daryl’s speech on football, he tells the audience in the introduction that he is going to discuss the history of the sport, some of the rules, and the benefits of playing football on cardiovascular fitness. What type of signpost is Daryl demonstrating?
a. a transition
b. a preview
c. an internal summary
d. an external summary
b. a preview
In a speech, April says: “You should now understand the three most-recommended methods for improving your ability to recall people’s names: the repetition method, the word-association method, and the visual imagery method. I hope you will put these methods into practice and you will remember my name the next time you see me in the hall.” What device is April making use of in her speech?
a. a transition
b. a preview statement
c. an internal summary
d. a final summary
d. a final summary
The first step in an introduction is
a. to reveal the topic.
b. a preview of the main ideas.
c. to get the audience’s attention.
d. to establish credibility.
C. to get the audience’s attention.
Dana opens her speech against abortion by putting up a transparency that shows a graphic image of an aborted fetus. Is this an effective opening?
a. No; she should have opened with a verbal, rather than a visual attention getter.
b. No; this type of graphic material may disgust and repel the audience.
c. Yes; this was startling and vivid and got the audience’s attention.
d. Yes; an audience cannot ignore the truth when it is pointed out to them.
According to the authors, the most obvious purpose that you must accomplish in a speech introduction is
a. to get the audience’s attention.
b. to introduce the subject of your speech.
c. to establish your credibility.
d. to establish proximity with your audience.
a. to get the audience’s attention.
Credibility is
a. the attitude listeners hold toward a speaker.
b. the value listeners give the topic.
c. something that all speakers possess.
d. established with the specific purpose of the speech.
It is important to build trust with the audience, to have them believe you and like you. This is known as speaker
a. likeability.
b. credibility.
c. trustworthiness.
d. popularity.
b. credibility.
In the introduction, a good way to establish your credibility is to
a. start with a well known quotation.
b. be well prepared and confident.
c. summarize your main ideas.
d. state your specific purpose.
a. start with a well known quotation.
In developing her speech on scuba diving, Rachael is trying to decide whether or not to tell the audience in her introduction that she has been a diver since she was a freshman in high school. She wonders if this will help or hurt her credibility. Which of the following advice would you suggest?
a. Rachael should avoid describing her experience with the topic because she will appear to be speaker centered and not audience centered.
b. Rachael should give a brief, credibility-building explanation of her experience with the topic.
c. Rachael should give a full explanation of her experiences with the topic, including when she started diving, how many years she’s diving, how often she dives, etc.
d. For the sake of suspense, Rachael should wait until her conclusion to describe her diving experience.
This signpost may enumerate the ideas and points that will be presented in the speech. This signpost is known as a(n)
a. summary.
b. specific purpose.
c. preview.
d. emphasis statement.
A speaker who describes his/her main points as part of the introduction is utilizing a(n)
a. credibility statement.
b. specific purpose statement.
c. preview statement.
d. internal summary.
c. preview statement.
An anecdote is a
a. persuasive argument used to counteract the thesis statement.
b. brief story or illustration.
c. way of including expert testimony into the introduction.
d. fictional statement used to add humor to the speech introduction.
b. brief story or illustration.
Which of the following is an inherently interesting type of supporting material?
a. a startling introductory device
b. a specific purpose statement
c. a summary
d. an anecdote
d. an anecdote
Janet’s introduction contained the following remarks: “How many of you know someone who has tried to quit smoking, successfully or unsuccessfully? Have any of the smokers in this audience tried to quit? Well, if you have tried to quit and failed, you are among the 20 percent of Americans who have tried to quit multiple times. A few months ago I tried to quit, for the umpteenth time, but this time I made it. I’d like to tell you exactly how I made it.” Which of the following statements is accurate about this introduction?
a. Janet has too many devices in this introduction; the audience will be confused rather than intrigued by this introduction.
b. Janet shouldn’t discuss her own experience with quitting smoking because it sets up some distance between her and the audience.
c. Janet has successfully combined introductory devices of questions to the audience, statistical information, and a personal reference.
d. Janet has successfully combined introductory devices of startling statements, reference to historical events, and illustrations.
