When was the red cross founded
What year was FDR’s court packing scheme
100,000 in 1934
the largest denomination of US money ever created
1893 Depression
Profits dwindled, businesses went bankrupt & slid into debt. Caused loss of business confidence. 20% of the workforce unemployed. Let to the Pullman strike
1933 (FDR)
Gold Standard abandoned & turn to silver
1973 Rehabilitation Act
An American piece of legislation that guaranteed certain rights to people with disabilities
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1992 – what went wrong (GB1)
GB1 American economy favored powerful not middle class, natioanal debt, employment fell, forced into low paying jobs, losing benefits of pensiosn & health, black & hispanic = hit hardest
3/5 Compromise
The South wanted slaves to count of citizens in order to increase the population, & therefore increasing the number of Southerners in the House of Representatives. The North argued that slaves were property & couldn’t be counted. In the end, slaved came to be counted as 3/5 of a person
a lasting constitution
American Revolution was different from the French Revolution in that it produced what
Monitor vs. Merrimack
Battle during the civil war showing wooden warships were now obsolete
1986 Berlin discotheque bombing
April 5; a terrorist attack on the West Berlin La Belle discotheque that was frequented by U.S. soldiers. Libya blamed after telex messages intercepted from Libya’s East Berlin embassy, & Reagan retaliated by ordering airstrikes against ripoli & Benghazi. At least 15 people died in the U.S. airstrikes on Libya – including a 15 – month – old girl said to have been adopted by leader Colonel Gaddafi – & more than 100 were injured.
1998, nearly resulting in a war in 1999
What year did India & Pakistan become nuclear powers
3. 9 billion
Approx. how many people live in Asia
30 years war
fought between the years 1618 & 1648, principally on the territory of today’s Germany, but also involving most of the major continental powers. It occurred for a number of reasons. Although it was from its outset a religious conflict between Protestants & Catholics, the self – preservation of the Habsburg dynasty was also a central motive
330 Million
Approx. how many people live in South America
4 Options towards Soviet Russia
roll back communism (aggression) – negotiations of many disagreements (diplomacy) – appeasement – containment/isolation of USSR
460 Million
Approx. how many people live in the E. U
7 years war
Which was resulted in the beginning of the modern state system in Europe
a plan for postwar world
What were the Fourteen Points
a prime minister selected by the diet
Under the post war constitution of Japan, who was the head of govt
ABC Powers
WW 1914 Argentina,Brazil,Chile offered to negotiate dispute between US & Mexico
Absolute Monarchy
where the king or queen has absolute power over all aspects of his/her subjects’ lives
The theory popular in France & other early modern European monarchies that royal power should be free of constitutional checks
Bahrain vs. Qatar
Dispute over the Hawar Islands
Cameroon vs. Nigeria
Conflict over the Bakasi Peninsula; the ICJ ruled in favor of Cameroon
Civil War
War between Northern & Southern States. South wanted to secede to preserve economic model, including slavery, & autonomy. North won
Crimean War
What event best illustrates geopolitics
Crimean war
28 March 1854 – 1856; between Imperial Russia on one side & an alliance of the United Kingdom, France, The Piedmont – Sardinia, & (to some extent) the Ottoman Empire on the other. The majority of the conflict took place on the Crimean peninsula in the Black Sea. Cigarettes were invented during the war. First war to have tactical use of railways. First war to have live reporting (via telegraph). Russia lost
Dirty War
War waged by the Argentine military (1976 – 1982) against leftist groups. Characterized by the use of illegal imprisonment, torture, & executions by the military
End of Cold War 1989 – 91
As Pres. George H. W. Bush stated a desire to integrate the Soviet Union into the community of nations, the Cold War ended when communist regimes collapsed across Eastern Europe & the Soviet Union disintegrated
English Civil War
civil war in England between the Parliamentarians and the Royalists under Charles I
english civil war, restoration, glorious revolution
What reflects the chronological order of events in English history
French & Indian War
a war in North America between France and Britain (both aided by indian tribes)
Gabon vs. Equatorial Guinea
Disputes over continental shelf & mineral deposits
Gulf War I 1990 – 91
In response to the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait, the U. S. built an international coalition to defend Saudi Arabia and, after UN approval, to eject Iraq from Kuwait through Operation Desert Storm
Hundred Years War
Series of campaigns over control of the throne of France, involving English & French royal families & French noble families. (1337 – 1453) France vs. England, France won, lasted 116 yrs – a series of conflicts
Iran – Iraq War
1980 – 1988: Saddam Hussein attempted to gain more land. The US backed Iran
Iran & Iraq (Gulf)
Dispute over access to the Gulf. In the Algiers Accord, Iraq gave up the territory to Iran
Israel vs. Lebanon
Israel has invaded Lebanon 3 times, most recently in 2006
Key Players of Mexican War
Fremont – “Pathfinder” California, Kearny – New Mexico, Winfield Scott – Vera Cruz to Mexico City (ended war), Zachary Taylor – Buena Vista
King George’s War
War between British & Spaniards on American soil
King Philip’s War
Bloodiest English – Native American conflict of the time. Leader of the Pokanokets, Metacomet, led attacks on several expanding colonist settlements. He formed an alliance with other tribes, but soon they were defeated due to lack of supplies
Mexican War
(1846 – 1848) A war between the U. S. & Mexico, resulting in the cession by Mexico of lands now constituting all or most of the states of California, Arizona, New Mexico, Nevada, Utah, & Colorado
National War Labor Board
Acted as a supreme court for labor cases. Did more harm than good when it tried to limit wages, which led to strikes
Nixon’s War on Inflation(RN),
(RN), 1971, no longer held long – held position against govt controls, now prices were frozen, dollar no longer valued as gold, it became floating dollar, federal jobs cuts
Oman vs. UAE
Dispute over islands in the strait of Hormuz
Opium War
War between Britain & the Qing Empire that was, in the British view, occasioned by the Qing govt’s refusal to permit the importation of opium into its territories. The victorious British imposed the one – sided Treaty of Nanking on China
Peloponnesian War
Conflict between Athenian & Spartan Alliances. The war was largely a consequence of Athenian imperialism. Possession of a naval empire allowed Athens to fight a war of attrition. Ultimately, Sparta prevailed because of Athenian errors/Persian
Pequot War
After Pequots attacked Puritan settlement, killing nine, the colonists responded by burning Pequot village, killing 400
Persian Gulf War
(GB1), 1991, a war fought between a coalition led by the U. S. & Iraq to free Kuwait from Iraqi invaders
Persian Wars
Conflicts between Greek city – states & the Persian Empire, ranging from the Ionian Revolt (499 – 494 B. C. E. ) through Darius’s punitive expedition that failed at Marathon. Chronicled by Herodotus. (131)
Philippine – American War
Fought to quell Filipino resistance to American control of the Philippine Islands. Filipino guerrilla soldiers finally gave up when their leader, Emilio Aguinaldo, was captured (1898 – 1902)
Phony War
The months following the collapse of Poland were known as the “phony war. “
Queen Anne’s War
British vs. French (1702 – 13)
Revolutionary War
War for American independence from Britain. Started with the Battle of Lexington & ended with the Battle of Concord. Americans aided by French
Russian Civil War
Russian event that preceded WWII & US – Soviet tensions
Russo – Japanese War
War between two foriegn powers that Roosevelt helped negiotate a peace treaty for, & recieved a Nobel Peacy Prize for his work
Seven Years’ War
War between Prussia & Britain on one side & Austria, France & Russia on the other. Prussia & Britian won. Britian got Canada, India. Fought also in US called the French & Indian War
Sino – Indian War
1962: Dispute over the Himalayan border between India & China
Sino – Japanese War
(August 1, 1894 – April 1895) Qing Dynasty China & Meiji Japan over control of Korea. The principal result was a shift in regional dominance in Asia from China to Japan
Sioux Wars
Series of clashes that insued as railroads intruded into Native American lands
Six Day War
Israel captured golan heights, West Bank & Sinai. Later traded Sinai back to Egypt in exchange for recognition
Six Tenants of Appeasement of War
War is caused by two parties, an aggressor & an appeaser – Deterrents are necessary b/c aggressors are present & deterrents will succeed – Credibility of a deterrent can only be demonstrated through capablility & the courage to use it – Confrontati
Soviet – Finnish War
1939 – 40 – following the signing of the German – Soviet Nonaggression Pact. When Finland refused to grant the Soviets a naval base & other concessions, Soviet troops attacked on several fronts in November 1939. A peace treaty in March 1940 ceded western Karelia to Russia & allowed construction of a Soviet naval base on the Hanko peninsula
Spanish America War
Between Spain & the US. US won, got Philippines & puerto rico & permitted american intervention in the caribean
Spanish Civil War
War Between authoritarian/military leaders (facists) vs. Communist. facist won
Thirty Years War was triggered by
Rebellion of Czech protestants against Catholic Ferdinand
Vietnam War
1954 – 1975. North tried to take over th South with help of Viet Cong. Eisenhower & Kenedy sent advisors, Johnson sent half a million troops. Tet offensive & My Lai massacre severe set back. Nixon & Kissinger negotiated cease fire & withdrawl. Lead to severe division of American society at home
War of 1812
Like second war of independence. Fought over alleged violations of American shipping rights. American soldiers attacked Canada unsuccessfully, & Britain burned the White House. Most famous battle was Battle of New Orleans led by Andrew Jackson (after peace had been signed, but army not informed)
War on Drugs
(GB1), William Bennett as there was a dramatic increase in drug use, & demand for illegal drugs, especially “crack” cocaine, political figures of both parties spoke heatedly about the need for a “war on drugs”, but govt efforts to stop drug imports & reduce demand had little effect
Wars of the Roses
struggle for the English throne (1455 – 1485) between the house of York (white rose) and the house of Lancaster (red rose) ending with the accession of the Tudor monarch Henry VII
What event in Sarajevo ignited the Great War
the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand & his wife Sophie
What event led to the War of the Spanish Succession
Charles II made Louis XIV’s grandson his heir, added to the Bourbon power
Yom Kippur War
1973: Egypt & Syria attacked Israel. No changes in territory
Glorious Revolution of England
Bloodless revolution in England that overthrew King James II & replaced him with William & Mary. Ended Dominion of England, Massachusetts became a royal colony, & it inspired the Americans for their own revolution
Revolutions of 1848
Democratic & nationalist revolutions that swept across Europe. The monarchy in France was overthrown. In Germany, Austria, Italy, & Hungary the revolutions failed
England’s Glorious Revolution
A turning point in English constitutional history; parliament offers a constitutional monarchy to William of Orange and Mary in 1689 to replace the Stuart line of kings.
