FSU Intro to Anthropology Midterm Notes

the study of humans
anthropology is…
holistic and comparative
emphasizing the whole
a procedure for arriving at conclusions, also an established accumulation derived from the above procedure.
science is a procedure
Tentative explanation(hypothesis)
Rejecting or accepting hypothesis
All conclusions are subject to continuing challenge
scientific knowledge is…
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Anthropology is a social science
a study of people in society and how they interact with each other
Anthropology is a humanity
A record of human expression
4 subfields
cultural anthropology
The comparative, cross-cultural, study of human society and culture
ex: ethnography, ethnology, applied anthropology, medical anthropology.
linguistic anthropology
the specialty of anthropology concerned with the study of human languages
language origins(glottogenesis)
The study of the past based on what people left behind.
biological anthropology
study of humans as biological organisms
culture is behavior
acquired by learning
shared by group
transmitted from one generation to the next
cumulative = cultural revolution
The study of the meaning of words, phrases, and sentences in particular cultural contexts.
culture is mental infrastructure
a system of shared meanings that guide perception and action
ex: Water Vs. Holy Water
English speaking people of European descent who practice a form of Christianity that emphasizes on pacifism and tolerance. The author wanted to study these people people because he was curious about the process of evolutionary change and how they operate in human populations.
developing a general explanation from specific observations
suggesting specific data that would be found if a hypothesis were true
a detailed description of a particular culture primarily based on fieldwork
branch of anthropology dealing with human races, their origin, distribution, culture, etc.
medical anthropology
the study of illness and health care from the perspective of anthropology
false science; research that does not meet the criteria of science
change over time; the process by which modern organisms have descended from ancient organisms
main meaning:Change and changes is series as well
biological application
an explanation for the origin of organisms.
Pre Darwin
Anatomy (Andreas Vesalius)
– Belgian Scientist.
– Father of anatomy.
– Wrote the book “On the Structure of the Human Body”. The first modern medical textbook.
Taxonomy (Carolus Linnaeus)
Founder of taxonomy,
book: -Systema Naturae (1735)
Natural History (Comte De buffon)
founder of natural history/ Book: “Histoire Naturelle” (1749)
Paleontology (George Cuvier)
father of paleontology. Wrote an essay on the Theory of the Earth (1813)
Transmutation (Jean Baptiste Lamarck)
Zoological Philosophy (1809)
Charles Darwin
Careful Observer of Nature
voyage on Beagle(1831-1836)
read Lyell’s Book
believed in Transmutation of species(evolution)
1838 Read malthus essay
sketched outline of evolution via natural selectiondid not publish idea until 1859
Charles Lyell
Principle of Geology(1830)
“Uniformitarianism” Implies- A Changing Earth
An Ancient Earth
Charles Lyell’s idea that geologic processes have not changed throughout Earth’s history.The principle stating that mechanisms of change are constant over time. explains catastrophism.
Thomas Malthus
Author of Essay on the Principle of Population (1798) who claimed that population grows at an exponential rate while food production increases arithmetically, and thereby that, eventually, population growth would outpace food production.
Alfred Russel Wallace
wrote an essay “on the tendency of varieties to depart indefinitely from the original type” wrote letter to Darwin in (1858)., English naturalist who formulated a concept of evolution that resembled Charles Darwin’s (1823-1913).
On the Origin of Species(1859)
Evolution: Explains the Origin of Species
Natural selection: Drives evolutionary change across generations
pieces from the book put into simpler form
“A struggle for existence”
Excessive reproduction and competition for limited resources exists in all species
“Other variations useful in some way should sometimes occur in the course of thousands of generations”
Individuals vary in heritable traits. Variants are sometimes useful, sometimes harmful
” Individuals having any advantage would have the best chance of surviving and of procreating their kind.”
Individuals with Advantageous Variants get to reproduce and pass those traits to the next generation

Individuals with Disadvantageous Variants do not pass traits to the next generation(they die without reproducing)