In an introduction, you may ask a question that doesn’t require a response but makes the audience think about your topic. This type of question is a(n) _____ question.
a. rhetorical
b. ambiguous
c. hypothetical
d. unanswerable
Leonard walked to the podium, made direct eye contact with the audience, then asked the audience: “Have you ever wondered what a hot dog is made of? Do you really want to know?” What introductory device was Leonard using?
a. opening with a startling facts
b. asking rhetorical questions
c. establishing his credibility
d. using personal references
The statement, “This is great day, because so many people from so many walks of life have gathered in this place to celebrate the life of Martin Luther King, Jr.” is an example of an introductory device called reference to
a. the occasion.
b. something personal.
c. a recent event.
d. a historical event.
In the speech just before Jerome’s, the speaker covered some of the same material that Jerome was going to use in his speech on golf. Instead of letting this throw him, Jerome acknowledged the overlap in his introduction. Was this a wise thing to do,?
a. No; drawing attention to the similarities in the two speeches was unnecessary and hurt Jerome’s credibility.
b. Yes; but only because Jerome made the point much more clearly and succinctly than the speaker before him.
c. No; Jerome should not have mentioned the overlap because chances are the audience would not catch it.
d. Yes; Jerome used an attention-getting, credibility-building device known as a reference to a preceding speech.
Yes; Jerome used an attention-getting, credibility-building device known as a reference to a preceding speech.
What should a speech conclusion do?
a. It should provide new material.
b. It should summarize the main ideas.
c. It should stir guilt in the audience.
d. It should fade out gradually.
Terms like “finally,” “in conclusion,” and “in closing” are examples of devices
a. to motivate an audience to respond or be moved to action.
b. that provide closure for a speech.
c. that summarize the main points in a speech.
d. that reemphasize the main point in a memorable way.
Reemphasizing the central idea in a memorable way, moving an audience to action, and providing closure are all functions of the
a. speech introduction.
b. specific purpose.
c. central idea.
d. speech conclusion.
d. speech conclusion.
When Gloria said, “So we must all do something to end domestic violence; we must all be prepared to confront this issue in our own neighborhoods and homes, so that we become part of the solution, not part of the problem,” you recognize this as a
a. startling statement.
b. re-emphasis on the central idea.
c. statement to motivate the audience to respond.
d. concluding summary statement.
What is the purpose of the technique when a speaker makes reference to the introduction in the conclusion?
a. providing a sense of closure
b. unnecessary repetition of material
c. a good way to summarize the speech
d. a way to build speaker credibility
a. providing a sense of closure
In a speech with the general purpose “to inform,” a speaker’s goal is
a. to act as an advocate for an issue.
b. to be a storyteller, sharing experiences.
c. to teach new information.
d. to motivate the audience to act.
c. to teach new information.
When trying to help the audience make sense of the information being presented, the goal of the speaker should be to
a. make sure they are heard, enhance understanding, and connect nonverbally with the audience.
b. allow the audience to listen, increase understanding, and have visuals for them to remember.
c. enhance understanding, gain interest, and ensure that the audience will remember what was said.
d. enhance listening, ensure that the audience will learn, and have the audience apply the knowledge.
c. enhance understanding, gain interest, and ensure that the audience will remember what was said.
When a speaker shows the audience that the information presented will affect them directly, he or she is fulfilling which goal of information speaking?
a. to enhance understanding
b. to maintain interest
c. to be remembered
d. to be heard
b. to maintain interest
Gus was asked to present information on the topic of art appreciation. This topic can be rather vague and subjective in nature; different pieces of art can be described in a multitude of ways. However, Gus found a way of clearly defining terms and concepts so the audience would have a common point of reference. For Gus, the primary goal of his informative speech is
a. to enhance understanding.
b. to maintain interest.
c. to have the audience remember the information.
d. to have the audience become art critics.
a. to enhance understanding.
An informative speech that discusses anything you can see or touch is a speech about
a. procedures.
b. ideas.
c. people.
d. objects.
d. objects.
An informative speech that discusses how something works, or describes a process with a particular outcome, is a speech about
a. procedures.
b. objects.
c. people.
d. ideas.
a. procedures.