battle which was the “turning point” in the Revolutionary War
Russian revolution
Overthrow of the Czar that brought Communists to poer under Lenin
French middle class had increased power
What was the immediate results of the French Revolution in 1789
We are here Lafayette
Words spoken by American army officer when US forces arrived in France in WWI. Refers to repaying debt to Lafayette’s for helping Americans in Revolutionary war
French revolution
1789 – 1799
Venezuelan Crisis (vs. Britain)
1902 – 1903 – In December & January 1902 – 1903, “in an attempt to force payments on debts owed their nationals, Britain & Germany seized Venezuelan gunboats, bombarded some of its forts, & blockaded five ports,” according to Dallek. A public outcry against European intervention in Latin America convinced Teddy Roosevelt that he should try to prevent further interventions, leading eventually to the Roosevelt Corollary, announced in December 1904
Communist takeover of Ethiopia
1977 – Lt. Col. Mengistu Haile Mariam became head of the PMAC, which soon diverted from its announced socialist course. A popular movement, the Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Party, began a campaign of urban guerrilla activity that was contained by govt – organized urban militias in 1977. Under the Mengistu regime, thousands of political opponents were purged, property was confiscated, & defense spending was greatly increased
Communist takeover of Grenada
1979 – a successful, bloodless coup established the People’s Revolutionary govt (PRG) under Prime Minister Maurice Bishop. This govt’s Marxist leanings & favorable stance toward Cuba & the Soviet Union strained relations with the U. S. & other nations in the region. A general election held in 1984, reestablished democratic govt, with Herbert Blaize as prime minister
Communist takeover of Angola
Angola independence in 1975 & the MPLA assumed control of the govt in Luanda; Agostinho Neto became pres. The FNLA & UNITA proclaimed a coaliton govt in Nova Lisboa but by early 1976 the MPLA had gained control of the whole country. When Neto died in 1979, Jose Eduardo dos Santos succeeded him as pres. In the 1970s & 80s the MPLA govt received large amounts of aid from Cuba & the Soviet Union, while the U. S. supported first the FNLA & then UNITA
Communist takeover of Mozambique
group of white rebels attempted to seize control of the Mozambique govt but were quickly subdued by Portuguese & Frelimo troops. increased racial violence erupted, there was an exodus of Europeans from Mozambique. As the Portuguese left, they took their valuable skills & machinery, which had an adverse effect on the economy. Frelimo established a single – party Marxist state, nationalized all industry, & abolished private land ownership. Frelimo also instituted health & education reforms
Communist takeover of Nicaragua
1981 – Nicaragua was taken over by the Sandinista party after a popular revolt. The Sandinistas were then opposed by armed insurgents, the U. S. – backed Contras, from 1981. The Sandinista govt nationalized several sectors of the economy but lost national elections in 1990. The new govt reprivatized many public enterprises. Sandinista leader Daniel Ortega returned to power after winning the presidential election of 2006
Zoot suit riots
a series of riots that erupted in LA during WWII, between sailors & soldiers stationed in the city & Mexican American youth gangs headed by pachucos, recognized because of the zoot suits they favored. racially charged atmosphere of Los Angeles. In response Eleanor Roosevelt wrote in her weekly column about the problems faced by the Mexican American community as a result of racism in the U. S
Burlingame Treaty
The Burlingame Treaty, between the U. S. & China, amended the Treaty of Tientsin & established formal friendly relations between the two countries, with the U. S. granting China Most Favored Nation status. It was ratified in 1868. Importantly, Chinese immigration to the U. S. was encouraged. The treaty was reversed in 1882 by the Chinese Exclusion Act
CENTO – Central Treaty Organization
1955: Mutual – security organization, originally composed of Turkey, Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, & Britain. formed to counter the threat of Soviet expansion into the Middle East. never very effective. Iraq withdrew after its anti – Soviet monarchy was overthrown in 1959. U. S. became an associate member, & headquarters were moved to Ankara, Tur. After the fall of Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi in 1979, Iran withdrew & CENTO was dissolved
Chemical Weapons Convention
1997. prohibits all development, production, acquisition, stockpiling, transfer & use of chemical weapons. It imposes reporting requirements, as well as inspections on chemical weapons sites located inside participating states. In 2006, 179 states were parties to the Convention
Clayton Bulwar Treaty
(MF) 1850, Both U. S. & England wanted to build a Panama Canal. This said that if either of us built it, we’d get the builder’s permission to use it & would share the profits
Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty
1996, bans all nuclear weapons tests. 170 state members. Seen as an important step toward reducing the proliferation of nuclear weapons capabilities & promoting progress toward the ideal of nuclear disarmament, the CTBT provides for on – site inspections & periodic reporting by participating states
Convention Against Torture
1987, places an absolute prohibition on the use of torture as state policy. requires to “take effective legislative, administrative, judicial or other measures to prevent acts of torture in any territory under its jurisdiction”. the Convention also prohibits returning a person to a state in circumstances where he or she is likely to be tortured
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women
1979, Women’s Bill of Rights, gender equity in work places, home and reproductive rights
Convention on the Organization for Economic Cooperation & Development (OECD Convention)
1961 comprising 30 member countries, dedicated to promoting increased economic development among its members & with 70 partner countries. It produces international agreements, standards & regulations that promote guidelines to facilitate economic development, trade & good governance. The OECD also publishes authoritative statistics & documents on macroeconomics, education, development & technology issues
Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production & Transfer of Anti – Personnel Mines & on Their Destruction (1997 Mine Ban Treaty)
1999; prohibits the production, use & transfer of antipersonnel landmines, & calls on parties to eliminate existing stockpiles & take measures to remove existing landmines from affected countries. called on to raise awareness about mines & ensure that mine victims are cared for, rehabilitated & reintegrated into their communities. more than 150 signatories by 2006. The U. S. is not a party, concerns about its impact on the landmines that defend South Korea from a possible attack from the North
Convention on the Punishment & Prevention of Genocide
1948, states that genocide “. is a crime under international law which they undertake to prevent & to punish. ” The treaty defines genocide as actions “. committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group. ” Article III specifically outlines those international crimes that include genocide, such as genocide itself, conspiracy to commit genocide, direct & public incitement to commit genocide, the attempt to commit genocide & complicity in genocide
Convention on the Rights of the Child
1990, is one of the primary human rights treaties. requires States Parties to take “all appropriate measures to ensure that the child is protected against all forms of discrimination or punishment on the basis of the status, activities, expressed opinions, or beliefs of the child’s parents. “protects children’s’ rights through the juvenile justice system & calls for states to adhere to policies that accord with the best interests of children. has been ratified by 192 countries. The U. S. is not a party
Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees
1954, establishes the basic rights of protection for refugees who are forced to leave their country of origin out of a well – founded fear of persecution. guarantees rights to those seeking asylum & states that refugees will not be forcibly returned to their state of origin as long as the threat of persecution continues. 140 parties as of 2006. U. S. is not a state party, is a party to its Protocol, which incorporates all provisions subject to some limitations
First geneva convention last
1864. 1949. These conventions set norms for international law
Florida Purchase Treaty
1819 – Also known as the Adams – Onis Treaty. Spain sold Florida to the U. S. & the U. S. gave up its claims to Texas. Drawn up by John Quincy Adams
Hague Conference
(TR) 1899 (first under McKinley) conference at which the Great Powers discussed arms reduction, demonstrated internationalism
Hague Conventions
1899 & 1907 conventions were, along with the Geneva Conventions, among the first formal statements of the laws of war & war crimes in the nascent body of international law
Hay Bunau Varillia Treaty
(TR) Panama allowed US a 10 mile strip of land, work down under the army of Colonel Gorgas & direction under Colonel Goethals. U. S. garantee of independence for newly created Republic of Panama
Hay Pauncefote Treaty
(TR) negotiations with Colombia, six mile strip of land in Panama, $10 million, US could dig canal without British involvement
How did the Treaty of Versailles affect postwar Germany
it left a legacy of bitterness in the hearts of the German people
Indus River Treaty
States that the Indus & all tributaries must flow unblocked to the ocean
Intermidate Nuclear Forces Treaty
(RR), 1987, Reagan & Gorbachev signed treaty to eliminate Soviet & American medium range nuclear missiles, Soviet economy cut back on military, treaty was gain for the West, more critical problem was nuclear testing, first joint reduction, on site inspection for the first time
International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination
1969; one of the primary international human rights treaties, provides that states parties shall avoid the practice or sponsorship of racial discrimination which has the effect of nullifying or impairing the exercise of basic human rights in any field of public life. establishes the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination to monitor & report on state compliance. 170 state parties in 2006
Jay Treaty
Treaty in which Britain agreed to evacuate its posts on the US western frontier (1794)
Law of the Sea Convention
International agreement that sets rules for the use of the world’s oceans, which cover 70 percent of the Earth’s surface.
Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, 1963
first major – power agreement regulating atomic weapons testing, banned explosions in the atmosphere, in outer space & under water
London Naval Treaty
In 1930, the Washington Naval Treaty has to be re – nogotiated. The Japanese try to get a 10:10:7 ratio but instead onl get a 10:10:6. They still had naval dominace in Western Pacific but were denounced as betraying natonal interests. The Prime minister was assinated after this.
Maastricht Treaty
The most significant agreement in the recent history of the EU – signed by leaders of the EU’s 12 member countries in 1991 & outlines steps toward further political – economic integration
National convention
A meeting of party delegates elected in state primaries, caucuses, or conventions that is held every four years. Its primary purpose is to nominate presidential & vice – presidential candidates & to ratify a campaign platform
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
(HT) 1949, created in 1949 organization whose members include the US, Canada, most western european nations & turkey all of whom agreedd to combine military forces & to treat a war against one as a war against one as a war against all
Northern China
Ethnic conflicts
Norway vs. Russia
Continental shelf dispute, Norway claims fishing areas around Svalbard Islands
Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty of 1968
Agreement that stopped & monitored the spread of nuclear weapons to countries who did not have the bomb
Oregon Treaty 1846
with Great Britain extended U. S. sole dominion to the Pacific
Pact of Paris (Kellog – Briand Treaty)
June 1927 – Pact condemning “recourse to war for the solution of international controversies. ” Aristide Briand foreign minister of France, proposed to the U. S. govt a treaty outlawing war between the two countries. Frank B. Kellogg, the U. S. Secretary of State, returned a proposal for a general pact against war, & after prolonged negotiations the Pact of Paris was signed by 15 nations
Panama Canal Treaty
(JEC), decision whether extend for a considerable period or exterminate, decided the latter since he didn’t want bitter relations with Panama
Pinckney Treaty
Treaty with Spain which opened trade & redefined Florida boundary (1795)
Portsmouth Treaty
(TR) 1905, Roosevelt & representatives from Russia & Japan work out treaty, Japan takes over Korea, Roosevelt wins Nobel Peace Prize
Senate Rejects Versailles Treaty
1919 – Republican Majority Leader & Foreign Relations Committee Chairman Henry Cabot Lodge led opposition to the aspect of Wilson’s League of Nations proposal that would commit the U. S. to the defense of other members of the League, but Lodge did not oppose the League outright. With Wilson’s refusal to compromise, the Senate overwhelmingly rejected the Treaty by wide margins in two votes on November 19
South Ossetia
Ossetia is split between Russia (north) & Georgia (south). Many ethnic Russians live in South Ossetia
Southeast Asia Treaty Organization
(DDE), A regional defense pact pulled together by Dulles to prevent the “fall” to communism of South Vietnam, Laos, & Cambodia
They had signed the Treaty of Versailles
Why did millions of Germans turn against the leaders of the Weimar Repulblic
a formal public agreement between the U. S. & one or more nations that must be approved by two thirds of the Senate
Treaty of Alliance with France, 1778
engineered by Benjamin Franklin, enabled the fledgling republic to continue its struggle for independence
Treaty of Brest – litovsk
signed between russia & germany to stop wwI for them, Russia gave Germany finland, poland, ukraine, & baltic proividences
Treaty of Ghent
Treaty that ended the War of 1812 & maintained prewar conditions
Treaty Of Grenville
After their defeat at the Battle of the Fallen Timbers in 1794, 12 Native American tribes signed the Treaty of Grenville, which cleared the Ohio territory of tribes & opened it up to U. S. settlement
Treaty of Guadalupe – Hidalgo
Ended Mexican War – US received Texas (with Rio Grande border) & other states – US paid Mexico $15 million dollars
Treaty of Nanking
Treaty that concluded the Opium War. It awarded Britain a large indemnity from the Qing Empire, denied the Qing govt tariff control over some of its own borders, opened additional ports of residence to Britons, & ceded Hong Kong to Britain. (685)
Treaty of Paris 1259
Treaty of Paris (1259) – between Henry III of England & Louis IX of France
Treaty of Paris 1763
Ended French & Indian War
Treaty of Paris 1782
The British recognized the independence of the U. S. It granted boundaries, which stretched from the Mississippi on the west, to the Great Lakes on the north, & to Spanish Florida on the south. The Yankees retained a share of Newfoundland
Treaty of Paris 1783
Great Britain recognized American independence & control over western lands as far as the Mississippi
Treaty of Paris 1810
Treaty of Paris (1810) – ended war between France & Sweden
Treaty of Paris 1814
Treaty of Paris (1814) – ended war between France & the Sixth Coalition
Treaty of Paris 1815
Treaty of Paris (1815) – followed defeat of Napoleon at Waterloo
Treaty of Paris 1856
Treaty of Paris (1856) or Congress of Paris – signed March 30 – ended Crimean War
Treaty of Paris 1898
Treaty of Paris (1898) – ended Spanish – American War
Treaty of Paris 1920
Treaty of Paris (1920) – united Bessarabia & Romania
Treaty of Paris 1947
Paris Peace Treaties, 1947 between the WWII Allies & Bulgaria, Hungary, Italy, Romania & Finland
Treaty of Paris 1951
Treaty of Paris (1951) – established European Coal & Steel Community
Treaty of Portsmouth
Ended Russo – Japanese War. (1905)
Treaty of Portsmouth
1905 – Treaty negotiated by Roosevelt in Portsmouth, New Hampshire between Russia & Japan, ending the Russo – Japanese War. Key was that it preserved the “Open Door” to China, a U. S. policy to allow free trade with that country
Treaty of San Francisco
also known as the Treaty of Peace with Japan, was signed on September 8th, 1951 and came into effect on April 28th, 1952; officially ended WWII and provided compensation to victims of Japanese aggression
Treaty of San Lorenzo
Signed with Spain in 1795, the Treaty of San Lorenzo – also known as Pinckney’s Treaty – gave the U. S. unrestricted access to the Mississippi River & established the border between the U. S. & Spanish Florida
Treaty of Tientsin
Treaty signed in Tianjin in June 1858, ending the first part of the Second Opium War (1856 – 1860). France, UK, Russia, & the U. S. were party. These treaties opened eleven more Chinese ports to the foreigners, permitted foreign legations in Beijing, allow Christian missionary activity, & legalised the import of opium. They were ratified by the Emperor of China in the Beijing Convention in 1860, after the end of the war
Treaty Ports
Cities opened to foreign residents as a result of the forced treaties between the Qing Empire & foreign signatories. In the treaty ports, foreigners enjoyed extraterritoriality
UN Conference on Trade & Development (UNCTAD)
A structure established in 1964 to promote third world development through various trade proposals
UN Convention on the Law of the Sea
1. territorial waters: 12 nautical miles 2. EEZ: 200 n. m. 350 with extension of continental shelf. 3. Rights of passage through straits & territorial waters 4. right of innocent passage 5. freedom of scientific research
UN Convention on the Prevention & Punishment of Crimes Against Internationally Protected Persons, Including Diplomatic Agents
1977, adopted in response to an increase in the number of kidnappings & attacks on diplomats, state officials & representatives of international organizations, & provides for enhanced criminal penalties for such crimes. It requires states to adopt strict national laws against attacks on diplomats & to either try perpetrators or agree to their extradition
US – Japanese Security Treaty
A bilateral alliance between the U. S. & Japan, created in 1951 against the potential Soviet threat to Japan. The U. S. maintains troops in Japan & is committed to defend Japan if attacked, & Japan pays the U. S. to offset about half the cost of maintaining the troops
The U. S. Agency for International Development (or USAID) is the US govt organization responsible for most non – military foreign aid. An independent federal agency, it receives overall foreign policy guidance from the US Secretary of State
Vienna Convention on Consular Relations
requires notification of consular officials when a foreign national is arrested. It enables the U.S. Embassy to help find a lawyer and monitor the prosecution of Americans who face criminal punishment in foreign countries.
Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations
1961, establishes the rights, privileges & roles of a diplomatic officer of a sending state in a host state. covers such areas as diplomatic immunity, exemptions from local, state & federal taxes, & the establishment of diplomatic posts. Essentially, the Convention establishes a framework for the protection of each state’s sovereignty in diplomatic relations
Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties
codifies customary international law with regard to the entry, modification, revocation & enforcement of international agreements. It entered into force in 1980. The U. S. is not a party but does recognize its principles as a restatement of customary international law
Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties Between States & International Organizations or Between International Organizations
1986, but has not yet entered into force. It sets forth the rules for the agreements, modifications & revocations of treaties between states & international organizations. This treaty therefore acts in parallel with the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties
Webster – Ashburton Treaty 1842
with Great Britain delimited northeastern U. S. (Maine) boundary
Webster Ashburton Treaty
(JT), followed by Aroostook War, 1842 between the US & the Brits, settled boundry disputes in the North West, fixed most borders between US & Canada, talked about slavery & excredition
What impact did the Treaty of Brest – Litovsk have on Germany
it allowed Germany to focus all their efforts on the Western front
What was the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO)
the Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty or the Manila Pact, was an international organisation for defence collaboration established on September 8, 1954. The organization’s headquarters was located in Bangkok, Thailand. It was dissolved in 1977. Members: Australia, France, New Zealand, Pakistan, Philippines, Thailand, Great Britain, U. S
1970. U. S. U. K. China, Russia, France. Today Israel, Pakistan, & India
What year did the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty take effect What countries had nues then & now
Cold War Renewed
(RR), 1985, Reagan believe SALT II Treaty favored Soviet Union – evil, soon Mikhail Gorbachev party leadership, Reagan’s view caused anxieties among America’s Western European allies, antinuclear demonstrations in Europe start, the Yuri Andropov proposed arms reduction that he knew Reagan would reject, he wanted to corrupt Europe’s & US’s relations, but that didn’t really work
What was the first european empire after the fall of the Romans
Charlemagne, who ruled a very weak, decentralized empire, with no taxes. After his death, the empire was split under the treaty of Verdun, & eventually dissolved
What was the goal of Hitler’s final solution
It was genocide of people the Nazis considered inferior
What was the Great Turkish War
a series of conflicts between the Ottoman Empire & European powers at the time during the second half of the 17th century. It marked the end of the Ottoman incursion into Europe. 1683 – 1699. The Ottomans ceded most of Hungary, Transylvania & Slavonia to Austria while Podolia passed to Poland. Most of Dalmatia passed to Venice, along with the Morea
What was the main reson for the Crimean War
Russia wanted land on the Black Sea to gain access to the Mediterranean
What was the Organisation of African Unity
May 25, 1963 – July 9, 2002 replaced by the African Union. Its intended purpose was to promote the unity & solidarity of the African States & act as a collective voice for the continent. dedicated to the eradication of colonialism & established a Liberation Committee to aid independence movements
What was the significance of the Atlantic Charter both during & after the war
it upheld rights of free trade & choice of govt, & it became the plan for postwar peace
When did the 100 years war take place
Towards the end of the middle ages between France & England
When did the Black Plague affect europe
The mid to late 14th century, killing 1/4 of europe
When did the Nuremburg Trials take place
1945 – 1946. They were the first international war crimes trials
When did the US enter WWI
1918. The armistice was on Nov. 11 of the same year
A people of modern South Africa whom King Shaka united beginning in 1818
Traety of Rapallo
1920 – treaty between Italy & the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, issued to solve the dispute over some territories in current Slovenia & Croatia. Tension arose at the end of WWI, when the Empire of Austria – Hungary dissolved & Italy wanted to implement the borders agreed upon in the London Pact. 1922
Nuclear Test Ban Treaty of 1963
Agreement that banned atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons
Eleanor of Aquitane
1122 – 1204 liberally supported romantic poets & entertainers. The most celebrated woman of her time supporting chivalry, good manners, refinement, & romantic love
Henry the Navigator
1394 – 1460 Portuguese prince who promoted the study of navigation & directed voyages of exploration down the western coast of Africa
Peter the Great
1672 – 1725 Russian tsar r. 1689 – 1725. He enthusiastically introduced Western languages & technologies to the Russian elite, moving the capital from Moscow to the new city of St. Petersburg
1694 – 1778. A French philosophe. Put in jail twice by Louis XV. Critical of Church & aristocracy. Wrote Candide
Elizabeth I
16th – 17th century queen of England during Renaissance. Shakespere & defeat of the Spanish Armada
Eli Whitney
1798 – He developed the cotton gin, a machine which could separate cotton from its seeds. This invention made cotton a profitable crop of great value to the Southern economy. It also reinforced the importance of slavery in the economy of the South
Ralph Waldo Emerson
1803 – 1882 a famous American essayist & one of America’s most influential thinkers & writers. First expressed the philosophy of Transcendentalism in his essay Nature. Emerson made a living as a popular lecturer in New England & the rest of the country outside of the south
Nathaniel Hawthorne
1804 – 1864 a 19th century American novelist & short story writer. He is seen as a key figure in the development of American literature. Hawthorne is best – known today for his many short stories & The Scarlet Letter. Much of Hawthorne’s work is set in colonial New England, & many of his short stories have been read as moral allegories influenced by his Puritan background
William Lloyd Garrison
1805 – 1879 A prominent white abolitionist, journalist & social reformer. He is best known as the editor of the radical abolitionist newspaper, The Liberator, & as one of the founders of the American Anti – Slavery Society. After the abolition of slavery, he continued working on other reform movements, especially temperance & women’s suffrage
Horace Greeley
1811 – 1872 an American newspaper editor, reformer & politician. His New York Tribune was the most influential newspaper of the period 1840 – 1870. Greeley used it to promote the Whig & Republican parties. “Go West, Young Man!” he advised ambitious youth. Champion of the workingman, he attacked monopolies of all sorts & rejected land grants to railroads. Fought the extension of slavery
Harriet Beecher Stowe
1811 – 1896 an abolitionist, & writer of more than 10 books, the most famous being Uncle Tom’s Cabin which describes life in slavery
Henry Ward Beecher
1813 – 1887 Theologically liberal American Congregationalist clergyman & reformer, & author. One of his elder sisters was Harriet Beecher Stowe, author of Uncle Tom’s Cabin. An advocate of women’s suffrage & for temperance, & a foe of slavery, he bought guns to support Bleeding Kansas
Herman Melville
1819 – 1891 an American novelist, essayist, & poet. During his lifetime his early novels were popular, but his popularity declined later in his life. By the time of his death he had nearly been forgotten, but his masterpiece, Moby – Dick, was “rediscovered” in the 20th century. His short story “Bartleby the Scrivener” is among his most important pieces because It has been considered a precursor to Existentialist & Absurdist literature
James Whistler
1834 – 1903 American – born, British based painter & etcher. Most famous work is Whistler’s Mother. Whistler’s belief that art should concentrate on the arrangement of colors led many critics to see his work as a precursor of abstract art
Winslow Homer
1836 – 1910 an American landscape painter. By 1857 his freelance illustration career was underway & he contributed to magazines such as Ballou’s Pictorial & Harper’s Weekly. His works, mostly engravings, are characterized by clean outlines, simplified forms, dramatic contrast of light & dark, & lively figure groupings
William Harry Harrison
1841, Whig Party, issue = avoided banking, tariff, internal improvments, slavery, loose vs strict construction, died
John Slidell
1845 – He went to Mexico to pay for disputed Texas & California land. But the Mexican govt was still angry about the annexation of Texas & refused to talk to him
John Singer Sargent
1856 – 1925 A painter known for his portraits. He is usually thought of as an American artist, although he lived most of his life in Europe. Sargent’s portraits subtly capture the individuality & personality of the sitters. In a time when the art world was focused on impressionism & emphasizing artistic individuality, Sargent emphasized his own form of Realism & regularly did commissioned portraits of the wealthy
Mark Rothko
1903 – 1970 Russian – born American Jewish painter who is often classified as an abstract expressionist. Among the founders of the New York School, his work concentrated on basic emotions, often filling the canvas with very few, but intense colours, using little immediately – apparent detail. He killed himself
Jackson Pollack
1912 – 1956 An influential American artist & a major force in the abstract expressionism movement. Pollock’s style changed dramatically beginning in 1947. Died of car crash in 1956
Henry Ford
1913 – Ford developed the mass – produced Model – T car, which sold at an affordable price. It pioneered the use of the assembly line. Also greatly increased his workers wages & instituted many modern concepts of regular work hours & job benefits. Sloan, an American industrialist, helped found project
Pacho Villa
1916 – Villa attacked Columbus, New Mexico & Pershing was directed to follow him into Mexico. Pershing met with resistance & eventually left without finding Pancho Villa
William Jennings Bryan
3 – time candidate for pres. for the Democratic Party, nominated because of support from the Populist Party. He never won, but was the most important Populist in American history. He later served as Woodrow Wilson’s Secretary of State (1913 – 1915)
St. Augustine
354 – 430CE bishop of North Africa city of Hippo. Put Platonist, Manichaeanistc, & Hellenistic teachings into Christianity
Lincoln Steffens
TR U. S. journalist who exposes in 1906 started an era of muckraking journalism 1866 – 1936
John Foster Dulles
Secretary of State under Eisenhower from 1953 to 1959. He was a significant figure in the early Cold War era, advocating an aggressive stance against communism around the world. He advocated support of the French in their war against the Viet Minh in Indochina & famously refused to shake the hand of Zhou Enlai at the Geneva Conference in 1954
William Seward
Secretary of State under Lincoln & Andrew Johnson. Best known for purchase of Alaska from Russia in 1967 for seven million dollars
George Bancroft
secretary of the navy who helped to found the Naval Academy at Annapolis in 1845; he published a history of the US to 1789 from 1834 to 1876; “Father of American History”
Mata Hari
Seductive female Double Agent of France & Germany in WWI
D. W. Griffith
Produced the move “The Birth of Nations” in 1915 which glorified the KK of Reconstuction days & defamed both blacks & Northern carpetbaggers
A. Mitchell Palmer
He was chosen to round up immigrants that were questionably communists, & he ended up rounding up about 6000 people. `
A. Philip Randolph
Pres. of the Brotherhood of Car Porters & a Black labor leader, in 1941 he arranged a march on Washington to end racial discrimination
Aaron Copland
American composer who used jazz & folk tunes in his composition. His work is very tonal & consonant
Fransisco Pizarro
Spanish explorer who led the conquest of the Inca Empire of Peru in 1531 – 1533
Frederick Douglass
An escaped slave who became a prominent speaker for Abolitionist movement. leader of antislavery, bought freedom, wrote North Star, book on slavery, free & equal
Frederick Jackson Turner
America’s most famous historian, observed how settling westward made Americans adventurous
Frederick Jackson Turner/”Significance of the Frontier in American History”
Declared America no longer had a frontier, changed American psyche completely. (1893)
Frederick W. Taylor
Father of Scientific Mgmt
Fredrick Nietesche
Athiest German philosopher, known as a existentialist
Henan Curfs
Led to Expeditions to Mexico in 1519 defeated Aztec Empire & established Spanish colonial rule
Henri Fayol
Classical Approach, Functions of Mgmt, 14 Principles of Mgmt, “Father of Modern Mgmt”
Henry Adams
He was a african american born slave but now freedman. Worked for his boss only received portion of food harvested. He was forced to sign work contract, pass was needed to travel, was stopped & beaten, must call his boss mister, he was robbed, can’t visit wife, or children after left
Henry Cabot Lodge
Lodge was against the League of Nations, so he packed the foreign relations committee with critics & was successful in convincing the Senate to reject the treaty
Henry Clay
Helped orchestrate the Missouri Compromise & the Compromise of 1850 to hold the Union together
Henry David Thoreau
poet, naturalist, from Massachussets, lived during the 19th century, loved the outdoors & sought God/the Divine in nature
Henry Kissinger
Secretary of State to Nixon, opened diplomatic relations with China. Helped negotiate end of Vietnam war. Won Nobel prize in 1973
Henry L. Gantt
Scientific Mgmt, Gantt Charts for Scheduling
Henry L. Stimson & Manchuria
1932 – Japan’s seizure of Manchuria brought this pronouncement by Hoover’s Secretary of State, Henry Stimson, that the U. S. would not recognize any changes to China’s territory, nor any impairment of China’s sovereignty
Henry Mintzberg
Mangerial Roles – Interpersonal, Informational, Decisional
Henry VIII
English king who made himself head of the Church of England when Pope would not recognize his divorce. Since then, England has been Protestant
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
a poet who wrote “Evangeline,” “The Song of Hiawatha,” & “The Courtship of Miles Standish;” he was the only American poet to be honored in the Poet’s Corner of Westminster Abbey
Hepburn Act
TR 1906, Gives the ICC the power to set maximum railroad rates, finally giving the agency enforcement power
Herbert Simon
adminstrative man model of decision – making; 3 phases of decision making (Nobel prize winner)
Herbert Spencer
He pioneered the field of social darwinism by applying Darwin’s ideas to human behavior
Hermann Goering
Head of luftwaffe during Battle of Britain
Hernando Cortes
Spanish explorer & conquistador who led the conquest of Aztec Mexico in 1519 – 1521 for Spain
Greek scholar, nickname was the “father of history”, wrote “The Histories” (about Persian War vs. Greek city states)
Stephen Langton
archbishop of Canterbury during late 1100s
Thomas Becket
Archbishop of Canterbury. Defended Church against interference from the King. Murdered
David Lloyd George
PM of Britain at end of WWI. Wanted to punish Germany in Treaty of Versailles
poet who wrote the Iliad & the Odyssey
Niccolo Machiabelli
Wrote “the prince” which increased how to take & maintain power
Thomas Paine
Wrote Common Sense & American Crisis, urging American independence
Dante Alighieri
wrote Divine Comedy (1313 – 1321), it describes the poets journey through hell, purgatory, & heaven
Ida Tarbell
Wrote History of the Standard Oil Company in 1904 which exposed the monpolistic practices of the Standard Oil Company. Strengthened the movement for outlawing monopolies. A muckraker novel
wrote The Art of Love
Giovanni Boccacio
wrote the Decameron, recounts how a group of young Florentines fled during the Black Death
Wrote the plays Oedipus the King & Antigone, he introduced the third actor into his plays
Thomas More
Wrote Utopia. Would not recognize Henry VIII as head of Chruch in England. Was beheaded for this, & later made a Saint
Charlotte Gilman
Wrote Women & Economics (1898), a plea for female economic independence. The vote alone is not enough. Her thinking inspired feminists, especially in 70s & 80s
most famous Latin poet
Emerson & Thoreau
Two transcendentalist authors. Emerson – Poet, philosopher, “The American Scholar. ” Thoreau – Poet, mystic, “Walden: Or Life in the Woods. “
Sapphos of Lesbos
a female lyrical poet
English banking family the financed Britian’s efforts against Napolean. Still functioning today
English dissenters who broke from Church of England, preache a doctrine of pacificism, inner divinity, and social equity, under William Penn they founded Pennsylvania
Captain James Cook
English explorer of Australia, New Zealand Hawaii, antarctica & West Coast of North America
Sir Walter Raleigh
English explorer to americas, introduced tobacco & potato from American to England
Josiah Wedgwood
English industrialist whose pottery works were the first to produce fine – quality pottery by industrial methods
Richard Arkwright
English inventor & entrepreneur who became the wealthiest & most successful textile manufacturer of the early Industrial Revolution. He invented the water frame, a machine that, with minimal human supervision, could spin several threads at once. (604)
Richard the Lion – Hearted
English King who fought in the Crusades. Robin Hood was loyal to him
Edward 1
English monarch, issued the Statues of Realm (1301), it set a precedent for changing law by legislation rather than administrative decision
Charles Darwin
English naturalist. He studied the plants & animals of South America & the Pacific islands, & in his book On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection (1859) set forth his theory of evolution
Edmund Burke
English politician who supported American revolutionary war, but opposed French Revolution
English Protestant dissenters who believed that God predestined souls to heaven or hell before birth. They founded Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1629
English will never relinquish this piece of Spain
Josiah Strong