Natural Selection
Preservation of favorable variation and rejection of injurious variation
inheritance of acquired characteristics
Lamarck, changes in the living body could be passed on to descendants (ex: giraffe’s necks)
Evolution in an age of genetic information
Genetics-Levels Of analysis
Organism, Cell, Molecule
things go from…
Gene ====> Protein ====> Trait
from to then
Organism (Mendel)
anything that possesses all the characteristics of life; have an orderly structure, produce offspring, grow, develop, and adjust to changes in the environment
Cell (Sutton)
Portion of a chromosome that codes for a protein
Molecule( Watson and Crick)
a sequence of nucleotides that code for a protein( a portion of a DNA Molecule)
daughter cells
The resulting cells that are genetically identical to each other and to parent cell
change in a DNA sequence that affects genetic information
Discrete particles(genes) can produce continuous variation, Mutation and independent assortment add new variation
evolution by means of natural selection
Darwinism+ genetics
E mayr
G G Simpson
L. Stebbins
Mendel (1) and (2)
(1) showed how inheritance worked using discrete units of inheritance( now called “genes” and “alleles”)

(2) Introduced the “Law of Segregation” and the “Law of Independent Assortment”

introduced concept of mutation
The Human Genome Project
A multi-year effort to find all the genes that code for all the traits found in humans(1990-2006)
Establish the sequence of bases that make up each chromosome of a typical human and established which of these sequneces function as “genes”
An Organism’s Complete set of DNA
What is a human
Traits shared with other Taxa + traits unique to humans
What is an animal?
a living organism characterized by voluntary movement
What is a Vertebrate?
An animal with a backbone. ex: Fish, lions
What is a Mammal?
any warm-blooded vertebrate having covered with hair, give birth to young
monkeys, apes, and humans
thread like structures in nuclues
a primate of the superfamily Hominoidea ex: Apes and humans

apes: have adaptations for suspension including
-long muscular arms
-rotate shoulders 360 degrees
-180 degrees forearm rotation
-increased side-to-side in wrist motion

Human characteristics only unique to humans
Striding Bipedalism is a uniquely human form of locomotion
Primitive Traits
Dentition(4 diff. kinds of teeth)

Skeleton(5 fingers, clavicle)

Same as ancestor

Derived Traits
eye,hand,locomotion,brain,life history

Different from ancestor

Primates Emphasize
Vision not smell

-Color vision
-Good Focus

Hands and feet can hold onto narrow supports
projecting snout
wet nose
wide space between eyes
all purpose grasping grooming claw
small brain
flat face
Dry nose
closely spaced eyes
individual digit movement
larger brains
discovered in 1974, lived 3.2 million years ago, of the species Australopithecus afarensis, was bipedal, had a brain the size of a chimpanzee.
human pelvis
short, broad and bowl shaped to provide attachment area for muscles which power bidedalism
frees the hands from locomotor duties
what traits distinguish humans from all other species?
Striding bipedalism

Tool use and versatility of hand use

Brain size and Power

dentition is Unusual among primates



gorilla, chimpanzee
hand use adapted for suspension and knuckle-walking
motor cortex
devoted to controlling hand and finger movements
Law of proper Mass (Jerison)
Brain Tissue is Energetically Expensive

new abilities are matched by new brain tissue

the trace or remains of an organism that lived long ago, most commonly preserved in sedimentary rock
Geological time scale
Pre Cambrian
Paleozoic(ancient life forms),
Mesozoic( age of reptiles),
Cenozoic(age of mammals)
Paleocene, Eocene, Miocene, Pliocene, Pleistocene, Holocene
Major Events in the history of Life
Origin of….

The Universe
Solar system and Earth
Life on Earth
Composite Cells

Ancestral to modern day lemurs
first primates show up
Lemur-Like Adapiforms
Primate evolution at Fayum site of Eygpt
A small early anthropoid with 3 pre-molars
larger anthropoid with 2 pre-molars
After the split from common ancestor shared with Chimpanzees
after the split from common ancestor, shared with humans
Labeled as an Ardipithecus Ramidus, found in Ethiopia in 1994, believed to be 4.4 million yrs old even older than lucy, said to be a female. part of hominin radiation
7 Genera
20 species of hominins are widely recognized

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