What kind of speech focuses on a process or how something works?
a. a speech about an event
b. a speech about a procedure
c. a speech about an object
d. a speech about a person
b. a speech about a procedure
Phyllis presented an informative speech on how to fix a flat tire. What type of informative speech was this?
a. a speech about an idea
b. a speech about a procedure
c. a speech about an object
d. a speech about an event
b. a speech about a procedure
The type of informative speech where you could talk about someone famous or someone you know is known as a
a. biological speech.
b. genealogy speech.
c. historical speech.
d. biographical speech.
a. biological speech.
Roberto gave an informative speech about the life and artistic accomplishments of Andy Warhol. What type of informative speech did Roberto deliver?
a. a speech about an idea
b. a speech about an event
c. a speech about people
d. a speech about a procedure
c. a speech about people
Seth decided to present his informative speech on the origins and development of the Mardi Gras parades. What type of informative speech did Seth present?
a. a speech about an idea
b. a speech about an event
c. a speech about people
d. a speech about a procedure
b. a speech about an event
An informative speech about an event typically follows this arrangement.
a. chronological
b. topical
c. problem-solution
d. spatial
a. chronological
When previewing your speech on Islam, you say, “the best way to understand Islam is to look at some of the beliefs and practices of this religion.” You will be giving a speech about
a. a procedure.
b. people.
c. an event.
d. an idea.
d. an idea.
To express your ideas so that the intended message is accurately understood by the audience is known as
a. simplification.
b. audience analysis.
c. clarity.
d. precision.
c. clarity.
In her speech about small pox, Jessica previewed her ideas in the introduction, summarized key points throughout the speech, and provided a visual outline on an overhead. What public speaking principle did Jessica apply?
a. She used the principle of pedagogy.
b. She used the principle of speaking with clarity.
c. She used the principle of andragogy.
d. She used the principle of audience analysis.
b. She used the principle of speaking with clarity.
This term means “comparisons” and is usually a good for giving listeners the big picture before going into great detail.
a. analogies
b. similarities
c. clarification
d. illumination
a. analogies
One way in which adults learn differently from children is that adults
a. like to be actively involved in the learning process.
b. like to learn new information that is beyond their experience.
c. like to learn about material that focuses on abstract ideas and concepts.
d. like to learn as little as possible.
a. like to be actively involved in the learning process.
David decided to present his informative speech on “how to give the Heimlich maneuver.” He opened his speech by recounting a story on how he saved his younger brother’s life when his brother choked on a gum that was accidentally swallowed. David was targeting which of the goals of informative speaking with this statement?
a. defining a term by using a specific example
b. developing a strategy to help the audience remember
c. motivating the audience to listen by telling a story
d. clarifying concepts to enhance understanding
c. motivating the audience to listen by telling a story
Montriece stood before a room filled with high school seniors and their parents. In his introduction he stated, “I come before you today, not as a financial consultant, but as a former college student myself. It has been some time since I’ve been in a college classroom as a student, but I can clearly remember the financial struggles of being a student. Today, I’m going to present to you five ways you can cut costs for a college education.” Why would this be a good opening for this audience?
a. Because he reinforced the key ideas verbally.
b. Because he built in redundancy.
c. Because he had a good pace to the information.
d. Because he established a motive for the audience to listen further.
d. Because he established a motive for the audience to listen further.
In an informative speech to a group of high school juniors, Tori talked about how college changed her life, about the change in her confidence level from her first year to her senior year. Although college seemed a long way off for her audience, they listened intently. Tori made her speech interesting by
a. telling a story that had conflict and suspense.
b. presenting information that related to their lives.
c. asking them a rhetorical question.
d. presenting information that was startling.
b. presenting information that related to their lives.
When Kiko reviewed the main points in her informative speech, she slowed down her rate of speech, decreased her volume, made sure to articulate each word clearly, and paused between each point. Which technique of enhancing audience recall did Kiko effectively employ?
a. building redundancy into the speech
b. reinforcing key ideas verbally
c. reinforcing the main ideas nonverbally
d. pacing the flow of information
c. reinforcing the main ideas nonverbally