Enivisioned a “final competition of races,” in which the Anglo – Saxons would emerge victorious. In the book Our Country, Strong argued that the American country & people were superior because they were Anglo – Saxon. Helped write the Yellow Press
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Essayist, poet. A leading transcendentalist, emphasizing freedom & self – reliance in essays which still make him a force today. He had an international reputation as a first – rate poet. He spoke & wrote many works on the behalf of the Abolitionists
Gwendolyn Brooks
used poetry to reflect her own personal experiences as a black woman, also to appeal to urban black readers, lived in chicago and extremely involved with civil rights movement
Edward Teller
was a Hungarian – born America nuclear physicist, known colloquially as “the father of the hydrogen bomb” early member of the Manhattan Project charged with developing the first atomic bombs
Victor L. Berger
was a Jewish American U. S. politician & a founding member of the Socialist Party of America. In 1919 he was convicted of violating the Espionage Act & twice denied a seat in the House of Representatives though elected repeatedly
Carl Sandberg
was an American poet, historian, novelist, balladeer & folklorist. Swedish parents H. L. Mencken called Carl Sandburg “dubitably an American in every pulse – beat. ” He was a successful journalist, poet, historian, biographer, & autobiographer. won two Pulitzer Prizes, one for his biography of Abraham Lincoln & one for his collection The Complete Poems of Carl Sandburg
Eugene McCarthy
Was challenging Johnson & had a good chance of winning until Robert Kennedy decided to run
Medgar Evers
Was shot by a white man the night of Kennedy’s television address
George Dewey
Was the Commander of the US Asiatic Squadron in Hong Kong when he was ordered to go to the Phillipines in the event of a war. He was victorious over an attacking Spanish fleet but was unable to continue battle on land due to insufficient numbers & had to wait for backup to slowly assemble in America
Samuel Gompers
was the long – time leader of the American Federation of Labor who helped define the structure & the economic & political goals of the American labor movement. Founded the AFL in 1886. He was influenced by the writings of Marx
Charles A. Beard
was, with Frederick Jackson Turner, the most influential American historian of the early 20th century. He supported the new deal
Cecil Rhodes Asante
British entrepreneur & politician involved in the expansion of the British Empire from South Africa into Central Africa. The colonies of Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) & Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia) were named after him
Charles Cornwallis
British general during the revolutionary war, who surrendered to Washington at the Battle of Yorktown
William Pitt
British secretary of state during the French & Indian War. He brought the British/colonial army under tight British control & started drafting colonists, which led to riots
Rudyard Kipling
British writer, wrote Jungle Book
Charles Martel
Charles “The Hammer” Martel this Frank established the Carolingian Empire & defeated the Gaul’s in the Battle of Tours
Who were realist writers
Charles Dickens, Gustave Flaubert, Honore de Balzac
Charles the Great, he was king of the Franks from 768 to 814 & king of the Lombards from 774 to 814. regarded as the founder of the Holy Roman Empire, Through military conquest & defence, he solidified & expanded his realm to cover most of Western Europe & is today regarded as the founding father of both France & Germany & sometimes as the Father of Europe. His was the first truly imperial power in the West since the fall of Rome
Washington Gladden
Congregationalist minister who followed the social gospel & supported social reform. A prolific writer whose newspaper columns & many books made him a national leader of the Social gospel movement
Early – 16th – century Spanish adventurers who conquered Mexico, Central America, & Peru
Jacob Riis
Early 1900’s writer who exposed social & political evils in the U. S. Muckraker novel, How the Other Half Lives. It shocked the middle class & deeply influenced Theodore Roosevelt
Early Indian sacred ‘knowledge’ – the literal meaning of the term – long preserved & communicated orally by Brahmin priests & eventually written down. (175)
Oracle Bones
Early Shang writing was found on these
Why is Ram Mohun Roy considered the “father of modern india”
He called for an end to traditional practices such as widow suicide
Winfield Scott
He commanded the main expedition inland on Mexico in 1847. He was known as “Old Fuss & Feathers” because of his resplendent uniforms & strict discipline. He was unable to do as he pleased because of his inadequate number of troops, the terrain, disease, etc. He battled his way to Mexico City by September 1847
King Otto I
He led an army to support the Pope in the 960’s against the Lombard Magnates & was crowned by the pope the First Holy Roman Emperor
Charles Coughlin
He ran against FDR & disliked the New Deal. He voiced his opinions on the radio
Ernest Hemingway
He received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1954 & the Pulitzer Prize in 1952. A Farewell to Arms was written in 1929 & told the story of a love affair between an American ambulance driver & a British nurse in Italy during WW I. He shot himself in the head with a shotgun in 1961
St. Benedict
He started an order of Monks & provided a set of regulations for them stressing poverty, chastity, & obedience
King Alfred
He stopped the Norse/Viking invasion of England in the 800’s
John D. Long
He was a Navy secretary & much of the readiness of the army was owed to him & Theodore Roosevelt
Citizen Genet
He was a represenative of the French Republic who came to America in order to recruit Americans to help fight in the French Revolution
John Locke
He was an English philosopher & writer who said the people have the right to give a govt its authority
Heinrich Himmler
Head of SS & Gestapo. Also supervised holocaust
George Creel
Headed the Committee on Public Information
Grigori Rasputin
Healer for czar Nicolas during WWI, gave advice on how to run the govt. Later killed by jealous noblemen
historian writer, wrote about the Peloponnesian Wars
historian, wrote On The Republic
H. L. Mencken
In 1924, founded The American Mercury, which featured works by new writers & much of Mencken’s criticism on American taste, culture, & language. He attacked the shallowness & conceit of the American middle class
William the Conqueror
Invaded England from Normandy in 1066. Established tight feudal system & centralized monarchy in England
Cyrus McCormick
Invented mechanical reaper
Johann Gutenberg
Invented the first typewriter. Gutenberg bible first book printed from it
George sand
What was the pen name of a woman writer
Horatio Alger
Writer of novels stressing rags to riches stories of boys
King Cotton
Expression used by Southern authors & orators before the civil War to indicate the economic dominance of the Southern cotton industry, & that the North needed the south’s cotton. In a speech to the Senate in 1858, James Hammond declared, “You daren’t make war against cotton!. Cotton is king!”
King Leopold II
King of Belgium (r. 1865 – 1909). He was active in encouraging the exploration of Central Africa & became the ruler of the Congo Free State (to 1908)
King Menes
Unified rule came from this conquerer in 3100BCE & founded Memphis
interactive point – of – purchase displays that are typically four feet high, have pedestal – mounted high – tech screens, & take up only a few square feet of floor space
Kit Carson
Helped open up California, a general in the Civil War, & displacer of Navajo
Chandragupta Maurya
A king who reigned (322 – 298BCE) who starved himself to death after becoming a Jainist monk
WIlliam Penn
Penn, an English Quaker, founded Pennsylvania in 1682, after receiving a charter from King Charles II the year before. He launched the colony as a “holy experiment” based on religious tolerance
Persian King who led first invasion of Greece, expanded Persia & built a canal from the Red Sea to the Meditteranian
Ibn Khaldun
Arab historian. He developed an influential theory on the rise & fall of states. Born in Tunis, he spent his later years in Cairo as a teacher & judge. In 1400 he was sent to Damascus to negotiate the surrender of the city. (336)
Arab prince, leader of the Arab Revolt in WWI. The British made him king of Iraq in 1921, & he reigned under British protection until 1933
legendary king who was half man & half god. He went on a journey to find eternal youth with his friend Eucles. He died in the end
Stanley, Henry Morton (1841 – 1904)
British – American explorer of Africa, famous for his expeditions in search of Dr. David Livingstone. Stanley helped King Leopold II establish the Congo Free State
Thomas Jefferson
Chosen by the 2nd Continental Congress to write the Declaration of Independence to tell the king why Americans no longer wanted to belong to Britain
Georges Danton
French revolutionary who called for execution of the king & others. Later considered not radical enough & was himself killed by other revolutionaries
George III
King George the third was the king of England in the 1770’s. Though he was a good man he was not a good ruler. He lost all of the 13 American colonies & caused America to start to gain its freedom
Louis XVI
Last king of France before French Revolution. Tried to compromise with constitutional monarchy. Later fled, but was captured & beheaded
Moctezuma II
Last Aztec emperor, overthrown by the Spanish conquistador Hernn Corts
Khubilai Khan
Last of the Mongol Great Khans (r. 1260 – 1294) & founder of the Yuan Empire. Chinggis Khan’s grandson who consolidated Mongol rule all over China
Muhammad Ali & King mongkut
Which leaders used modernization to keep their countries independent
Crazy Horse
Sioux chief at the Battle of Little Bighorn
Sitting Bull
Sioux chief who took up arms against settlers in the Great Planes. Present at the Battle of Little Bighorn
They controlled Persia after the death of Alexander. Their king was one of Alexander’s generals
Francisco Pancho Villa
A popular leader during the Mexican Revolution. An outlaw in his youth, when the revolution started, he formed a cavalry army in the north of Mexico & fought for the rights of the landless in collaboration with Emiliano Zapata. (819)
Daniel Shays
Captain in the American Revolutionary War. He is mostly known for leading a small army of farmers in Shays’ Rebellion, which was a revolt against the state govt of Massachusetts from 1786 – 1787
Sun Yat – Sen
Chinese nationalist revolutionary, founder & leader of the Guomindang until his death. He attempted to create a liberal democratic political movement in China but was thwarted by military leaders
John Kenneth Galbraith
Economist who wrote American Capitalism & The Affluent Society
Edison invented the light bulb at the turn of the century, revolutionizing the American way of life
Nathan Hale
Executed by the British during the Revolutionary War who famously said ‘I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my country. ‘
Family that ruled Russia from 17th century until Russian revolution
John Dillinger
Famous bank robber in 1930s
Lou Gehrig
Famous contemporary of Babe Ruth. Later developed rare nervous system disease now known as ‘Lou Gehrig disease. ‘
Captain William Kidd
Famous English pirate in 17th – 18th century
Wyatt Earp
Famous US Marshall in Dodge City, took part in famous gunfight at the OK Corral in Tombstone AZ in 1881
Philip 2
Father of Alexander the Great, conquered Greece
Mary McLeod Bethune
Founded National Council of Negro Women, promoted teaching of black history
St. Francis
Founded order of mendicant (beggars) friars. (1182 – 1226) who preached for alms (money) to live holy lifestyles
Zero of Cybrus
founded Stoicism
Florence Kelley
Founded the National Consumer’s League, which wanted legislation to protect consumers from being cheated or harmed by big business. Also was the state of Illinois’ first chief factory inspector & lead an advocate for improved factory conditions
Margaret Sanger
Founder in 10s & 20s of Birth Control movement. Later headed Planned Parenthood Federation
Carl Menger
Founder of Austrian school of economics. Started the neoclassical revolution
Founder of the Achaemenid Persian Empire. Between 550 & 530 B. C. E. he conquered Media, Lydia, & Babylon. Revered in the traditions of both Iran & the subject peoples
Clara Barton
Founder of the American Red Cross
Shi Huangdi
Founder of the short – lived Qin dynasty & creator of the Chinese Empire (r. 221 – 210 B. C. E. ). He is remembered for his ruthless conquests of rival states & standardization. (163)
Marquis de Lafayette
French General who helped American Revolution & later became important in French Revolution
Georges Clemenceau
French leader at end of WWI. Wanted to punish Germany in Treaty of Versailles & compenate France
Jean Calvin
French Protestant who stress the doctrine of free destination. Establish Central of group in Geneva Switzerland
French protestants of the 16th – 17th century persecuted by Roman Catholic Church. Louis XIV banned them, & many fled to America
Marie Antoinette
French queen beheaded with her Husband Louis XVI in French Revoltuion
Jose Maria Morelos
Mexican priest & former student of Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, he led the forces fighting for Mexican independence until he was captured & executed in 1814
Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla
Mexican priest who led the first stage of the Mexican independence war in 1810. He was captured & executed in 1811
Villa Pancho
Mexican revolutionary leader. He attacked New Mexico, which almost caused war
Mexican workers that were brought to America to work when so many men & women were gone from home during WWII that there weren’t enough workers
Lawrence of Arabia
Lead Arab rebellion against the Turks in WWI
Lead Austrian empire 13th – 20th century
Jean – Paul Marat
Leader of Jacobins in French Revolution
Brigham Young
Leader of Mormons
Kwame Nkrumah
Leader of Pan – African movement in Ghana
Francois Toussanit Loveture
Leader of slave rebellion on french island of St. Dominique. Created independent republic of Haiti 1804
Leader of SU, followed melankov; attacked Stalins method of rule. Lost power because of conservative opposition
Emilio Aguinaldo
Leader of the Filipino independence movement against Spain (1895 – 1898). He proclaimed the independence of the Philippines in 1899, but his movement was crushed & he was captured by the U. S. Army in 1901
Francois Dominique Toussaint L’Ouverture
Leader of the Haitian Revolution. He freed the slaves & gained effective independence for Haiti despite military interventions by the British & French
Ngo Dinh Diem
Leader of the pro – Western govt in South Vietnam
Clay, Calhoun, Webster
Leaders who came about during the debate over the Tariff of 1816. Webster (North) supported partial protection, but not the entire amount. Calhoun (South) was in favor of the tariff. Clay (West) also supported the tariff. This system entailed first, the protective tariff, & then with the benefits of the tariff & increase in national industry, the money could then be used to improve roads & transportation among the states
Joseph Brant
Mohawk leader who supported the British during the American Revolution
Queen victoria
Queen 19th – early 20th century during British industrial revolution & height of empire’s power. Also highly moral, leading to Victorian Age
Queen of Egypt (1473 – 1458 B. C. E. ). Dispatched a naval expedition down the Red Sea to Punt (possibly Somalia), the faraway source of myrrh. There is evidence of opposition to a woman as ruler, & after her death her name was frequently expunged
Queen Liliuokalani/Hawaii
Queen of Hawaii who disliked Americans & was overthrown when sugar prices dropped. Planters wanted the independent Republic of Hawaii & requested annexation from the US
Radical republicans during the French Revolution. They were led by Maximilien Robespierre from 1793 to 1794
Emilano Zapata
Revolutionary & leader of peasants in the Mexican Revolution. He mobilized landless peasants in south – central Mexico in an attempt to seize & divide the lands of the wealthy landowners. Though successful for a time, he was ultimately assassinated. 819
Paul Revere
Rode through MA warning people that the British were coming at the outbreak of the Revolutionary War
Ruling family of France until the French Revolution
Russian Bolshevik Leader who was responsible for turning Russia to communism
Ivan the Terrible
Russian czar of 16th century, who battled with his nobles & was known for his cruelty
Mikhail Romanov
Russian tsar (r. 1613 – 1645) A member of the Russian aristocracy, he became tsar after the old line of Muscovite rulers was deposed
Samuel Adams
Samuel Adams played a key role in the defense of colonial rights. He had been a leader of the Sons of Liberty & suggested the formation of the Committees of Correspondence. Adams was crucial in spreading the principle of colonial rights throughout New England & is credited with provoking the Boston Tea Party
The Tories were colonists who disagreed with the move for independence & did not support the Revolution
Maximillien Robespierre
Young provincial lawyer who led the most radical phases of the French Revolution. His execution ended the Reign of Terror
Roman politician who assassinated Caesar
Captain John Smith
One of the original settlers of Jamestown. Captured by Native Americans, saved by Pocahontas
James Eads
an American engineer & inventor. solved the problem with a wooden jetty system that narrowed the main outlet of the river, which caused the river to speed up & cut its channel deeper, so allowing year – round navigation
James G. Blaine
The 1884 nomination for the Rebublican presidential candidate. Pan – Americanism stated that events in the Americans affected the U. S. & we thus had reason to intervene. Pushed the “Big Sister” Policy & said we should open Latin American markets to Yankee traders
James Madison
the Father of the Constitution
James Meredith
James tried to attend the University of Mississippi & encountered violent opposition so Kennedy sent in troops for him to graduate
James Watt
Scot who invented the condenser & other improvements that made the steam engine a practical source of power for industry & transportation. The watt, an electrical measurement, is named after him
Jane Addams
Social reformer who worked to improve the lives of the working class. In 1889 she founded Hull House in Chicago, the first private social welfare agency in the U. S. to assist the poor, combat juvenile delinquency & help immigrants learn to speak English. Provided such services as English lessons, day care, child care classes, & playgrounds
Jawaharial Nehru
Indian statesman. He succeeded Mohandas K. Gandhi as leader of the Indian National Congress. He negotiated the end of British colonial rule in India & became India’s first prime minister (1947 – 1964)
Jean – Luc Godard
Swiss film maker
Jean Gottmann
Jean Gottmann (October 10, 1915 – February 28, 1994) was a French geographer who was most widely known for coining the term megalopolis to describe the condition of the Boston – Washington corridor. His main contributions to human geography were in the sub – fields of urban, political, economic, historical & regional geography
Jeanette Rankin
First woman to serve in Congress. Suffragist & pacifist, voted against US involvement in WWI & WWII
Jefferson Davis
Pres. of the Confederacy
Jesse Owens
African American who won 4 gold medals at Olympic games in Germany under Hitler (a blow to Nazi notions of a master race)
John Birch Society
Conservative group in 50s & 60s, particularly concerned about Communists. Seen as extreme
John Brown
In 1859, the militant abolitionist John Brown seized the U. S. arsenal at Harper’s Ferry. He planned to end slavery by massacring slave owners & freeing their slaves. He was captured & executed
John Calhoun
Southern leader who championed slavery & States’ rights. He led nullification movement, & his thinking helped point the way to the civil war
John D. Rockefeller
American businessman – founder of Standard Oil Co. (major monopoly)
John Dewey
An American philosopher, psychologist, & educational reformer, whose thought has been greatly influential in the U. S. & around the world. He is recognized as one of the founders of the philosophical school of Pragmatism, a pioneer in functional psychology, & a leading representative of the progressive movement in U. S. education during the first half of the 20th century
John Foster Dulles
As Secretary of State. he viewed the struggle against Communism as a classic conflict between good & evil. Believed in containment & the Eisenhower doctrine
John Hancock
Pres. of the Second Continental Congress
John L. Lewis
February 12, 1880 – June 11, 1969 a leader of organized labor who served as pres. of the United Mine Workers of America from 1920 to 1960. He was a major player in the History of coal mining. He was the driving force behind the founding of the Congress of Industrial Organizations, which established the United Steel Workers of America & helped organize millions of other industrial workers in the 1930s
John Locke
an important philosopher of the English Enlightenment. He believed that the rights to life, liberty, & ownership of property were given by God & could not be taken away by govts. His philosophy influenced the framers of the Constitution
John Pershing
Commander of US troops in WWI in Europe
John Wilkes Booth
The assassin of Lincoln, fanatically devoted to the Confederate cause
John Winthrop
As governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony, Winthrop (1588 – 1649) was instrumental in forming the colony’s govt & shaping its legislative policy. He envisioned the colony, centered in present – day Boston, as a “city upon a hill” from which Puritans would spread religious righteousness throughout the world
Johnny Appleseed
An American folk hero who traveled throughout the mid – west encouraging people to plant orchards
Joseph McCarthy
Senator who led an effort to identify ‘communists’ who he said had infiltrated the federal govt. Often used ‘guilt by association. ‘
Joseph Pulitzer
Owner of the “New York World,” helped originate & title the practice of sensationalistic “yellow journalism. “
Juan Peron
Pres. of Argentina (1946 – 1955, 1973 – 1974). As a military officer, he championed the rights of labor. Aided by his wife Eva Duarte Pern, he was elected pres. in 1946. He built up Argentinean industry, became very popular among the urban poor. (823
Juan Ponce de Leon
Spanish conquistador of 15th – 16th century, who conquered Puerto Rico & Florida
Little Ice Age
A century – long period of cool climate that began in the 1590s. Its ill effects on agriculture in northern Europe were notable
Jazz Age
1920s jazz popular, also time of attacks on convention in many areas of American life
Bronze Age
3500 to 1200 BCE – mixture of copper & tin to create bronze – developed in China & Middle East between 4000 & 3000 BCE – better quality & adaptibility than stone – signals end of Stone Age
Era of Good Feelings
Period from 1815 – 1821 that followed the War of 1812 where the last Federalist candidate was defeated & the issues of slavery were emerging as a result of the Missouri Compromise. James Monroe defeated the last Federalist candidate in 1816, & won unopposed in 1820
What was the Harlem Renaissance
Period of Great African American artistic accomplishment that began in the 1920s in the Harlem neighborhood of NYC
Mesolithic Era
10,000 to 12,000 years ago. Middle Stone Age. Ancient cultural stage, or level of human development, that existed between the Paleolithic Period, with its chipped stone tools, & the Neolithic Period, with its polished stone tools. Mesolithic usually refers specifically to a development in northwestern Europe that began about 8000 BC, after the end of the Pleistocene Epoch, & lasted until about 2700 BC
Enlightenment Era
A time of philosophical movement in eighteenth century Europe that fostered the belief that one could reform society by discovering rational laws that governed social behavior and were just as scientific as the laws of physics.
Paleolithic Era
Ancient cultural stage, or level, of human development, characterized by the use of rudimentary chipped stone tools, 2. 5 million to 10,000 years ago. Use of fire & tools for making shelters
Neolithic Era
New Stone Age in which people learned to polish stones to make tools like saws and drills; how to make fire
Romanesque & Gothic
Two main architectural styles of this era:
Roaring Twenties
1920s era of freewheeling popular culture. People defied prohibition & indulged in new styles of dancing & dressing, rejected many traditional moral standards
Era of “Good Stealings”
The 1870’s – 1890’s was a dark period in American politics filled with corruption, which rivaled today’s. Dubbed “The Era of Good Stealings,” the gilded age was arguably when politicians first recognized the seemingly deep pool of corporate money & also when many of them signed their souls over to the corporations
Unemployment spell
A period during which an individual is continuously unemployed
Middle Ages
a period in history which lasted for roughly a millennium, commonly dated from the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century to the beginning of the Early Modern Period in the 16th century, marked by the division of Western Christianity in the Reformation, the rise of humanism in the Italian Renaissance
Renaissance (European)
A period of intense artistic & intellectual activity, said to be a ‘rebirth’ of Greco – Roman culture. Usually divided into an Italian Renaissance, from roughly the mid – fourteenth to mid – fifteenth century, & a Northern trans – Alpine Renaissance (407,445)
Gilded Age
a period of intense economic development & wealth transfer in the U. S. Following Reconstruction, this period corresponded with the Second Industrial Revolution & the greatest economic, territorial, industrial, & population expansion in American history
a period of prolonged recession
Devil’s advocacy
a decision – making method in which an individual or a sub group is assigned the role of a critic
a decision – making method in which group members build on each others’ ideas & generate many alternative solutions
Electronic Brainstorming
a decision – making method in which group members use computers to build on each others’ ideas & generate many alternative solutions
Delphi technique
a decision – making method in which members of a panel of experts respond to questions & to each other until reaching agreement on an issue
Nominal group technique
a decision – making method that begins & ends by having group members quietly write down & evaluate ideas to be shared with the group
Unanimous decisions
A decision made by the Supreme Court that has no dissent. A unanimous decision by the Court is 9 – 0
Egyptian religion & Egyptian Book of the Dead
Part of elaborate religion in which chief god was Re, the sun god
1)Ahura 2)devil
Who were the two main gods of Zorostrianism
Armed pilgrimages to the Holy Land by Christians determined to recover Jerusalem from Muslim rule. The Crusades brought an end to western Europe’s centuries of intellectual & cultural isolation
Delhi Sulatanate
Centralized Indian empire of varying extent, created by Muslim invaders
Five Pillars
The obligatory religious duties for all Muslims: Confession of faith, Prayer, Fasting during Mamadan, Zakat, Hajj
Religion expounded by the Prophet Muhammad (570 – 632 C. E. ) on the basis of his reception of divine revelations, which were collected after his death into the Quran. divergent populations include Sunni Muslims, Shiite Muslims, & many smaller branches & sects, practiced by Muslims, from Nigeria to Indonesia, centered in the Middle East
City in western Arabia; birthplace of the Prophet Muhammad, & ritual center of the Islamic religion
Muhammad (570 – 632 C. E. )
Arab prophet; founder of religion of Islam
An adherent of the Islamic religion; a person who ‘submits’ (in Arabic, Islam means ‘submission’) to the will of God. )
20th cent movement, associated with Karl Barth, that reasserted role of revelation and proclamation over role of reason or emotion in theology and religion
Russian Orthodoxy
The Eastern Orthodox Church is the second largest single Christian communion in the world with an estimated 300 million members worldwide. [1] It is considered by its adherents to be the One, Holy, Catholic & Apostolic Church established by Jesus Christ & his Apostles nearly 2000 years ago
Shi’ite Islam
Branch of Islam believing that God vests leadership of the community in a descendant of Muhammad’s son – in – law Ali. Shi’ism is the state religion of Iran
State religion in Japan. Derived from beliefs in natural spirits & until recently linked with belief in divinity of emperor & sacredness of Japanese nation
Indian religion founded by the guru Nanak (1469 – 1539) in the Punjab region of northwest India. After the Mughal emperor ordered the beheading of the ninth guru in 1675, Sikh warriors mounted armed resistance to Mughal rule
Social Gospel
Movement aimed at making churches more responseive to social problems, such as poverty. Said Christ’s message was also about social reform. Movement led by Washington Gladden – taught religion & human dignity would help the middle class over come problems of industrialization
Muslims belonging to branch of Islam believing that the community should select its own leadership. The majority religion in most Islamic countries
the study of religion
Muslim religious scholars. From the ninth century onward, the primary interpreters of Islamic law & the social core of Muslim urban societies
When did Christianity get it’s big break
In 313, Roman emporer constantine I adopted it as his & the empire’s religion, resulting of its spread westward from palestine
When did Islam begin
In the 7th century, stated by Muhammed in Mecca
A religion originating in ancient Iran with the prophet Zoroaster. It centered on a single benevolent deity – Ahuramazda, Emphasizing truth – telling, purity, & reverence for nature, the religion demanded that humans choose sides between good & evil
Members of the Society of Jesus, a Roman Catholic order founded by Ignatius Loyola in 1534. They played an important part in the Catholic Reformation & helped create conduits of trade & knowledge between Asia & Europe
1/required reserve ratio
calculation of potential money multiplier
3 concepts of National Interest
Power & National Security – Domestic Impact Conception – Ideological Principle Conception
3 core Classical Trade Theories
Absolute advantage (natural & acquired) Comparative advantage (David Ricardo) Factor Proportions theory ( Heckscher & Ohlin). Some empirical contradictions (Leontif)
5 functions of the Fed
The Federal Reserve Board controls the supply of money, sets the discount rate, performs open market operations, regulates banks & other financial institutions, & supervises the FDIC
527 groups
Tax – Exempt organizations set up by interest groups to engage in political activities
Production Function
Y = A f (L,K,H,N) sets out the relationship between the quantity of inputs used in production & the quantity of output from production
a business function that involves money management
1 culture communication
intracultural communication
4 major functions of feedforward
open the channels of communication, preview the message, altercast & disdain
5 dimensions of feedback
positive – negative, person – focused message, immediate – delayed, low – monitored – high – monitored & supportive – critical
I – IT(impersonal) & I – Thou(interpersonal) communications
the process of exchanging messages between a sender & a receiver
Communication accomodation theory
adjustment of behavior to fit the behavior of others
Communication Channels
Ways of Communicating, Can be rich(face to face) or poor(e – mail)
communication characteristics
inescapable, irreversible, complicated, emphasizes content & relationship, governed by rules
communication climate
emotional tone of relationship as it is expressed in the messages that the partners send & receive
Communication competence
the message should: 1. be understood as the communicator intended it to be understood 2. Achieve the intended effect the communicator intended to achieve 3. Be ethical
communication principles for a lifetime has 5 principles
one: be aware of communication with yourself & others 2: effectively use & interpret verbal msg. 3:effectively use & interpret nonverbal msg. 4: listen & respond thoughtfullly to others. 5: appropriately adapt messages others
communications program
software applications that enable users to electronically communicate through computers with people around the world
considering the point of view for your communication, describe how writing in the second person is done
The second person is the person spoken to; using the second person allows the writer to maintain some personal relationship with the reader
The information, ideas or suggested actions that a communicatior wishes to express what is said
content messages
a message that communicates information about the subject being discussed
content oriented listeners
a listening style that focuses on the content of the message
physical & psychological environment for communication
contextual interpersonal behavior
any communication between two people
describe the revising phase
Revising is a finishing step to improve the communication based on the editing phase & the feedback from the reveiwers. You revise or rewrite your draft to make it into a more formal presentation
describe three common forms of tense you will use in your communication
Past – express actions or make a statement about something that happened in the past. Present – expresses action or makes a statement about something happening inthe present time. Future – expresses action or make a statement about something happening at a future time
descriptive communication
messages that describe the seekers position without evaluating others
developmental model
these models propose that the nature of communication is different in various stages of interpersonal relationships
direct speech
Which part of language communicates your meaning explicitly & leaves little doubt for the thoughts you are trying to convey
a communication pattern in which we ignore someone’s presence as well as what they are communicating
10 roles involved in mgmt
interpersonal (figurehead, leader, liaison), informational (monitor, desseminator, spokesperson), decisional (entrepreneur, distrubance handler, resource – allocator, negotiator)
3 levels of mgmt
top (upper) – pres., chief executive; middle – district manger, base commander; first – line (lower – level, front – line, supervisory) – foreman, head nurse
3 skills involved in mgmt
technical, interpersonal, conceptual
4 functions of managers
planning, organizing, leading, & controlling
5 management process functions
planning, organizing, staffing, directing & controlling
5 Types of managers
line, staff, functional, general, & administrators
Classical (administrative) Mgmt
Frenchman Henri Fayol “father of modern mgmt”, first to distinguish the functions of mgmt, developed 14 principles of mgmt
disconfirming response
a message that expresses a lack of caring or respect for another person
exception principle
once procedures, policies, & other plans have been est. & are working, mgmt should focus on the exceptions where performance does not meet standards
first principle of Scientific Mgmt
scientific study of work – use systematic procedures, gather info, est. method of performance
fourth principle of Scientific Mgmt
work to be divided b/w mgmt & workers
Frank & Lilian Gilbreth
Scientific Mgmt, “One Best Way”, Science of Bricklaying
manager performance & development
deal w/ a critical aspect of the firm – quality of mgmt & continuous availability & updating of managerial competence
primacy of mgmt
planning must occur before other mgmt functions can take place
second principle of Scientific Mgmt
select workers systematically & scientifically
staffing function
provides the right people to fill the structure designed by the organizing function. human resources (personnel) mgmt
Theory X & Theory Y
Douglas McGregor; traditional mgmt (X) views man as lazy, w/o initiative, etc. vs. (Y) – motivation is internal, desire to work like desire to play, etc
third principle of Scientific Mgmt
training workers in methods developed by Sci. Mgmt, providing incentives, giving leadership support
Functional managers
are responsible for a single area of activity
Team Leaders
managers responsible for facilitating team activities towards accomplishing a goal
Supervisory Management
Managers who design & carry out operational plans for the ongoing daily activities of the firm
Middle Management
Managers who design & carry out tactical plans in specific areas of the company
The American Temperance Society was formed in Boston in 1826. It persuaded people to stop drinking or lesson their drinking
temporal (time) context
the time of day or time in history in which the communication is taking place
Temporal immediacy
the time between an act & the consequences the act produces
Ten Percent Plan
AL 1863, when 10 percent of the voters of a state took an oath of loyalty to the Union, the State could form a govt & adopt a new constitution that banned slavery
Tennis Court oath was made by
Representatives of the 3rd estate
tension between industrial N & agricultural south
Despite its unification as a nation, Italy suffered from which of the following problems
Tenure of Office Act
1866 – enacted by radical congress – forbade pres. from removing civil officers without senatorial consent – was to prevent Johnson from removing a radical republican from his cabinet Johnson violated, led to impeachment
term of most bonds
1 to 30 years. Under 1 year, they are usually referred to as money market instruments
Terrence Powderly
An American labor union originally established as a secret fraternal order & noted as the first union of all workers. It was founded in 1869 in Philadelphia by Uriah Stephens & a number of fellow workers. Powderly was elected head of the Knights of Labor in 1883
Territorial Maker
A thing or action that signifies an area has been clamed
territorial waters
The waters near states’ shores generally treated as part of national territory. The UN Convention on the Law of the Sea provides for a 12 – mile territorial sea (exclusive national jurisdiction over shipping & navigation) & a 200 – mile exclusive economic zone (EEZ) covering exclusive fishing & mineral rights
The study of how humans use space & objects to communicate occupancy or ownership of space
fixed space that an individual assumes some right to occupy
Terrorist Plot
WJC garage – Twin Tower, Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, Tim McVeigh & Terry Nichols, bomb Olympic Stadium because = abortion there
Texas enters Union
Texas officially entered Union as slave state in 1848 after Mexican American War with Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Thaddeus Stevens
A radical Republican who believed in harsh punishments for the South. Leader of the radical Republicans in Congress
Thales of Miletus
a philosopher who taught that everything was made of water
Thalweg Principle
States that the border between 2 states in water lies along the thalweg, the line of fastest flow of a river
That Hitler’s advances could be blocked
What crucial lesson was learned in the Battle of Britain
That National Recovery Administration
It was designed to assist industry, labor, & the unemployed. there were maximum hours of labor, minimum wages, & more rights for labor union members, including the right to choose their own representatives in bargaining
The 1910s. The 1980s were the second
What was the largest immigration decade in US history
the Andean community
A trade bloc comprising the South American countries of Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru & Venezuela. The trade bloc was formerly called the Andean Pact & came into existence with the signing of the Cartagena Agreement in 1969
the Asian Development Bank
a multilateral development finance institution dedicated to reducing poverty in Asia & the Pacific. It was founded in 1966 with 31 members states & has now grown to include 64, including the US, many europen nations, & all asian nations, including the stans. Headquartered in Philippines
the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)
a political, economic, & cultural organization of countries located in Southeast Asia. Formed on August 8, 1967, by Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, & the Philippines, as a non – provocative display of solidarity against communist expansion in Vietnam & insurgency within their own borders
the Balkan Peninsula
What region was referred to as the “powder keg” of Europe
the Belgium War Crimes Law
invokes the concept of universal jurisdiction to allow anyone to bring war crime charges in Belgian courts, regardless of where the alleged crimes have taken place. The law took effect in 1993 & was expanded the following year after 10 Belgian soldiers were killed in Rwanda. The law reached prominence after the Rwandan Genocide
the birth certificate of the U. S
The Declaration of Independence
the british gov. took direct command of India
What happened as a result of the Sepoy Mutiny
The bulgarians & turks surrendered
Which of the following events occurred after the US joined the war
The Bureau of Labor Statistics
What publishes the CPI every month
the buying center
all the individuals & units that play a role in the purchase decision making process
the Central American Common Market
an economic trade organization between 5 nations of Central America. established December 13, 1960 between the nations of Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras & Nicaragua in a conference in Managua. Costa Rica joined the CACM in 1963. collapsed in 1969 with the Football War between Honduras & El Salvador, reinstated in 1991. not achieved the further goals of greater economic & political unification that were hoped for at the organization’s founding,
the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)
a confederation, or alliance, consisting of 11 former Soviet Republics: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Ukraine, & Uzbekistan. Turkmenistan discontinued permanent membership as of August 26, 2005 & is now an associate member. its purpose was to “allow a civilized divorce” between the Soviet Republics
the communication accomodation theory
speakers change their speaking style based on who their audience is
The Congress
What are the two houses of the Legislature called
The Congress of Vienna in 1815
What was the first treaty to recognize & regulate diplomacy
the Congressional Record
A written record of everything said in both houses of Congress
the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf
Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) is a regional organization involving the six Persian Gulf Arab States with many economic & social objectives in mind. Created May 25, 1981, the Council is comprised of Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia & the United Arab Emirates
the core culture
Underlying assumptions & beliefs that influence behavior & contribute to the observable culture
the Council of Europe
an international organisation of 46 member states in the European region. open to those who accept the principle of the rule of law & guarantee fundamental human rights & freedoms to their citizens. One of the main successes of the Council was the European Convention on Human Rights in 1950, which serves as the basis for the European Court of Human Rights
the current poverty rate in the U. S
Approx. 12%. It has hovered between 11 & 15% since the 1970s
The current, capital, & reserve accounts
What makes up a nation’s Balance of Payments
The declaration of war by France on Prussia
What event was strongly influenced by economic problems
the difference between de facto segregation & de jure segregation
De facto segregation is segregation of races that actually exists, though not by law. De jure segregation is segregation of races by law
the difference between the ICC & the ICJ in the Hague
The International Criminal Court is a permanant war crimes tribunal. The International Court of Justice rules on disputes between states
the difference between Unitary & federal systems of govt
unitary system gives the main powers to the central govt. State, provincial, & local govts are all created by the central govt. non – central govts have only the powers that are appointed by the central govt. the federal system develops when a number of states or providences federate, or form a union, eventually in order to establish a nation. In a govt using the federal system, the powers of the govts are jointly shared between the central govt & the more local
the effect of a “Protectionist policy” on the global economy
Protectionism is often shortsighted & fails in the long run
the Elastic Clause
It allows Congress to Stretch its powers as needed
The Electoral College
Who elects the Pres. & Vice – Pres.
the English
in 1588, the Spanish Armada met defeat at the hands of
the Eurasian Economic Community
put into motion on 10 October 2000 when Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia & Tajikistan signed the treaty. EurAsEC was formally created when the treaty was finally ratified by all five member states in May 2001. EurAsEC grew out of the CIS Customs Union. All the members of EurAsEC are also members of the older Commonwealth of Independent States & the relationship between the two organisations is ambiguous
the Euro – Atlantic Partnership Council
a multilateral forum created to improve relations between NATO & non – NATO countries in Europe & those parts of Asia on the European pheriphary. The member states meet to cooperate & consult on a range of political & security issues. It was formed on May 29, 1997 as the successor to the North Atlantic Cooperation Council (NACC)
the Euro – Mediterranean free trade area
based on the Barcelona Process & European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP). The Barcelona Process, developed after the Barcelona Conference in successive annual meetings, is a set of goals designed to lead to a free trade area in the Middle East by 2010. Eventually it will integrate free trade with the EU
the european Common Agricultural Policy
a system of European Union agricultural subsidies which represents about 44% of the EU’s budget. These subsidies work by guaranteeing a minimum price to producers & by direct payment of a subsidy for crops planted. This provides some economic certainty for EU farmers & production of a certain quantity of agricultural goods
the European Investment Bank
It is the EU’s financing institution, founded in 1957. Located in Luxembourg, its goal is to further the economic goals & carry out the agreements of the EU within, & with other nations
The failed 1689 battle of Vienna
What started the decline of the Ottoman Empire
the Fundamental attribution error
the tendency for people to over – emphasize dispositional, or personality – based, explanations for behaviors observed in others while under – emphasizing the role & power of situational influences on the same behavior. In other words, people tend to have a default assumption that what a person does is based more on what “kind” of person he is, rather than the social & environmental forces at work on that person
the goal of Sinn Fein
To unite Ireland & kick out the british. The IRA is Sinn Fein’s militant wing
The govt (public sector)
What sector are labor unions most influential in
the Hausa – Fulani were accustomed to a strong central gov
Why did the British style of gov. in Nigeria work better with the Hausa – Fulani than the Igbo & Yoruba
The holocaust
Which of the following was addressed by the Nuremberg Trials
The House gathers the evidence
What role does the House play in an impeachment trial
the Idealist Approach to Foreign Policy
The Idealist approach assumes that a foreign policy based on morals, legal codes, & international norms is the most effective foreign policy because it encourages unity & cooperation among states rather than competition & conflict
the Inter – American Commission on Human Rights
is one of the two bodies that comprise the inter – American system for the promotion & protection of human rights
the Inter – American Court of Human Rights
an autonomous judicial institution based in the city of San José, Costa Rica. Together with the Inter – American Commission on Human Rights, it makes up the human rights protection system of the Organization of American States (OAS), which serves to uphold & promote basic rights & freedoms in the Americas
the International Labour Organization (ILO)
A specialized agency of the UN to deal with labour issues. Founded in 1919, it was formed through the negotiations of the Treaty of Versailles, & was initially an agency of the League of Nations. It became a UN body after the demise of the League & the formation of the UN at the end of WWII. The organization seeks to strengthen worker rights, improve working conditions & living conditions, create employment, & provide information & training opportunities
the Korea Strait
It seperates Korea from Japan, is part of Pacific Ocean. Numerous international shipping lanes pass through the strait, including those carrying much of the traffic bound for the ports of southern South Korea. Both South Korea & Japan have restricted their territorial claims in the strait to 3 nautical miles from shore, so as to permit free passage through it. Passenger ferries ply numerous routes across the strait
the lack of competition
U. S. has been an attractive target for FDI for all of the following reasons except:
the Latin American Integration Association
A Latin American trade integration association, based in Montevideo. Its main objective is the establishment of a common market, in pursuit of the economic & social development of the region. Its members are Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Cuba, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay & Venezuela. It is the successor to LAFTA
the life span for a US treasury note
Commonly used bills such as the 1,5,10, & 20 dollar bills last about 2 years. For the 2, 50 & 100, it can be over 4 years
the main competitive weapon
As the market in the U. S. & other advanced nations matures, the product becomes more standardized & price becomes:
the most probable link between militarism & imperialism
as a country gains colonies, its military grows to protect them
The new trade theory & theory of national competitive advantage
Which of the following two theories justify some limited & selective govt intervention to support the development of certain export – oriented industries
The number is based on the state’s population
How is the number of representatives chosen for each state
the OECD – Organisation for Economic Co – operation & Development
An international organisation of those developed countries that accept the principles of representative democracy & a free market economy. It originated in 1948 as the Organisation for European Economic Co – operation (OEEC), to help administer the Marshall Plan for the re – construction of Europe after WWII. Later its membership was extended to non – European states, & in 1961 it was reformed into the OECD
the Open skies agreement
a bilateral or multilateral Air Transport Agreement which: liberalises the rules for international aviation markets & minimises govt intervention — the provisions apply to passenger, all – cargo & combination air transportation & encompass both scheduled & charter services; or adjusts the regime under which military & other state – based flights may be permitted
the Organization for Security & Co – operation in Europe
an international organization for security. In its region, it is concerned with early warning, conflict prevention, crisis management & post – conflict rehabilitation. The Organization for Security & Co – operation in Europe has 55 participating states from Europe, the Mediterranean, the Caucasus, Central Asia & North America. The OSCE’s Secretariat (headquarters) is located in Vienna, Austria. The Organization also has offices in Copenhagen, Geneva, The Hague, Prague & Warsaw
the overuse of up – to – date maps
One cultural problem a researcher faces when doing primary research is:
the Pacific Islands Forum
an inter – governmental consultative organ which aims to enhance cooperation between the independent countries of the Pacific Ocean & represent their interests. It was founded in 1971 as the South Pacific Forum; the name was changed in 2000 to better reflect the correct geographic locations of its member states both in the north & south Pacific
the physical context
tangible or concrete environment in which communication takes place
the preamble
The introduction to the Constitution
The puritans in 1629
Who established the Massachusetts Bay Colony
the relationship between a nation’s capital & current accounts
Inverse if a neutral balance of payments is to be obtained
the Revisionist Approach to Foreign Policy
A Revisionst approach to foreign policy seeks to alter territorial, ideological, or power distribution to the state’s advantage
the rise of non – U. S. multinationals & the growth of mini – multinationals
Since the 1960s, there have been two notable trends in the demographics of the multinational enterprise. These two trends have been:
The Senate acts as the jury
What role does the Senate play in an impeachment trial
The senate, by a 2/3rds vote
In the US, who needs to approve treaties, & with what percentage
the Social Contract
An agreement by which the people give up their freedom to a powerful govt in order to avoid chaos
the South American Community of Nations
will be a continent – wide free trade zone that will unite two existing free – trade organizations eliminating tariffs for non – sensitive products by 2014 & sensitive products by 2019
the South Asia Free Trade Agreement
an agreement reached at the 12th SAARC summit at Islamabad, capital of Pakistan on 6 January 2004. It creates a framework for the creation of a free trade zone covering 1. 4 billion people in India, Pakistan, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Bhutan & the Maldives. The seven foreign ministers of the region signed a framework agreement on SAFTA with zero customs duty on the trade of practically all products in the region by end 2012
the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation
proposed by Ziaur Rahman, the then – pres. of Bangladesh, established December 8, 1985. SAARC is an association of 8 countries of South Asia: Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, & most recently admitted, Afghanistan. These countries comprise an area of 5,127,500 km2 & a 1/5 of the world’s population. encourages cooperation in agriculture, rural development, science & technology, culture, health, population control, narcotics control & anti – terrorism
The Speaker of the House
Who is the leader of the House of Representatives
the Status Quo Approach to Foreign Policy
The Status Quo Approach to Foreign Policy seeks to maintain the territorial, ideological, or power distribution of the state
The stock market crash of 1929
What event marked the beginning of the Great Depression
The Supreme Court
the highest court in the land
the Ugly American
Pejorative term for Americans traveling or living abroad who remain ignorant of local culture & judge everything by American standards. The term is taken from the title of a book by Eugene Burdick & William Lederer
the UN convention on the law of the sea
Took effect in 1994. Establishes 12 mile barrier around nations, & 200 mile Exclusive Economic Zones. The us has signed, but not ratified it
The US
During the cold war, who was pakistan mainly allied with
The US
Who did Libya side with during the cold war
The US
Who is brazil’s biggest trading partner
During the cold war, who was India mainly allied with
The Vice – Pres
Who is the leader of the Senate
The Vice – Pres., followed by the Speaker of the House
Who is next in line if something happens to the Pres.
the Western European Union
a partially dormant European defence & security organization, established on the basis of the Treaty of Brussels of 1948 with the accession of West Germany & Italy in 1954. Its two stated aims were: to afford assistance to each other inr sisting any policy of aggression, to promote unity & integration of Europe. merged into EU
the world’s largest desert
Antartica. The largest hot desert is the Sahara in North Africa, which is the size of the U. S
theater – state
state that acquires prestige & power by developing attractive cultural forms & staging elaborate public ceremonies (as well as redistributing valuable resources) to attract & bind subjects to the center. (186)
gov by religious leaders, who claim divine guidance
Daughter of a bear keeper & was married to Justinian
Theodore Herzl
Austrian journalist & founder of the Zionist movement urging the creation of a Jewish national homeland in Palestine
Theory X assumes that workers:
Dislike work, Lack ambition, Are irresponsible, Resist change, Prefer to be led
Theory Y assumes that workers are:
Willing to work, Capable of self control, Willing to accept responsibility, Imaginative & creative, Capable of self – direction
Theravada Buddhism
Way of the Elders’ branch of Buddhism followed in Sri Lanka & much of Southeast Asia. Therevada remains close to the original principles set forth by the Buddha; it downplays the importance of gods (181)
These are the times that try men’s souls
By Thomas Paine in the America Crisis
requires that _ should declare the causes which impel them to the separation
They are examples of flaws, or fallaciesin logic
What do the terms “faulty analogy,”asserted conclusion”,”loaded question”, and”non sequitur” have in common
They are the the main contributors to language barriers
misuse of abstractions & a lack of common core experience are main contributors to which communication barrier
They both upheld an autocratic govt without reforms
How did the reigns of Alexander III & Nicholas II help pave the way for revolution
they had promised to uphold the independence of Poland
Why did Britain & France declare war on Germany after invading Poland
they hold societies together
why are speaking & listening skills important
they valued national honor more than individual life
What does the use of kamikaze pilots show about Japanese culture
They were of Japanese descent & falsely labeled as enemies
Why were thousands of U. S citizens put in internment camps during the war
things self – image is composed of
physical appearance, body shape, academic accomplishments, social skills, value system, relationships, behavior, goals, ambitions, aspirations
think tank
An institution in which scholars pursue research in public policy. Largely funded by endowments & grants, think tanks work to improve public awareness of policy issues (through publications) & to influence the govt to act upon issues of national importance
think: one way – linear
human communication as action
Third – order devolution
The use of nongovernmental organizations to implement public policy
Third – Party – Payer Market
A market in which the person who receives the good differs from the person paying for the good
Third – Partyism
The tendency of 3rd parties to arise with some regularity in a nominally 2 – party system
third century crisis
political, military, & economic turmoil that beset the Roman Empire during much of the third century C. E. : frequent changes of ruler, civil wars, barbarian invasions, decline of urban centers, & near – destruction of long – distance commerce. (157)
Third Degree Price Discrimination
Practice of dividing consumers into tow or more groups with separrate demand curves & charging different prices to each group
Third political parties
Political parties that can be described as ideological, single – issue orientated, economically motivated, & personality driven. Examples include the Free Soil Party, Know – Nothings, Populist, & Bull Moose Parties. In 1996 Ross Perot created a new national third party called the Reform party
Thirty – second spots
Paid political ads 30 seconds in duration
Thomas Edison
American inventor best known for inventing the electric light bulb, acoustic recording on wax cylinders, & motion pictures
Thomas Edison
Who patented the movie camera
Thomas Jefferson
Who wrote the Declaration of Independence
Thomas Paine
Patriot who used written words to argue for independence who wrote: Common Sense
Thorndike’s Law of Effect
behavior followed by reinforcement tends to be repeated
thory of divine right proposed that
Ruler derived absolute monarch to rule from God
three – field system
A rotational system for agriculture in which one field grows grain, one grows legumes, & one lies fallow. It gradually replaced two – field system in medieval Europe
three areas to focus on when preparing a speach
Technical accuracy & coverage, arrangement & flow, & presentation & delivery
three basic components of a paragraph
Topic sentence, support sentence, & closing sentence
three common forms of tense you will use in your communication
Past – express actions or makes a statementabout something that happened in the past. Present – expresses action or makes a statement about something happening in the present time. Future – expresses action or make a statement about something happening at a future time
Three Mile Island
Location of a nuclear power plant accident in 1979. Caused panic & intense criticism of nuclear power programs in general
Three problems with the CPI
The substitution bias, the introduction of new items, & quality changes
three responsibilities of commanders & supervisors – their staffs & subordinates – when it comes to orginizational communication
Keep communication channels open, maintain an environment conducive to communication; & communicate effectively
thrift institutions
financial institutions that receive most of their funds from the savings of the public; they include savings banks, savings & loan associations, & credit unions
through culture
How is culture primarily passed on
time cost models
used when cost trade – off info is a major consideration in planning, used to determine the least cost in reducing total project time
time deposit
a deposit in a financial institution that requires notice of intent to withdraw or must be left for an agreed period; withdrawal of funds prior to the end of the agreed period may result in a penalty
time method of issue arrangement
orders information from a beginning point to an ending one, with all the steps developed in numerical or time sequence
Time Oriennted Listeners
Those who perfer that message communcated by others be breif
Time preference
a consumer will place a premium on enjoyment nearer in time over more remote enjoyment. high time preference means a person wants to spend their money now & not save it
Time study
timing how long it takes good workers to complete each part of their jobs
Member of a prominent family of the Mongols’ Jagadai Khanate, Timur through conquest gained control over much of Central Asia & Iran. He consolidated the status of Sunni Islam as orthodox, & his descendants, the Timurids, maintained his empire. (336)
taxes (money) given to the church
Title IX
Provision for the Education Amendments of 1972 that bars educational institutions receiving federal funds from discriminating against female students
Title VII (part of EEO)
part of the Civil Rights Act of 1964; outlaws discrimination in employment on basis of race, color, religion, nat’l origin, or sex
to escape the British
Why did thousands of Boers move north in the Great Trek
to isolate France
Why did Bismark seek alliances that later became the Triple Alliance
to prevent fighting of European nations over the division of Africa
What was the main purpose of the Berlin Conference of 1884 – 1885
To the other House
After a Bill passes the first House of the Congress, where does it go next
To the Pres.
If a Bill passes through both Houses of Congress, where does it go next
WJC Pres sued industry to stop marketing cigars to kids & accept great federal regulation
Tokugawa Shogunate
The last of the three shogunates of Japan
Powerful postclassic empire in central Mexico (900 – 1168 C. E. ). It influenced much of Mesoamerica. Aztecs claimed ties to this earlier civilization
Tomas de Torquemada
Chief judge of the spanish inquisition, known for his severity
Top Management
The highest level of managers; includes CEO’s, pres.s, & vice pres.s, who develop strategic plans & address long – range issues
cemetery containing burials of young children, possibly sacrificed to the gods in times of crisis, found at Carthage & other Phoenician settlements in the western Mediterranean
topic of the speech
should be stated as specifically as possible
topic outline
has words or phrases for all entries & usually has little or no punctuation after entries
topical method of issue arrangement
a speaker explains an idea in terms of its component part
total war
What did the war become once the participating countries began devoting all of their resources to the war effort
Form of govt in which govt’s powers are unlimited
Touch Ethic
A person own guidelines or standards as to approprate & inapprate toush
Town or township
A subunit of county govt in many eastern & Midwestern states
Townshend Acts
These acts put a light import duty on such things as glass, lead, paper, & tea. The acts met slight protest from the colonists, who found ways around the taxes such as buying smuggled tea. Due to its minute profits, the Townshend Acts were repealed in 1770, except for the tax on tea. The tax on tea was kept to keep alive the principle of Parliamentary taxation. (1767)
a composer & performer of songs; traveling ballad singer
Tracking poll
Polls conducted by media outlets to gauge the potential outcome of a political election on a periodic basis
Trade – Mark Cases
Copyright Clause does not give Congress the power to regulate trademarks
Traditional Conflict
Conflict is unnecessaryconflict is to be feared,conflict is harmful,conflict is a personal failure, immediately stop conflict remove all evidence of conflict including people
Traditional Economy
An economy in which customs & habits from the past are used to resolve most economic issues of production & distribution
traditional legitimacy
Legitimacy that accepts aspects of politics because they have been institutionalized over a long period of time
Tragedy of the commons
The tendency for a resource that has no price to be used until its marginal benefit falls to zero
Trail of Tears
AJ The Cherokee Indians were forced to leave their lands. They traveled from North Carolina & Georgia through Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, & Arkansas – more than 800 miles (1,287 km) – to the Indian Territory. More than 4, 00 Cherokees died of cold, disease, & lack of food during the 116 – day journey
trait approach
looks for permanent traits of personality which distinguish leaders from non – leaders or effective leaders from non – effective ones
trans – Saharan Caravan Routes
Trading network linking North Africa with sub – Saharan Africa across the Sahara
transaction deposits
checkable & debitable account balances in commercial banks & other types of financial institutions, such as credit unions & savings banks; any accounts in financial institutions from which you can easily transmit debit – card & check payments without many restrictions
transactional communication mean
each person in the communication act is both speaker & listener; each person is simultaneously sending & receiving messages
Transactional leaders
Leaders who lead primarily by using social exchanges
transactional modes of communication
simultaneous sending & receiving, all elements are constantly in motion & you cannot not communicate
transactions approach
a method of measuring the money supply by looking at money as a medium of exchange
transactions demand
holding money as a medium of excahnge to make payments (the level varies directly with nominal GDP)
Transatlantic cable/telegraph
Cable from Newfoundland to Ireland to revolutionize international communication
any system of philosophy emphasizing the intuitive and spiritual above the empirical and material
Transcontinental railroad
Union Pacific: Began in Omaha in 1865 & went west. Central Pacific: Went east from Sacramento & met the Union Pacific Railroad at Promontory Point, Utah on May 10, 1869, where the golden spike ceremony was held. Transcontinental railroad overcharged the federal govt & used substandard materials
Transdniester Republic
Separatist movement in Moldova
Transfer payments
Payments the govt makes to the public for which it receives no current goods or services in return
transformation process
uses resources to convert inputs into some desired output
Transformational leaders
Leaders who stimulate & inspire followers to achieve extraordinary outcomes
Transnational Corporation
is a firm that strives to be Global & Multi – domestic! ie: It must strive to achieve economies of scale whilst locally responsive
the full, accurate, & timely disclosure of information (dictionary. com definition)
the crime of fighting against one’s own govt
Trent Affair
Two Confederate diplomats were dispatched to go to Europe on a mail steamer to try & gain support from Britain & France. The Union stopped this steamer & removed the two Confederate diplomats
Trial Court
Court of original jurisdiction where case begins
trial: adoption process
the consumer tries the new product on a small scale to improve his or her estimate of its value
Triangle of Trade
common pattern linking Africa, The Americas, & Europe
Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire
Accidentally killed 141 workers, prodded concerns that raised new questions of human & immigrant rights & of existing labor laws
tributary system
A system in which, from the time of the Han Empire, countries in East & Southeast Asia not under the direct control of empires based in China nevertheless enrolled as tributary states, acknowledging the superiority of the emperors in China. (279)
tribute system
A system in which defeated peoples were forced to pay a tax in the form of goods & labor. This forced transfer of food, cloth, & other goods subsidized the development of large cities. An important component of the Aztec & Inca economies
trickle down Theory
If the rich become richer then the money will “trickle down” to the middle & poor classes making them more wealthy
Trigger Word
A form of language that arouses strong emotions in listeners
Triple Alliance
Original Allies in WWI: Britain, France, & Russia
Triple Alliance & Triple Entente
1. Germany, Austria, Hungary, Italy 2. GB, France, Russia
Triple Entente
Original Central Powers in WWI: Germany, Austria – Hungary, & Italy
triple wall of privilege
Wilson called for a war against these three things, tariff, banks, & trusts
Greek & Phoenician warship of the fifth & fourth centuries B. C. E. It was sleek & light, powered by 170 oars arranged in three vertical tiers. Manned by skilled sailors, it was capable of short bursts of speed & complex maneuvers
Equatorial region between the Tropic of Cancer & the Tropic of Capricorn. It is characterized by generally warm or hot temperatures year – round, though much variation exists due to altitude & other factors. (370)
True Self – Esteem
Involves only your goals
Truman – MacArthur controversy
MacArhur called for air strikes on China during Korean War. Truman said no, MacArthur disagreed publicly. Truman removed him for insubordination
Truman Doctrine
HT 1947, Pres. Truman’s policy of providing economic & military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology, mainly helped Greece & Turkey
belief in the integrity, character, & ability of a leader
Trust funds
Funds for govt programs that are collected & spent outside the regular govt budget; the amounts are determined by preexisting law rather than by annual appropriations. The Social Security trust fund is the largest of these
an official who is expected to vote independetly basedon his or her judgment of the circumstances; one interpretation of the role of the legislator
Trustee approach
The view that an elected representative should act on his or her own best judgment of what public policy requires
Tulip Period
Last years of the reign of Ottoman sultan Ahmed III, during which European styles & attitudes became briefly popular in Istanbul
Tupac Amaru II
Member of Inca aristocracy who led a rebellion against Spanish authorities in Peru in 1780 – 1781. He was captured & executed with his wife & other members of his family
Turned the tide of the war against the Japanese
What was significant about the Battle of Midway
the proportion of the voting age public that votes, sometimes as the nubmer of registered voters that vote
Tweed Ring
USG the corrupt part of Tammany Hall in New York City, started by Burly “Boss” Tweed that Samuel J. Tilden, the reform governor of New York had been instrumental in overthrowing, Thomas Nast exposed through illustration in Harper’s Weekly
Two – part tariff
Form of pricining in which consumers are charged both an entry & a usage fee
Two – party system
An electoral system with two dominant parties that compete in state or national elections. Third parties have little chance of winning
Two Camps Doctrine (Zhdanov Doctrine)
Sept. 1947, Stalin speech that the country is split into two camps, east and west. First person to acknowledge this.
two main components of globalization are:
the globalization of markets & the globalization of production
Two types of “Absolute Advantages”
NATURAL ADVANTAGE (climate, resource availability, eg: abundant labor) ADVANTAGE (technology or developed skills eg: training)
Two Types of Delegate
Burkian & Representative delegate
two types of self – fulfilling prophecies
self – imposed prophecies & imposed prophecies by others
Ty Cobb
Record for lifetime batting average
Tydings McDuffie Act
FDR 1934, provided for the drafting & guidelines of a Constitution for a 10 – year “transitional period” which became the govt of the Commonwealth of the Philippines before the granting of Philippine independence, during which the US would maintain military forces in the Philippines. The nation did not want to have to support the Philippines if Japan attacked there
Practice of requiring a customer to purchase on good in order to purchase another
types of bullet statements
Single idea & single accomplishment
Types of Controls
Feed forward Controls, Concurrent Control, Feedback Control, Control Systems & after the fact controls
Types of power
coercive, reward, legitimate,expertise, & referential power
Types of teams: horizontal team
members are from different departments in an organization
Types of teams: vertical
a manager & his subordinates. Might involve three to four levels of management
Types of teams:task force
consists of members from different departments who have gotten together to achieve a task, usually the team is disbanded when the project is acomplished
U – 2 Incident
the downing of a U.S. spy plane and capture of its pilot by the Soviet Union in 1960
U. N. 1945
U. S. & 50 other countries founded the UN
U. S. – China 1979
established diplomatic relations with China
U. S. Embassy at Tehran, Iran
JEC Mohammed Reza Pahlavi became Iran “shah” & ayatollah khomeini didn’t like this, shah wanted “white revolution”, & shah exiled Khomeini, who later directed Islamic Republic, & kept hostages, Carter tried to help, he froze all Iranian assets in US, & also sent USS Nimitz in Gulf of Oman where 8 were killed, 2 eventsIran became victim of Iraq30 after RR became pres.
U. S. Information Agency
A federal agency responsible for spreading information favorable to the U. S. around the world
U. S. S. Maine
Ship that exploded in Havana harbor, blamed on Spanish, sparked war
U. S. Steel Corporation
J. P. Morgan’s steel empire, first billion – dollar corporation
A group of Turkic – speakers who controlled their own centralized empire from 744 to 840 in Mongolia & Central Asia
Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia
Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Umayyad Caliphate
First hereditary dynasty of Muslim caliphs (661 to 750). From their capital at Damascus, the Umayyads ruled an empire that extended from Spain to India. Overthrown by the Abbasid Caliphate
The community of all Muslims. A major innovation against the background of seventh – century Arabia, where traditionally kinship rather than faith had determined membership in a community
An organization of nearly all world states, created after WWII to promote collective security
un – American
attack principles or practices considered to be at odds with the values of most Americans. Many object to the use of the term on the grounds that it is vague, shortsighted, & intolerant. The House of Representatives maintained a Committee on Un – American Activities (HUAC) for several years. It was especially known for investigation of alleged communists
UN Charter
The founding document of the UN; it is based on the principles that states are equal, have sovereignty over their own affairs, enjoy independence & territorial integrity, & must fulfill international obligations. The Charter also lays out the structure & methods of the UN
UN Earth Summit
outlined key policies for sustainable development; produced Agenda 21 & the Rio Declaration
UN General Assembly
Comprised of representatives of all states, it allocates UN funds, passes non – binding resolutions, & coordinates third world development programs & various autonomous agencies through the ECOSOC
UN Secretariat
The UN’s executive branch, led by the secretary – general
UN Security Council
A body of five great powers (which can veto resolutions) & ten rotating member states, which makes decisions about international peace & security including the dispatch of UN peacekeeping forces
UN Security Council Resolution 242
Attempted to resolve the Palestinian – Israeli conflict by exchanging land for peace.
Unalienable rights
Rights such as life, liberty, & the pursuit of happiness, which are derived from the doctrine of natural rights
unanimous consent decree
Agreement passed by the Senate that establishes the rules under which a bill will be debated, amended, & voted upon
extent to which managers can understand or predict which environmental changes & trends will affect their businesses
uncertainty avoidance
extent to which members of a culture feel threatened by unknown or uncertain situations
Uncle Tom’s Cabin
MF 1852, a novel published by harriet beecher stowe in 1852 which portrayed slavery as brutal & immoral caused Civil War, Europe applauds
UN Conference on Population & Development in Cairo, Egypt in 1994. Called for a program of action to foster family planning & improve the access of women in such areas of education
Undeclared naval war with France
The French were infuriated with the US after Jay’s Treaty, so began to attack American ships at sea
Underground Railroad
FP 1830, Harriet Tubman, a system that helped enslaved African Americans follow a network of escape routes out of the South to freedom in the North
To assign meaning to messages
the act of interpreting a message by following syntactic symantic & pragmatic rules
Underwood Tariff Bill
October 13, 1913 – Lowered tariffs on hundreds of items that could be produced more cheaply in the U. S. than abroad
undifferentiated marketing: targeting strategies
a market coverage strategy in which a firm decides to ignore market segment differences & go after the whole market with one offer
unfolding organizational speech structure
an inductive style, in which the speaker lays out supporting evidence & then draws a conclusion, leading the listeners to be drawn into the argument
Unfunded mandates
Those regulations passed by Congress or issued by regulatory agencies to the states without federal funds to support them
Unified govt
A govt in which the same party controls both the White House & both houses of Congress. When Bill Clinton became pres. in 1993, it was the first time since 1981 (and only the second time since 1969) that the same party was in charge of the presidency & Congress
Unified Italy
During the mid 1800’s, count Camillo di Cavour expanded the Piedmont – Sardinia’s power & also
Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures (part of EEO)
set of rules in area of EEO, published in 1978; provide that all procedures (tests, etc. ) used be valid & relevant to job performance
Unilaterialism is a state’s dependence on its own power to maxime security & achieve national interests
Union Advantages
in the Civil War – Larger number of troops, superior navy, better transportation, overwhelming financial & industrial reserves to create munitions & supplies, which eventually outstripped the South’s initial material advantage
Union Pacific & Central Pacific joined/transcontinental line
Central Pacific & Union Pacific lines met at Ogden, Utah, creating the first transcontinental railroad line
Union Pacific Railroad
USG railroad that started in Omaha, Nebraska & it connected with the Central Pacific Railroad in Promentary Point, Utah; hired Chinese immigrants
Union Shop
A firm in which all workers must join the union
union shop
A workplace where an employee must pay dues or their equivalent to the union, but may not be fired if he or she fails to maintain membership in good standing in the union for any reason other than failure to pay such dues
Workers’ associations that bargain with employers over wages, benefits & working conditions
Unit of Account
Something that is used universally in the description of money matters such as prices. The unit of account most commonly used in the US is the dollar
unit of accounting
way of placing a specific price on economic goods & services (it serves as a standard of value (yardstick) that allows people to compare the relative worth of various goods & services)
Unit Rule
A traditional party practice under which the majority of a state delegation can force the minority to vote for its candidate
unitary actor assumption
the actor exercising power is a single entity that can “think” about its actions coherently & make choices
United Food & Commercial Workers International Union
A labor union representing approximately 1. 3 million workers in the U. S. & Canada in many industries, including health care, meatpacking, poultry & food processing, manufacturing, textile & chemical trades, & retail food. Until July 2005, UFCW was affiliated with the AFL – CIO, where it was the second largest union by membership. Along with two other members of the Change to Win Coalition, the UFCW formally disaffiliated with the AFL – CIO on July 29, 2005.
unity of command
Fayol – each subordinate should have only one boss
unity of direction
all activities in pursuit of a given organizational goal should be under direction of a single person
Universal suffrage
Right of all qualified adults to vote
Degree – granting institutions of higher learning. Those that appeared in Latin West from about 1200 onward became the model of all modern universities
University of Missippi & Alabama
LBJ Robert Kennedy sent marshalls to protect the right of qualified black there
unjust control
unwarrantable jurisdiction
unjust use of power
unjust use of power
unlimited power
Unlisted Powers
What is an Inherent Power
unnaturally imposed
national boundaries that existed in Africa at the end of the 19th century can best be described as
UN Security Coucil – main peacekeeping organ of the UN. Made up of 15 members, 5 of which are permanent: China, France, Russia, US & UK
unsought product
consumer product that the consumer either does not know about or know about but does not normally think of buying
unwritten Constitution
Certain deeply ingrained aspects of our govt which are not mentioned in the Constitution, such as political parties; political conventions; & cabinet meetings
Made in 800 – 400BCE refers to the the practice of disciples gathering fro religious discussion
Upon what factors dose the intelligibility of a presentation depend
Articulation, pronunciation, vocal pauses, overuse of stock expressions, & substandard grammar
Upton Sinclair/”Jungle”
Described awful conditions of meat packing industry, led to Meat Inspection Act
Urban II
The pope that launched the crusades in 1095. Called for Christian kings to take back the holy land, Jerusalem
Urban Riots
LBJ large scale rioting, summer 1966 & 1967, so Pres appointed National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders, said democracy to all citizen, adequate financing by both the federal & local govt
A Persian – influenced literary form of Hindi written in Arabic characters & used as a literary language since the 1300s
USA Freedom Corps
A program that responds to national emergencies, rebuilding our communities and extending American compassion throughout the world
User cost of capital
The annual cost of owning & using a capital asset, equal to economic depreciation plus forgone interest
wrongful uses of authority
A moral theory in which the right course of action is the one that results in the highest total utility
An abstract measure of the satisfaction consumers derive from consuming goods, services, & leisure activities
Utopian communities
Communities seeking cooperation, communism ideals, & communitarianism
utopian socialism
Philosophy introduced by the Frenchman Charles Fourier in the early nineteenth century. Utopian socialists hoped to create humane alternatives to industrial capitalism by building self – sustaining communities whose inhabitants would work cooperatively (616
Uzbekistan conflicts
Some ethnic problems. The Islamic Movement of Uzbek. causes some instability
Vaduz, Liechtenstein
Riga, Latvia
Valence issue
An issue on which voters distinguish rival parties by the degree to which they associate each party or candidate with conditions, goals, or symbols the electorate universally approves or disapproves of. Examples of such issues are economic prosperity & political corruption
Valid Opinion makeup
It must have noticeable preferences: – Should display options & your preference. show one’s opinion as only alternative +other opinions are ineffective – Well grounded in a coherent account of the consequences of policy – Theory of an outcome with an issue (consequences) – One must understand the facts of the case to further evaluate consequences
Valley Forge
Quarters of American army one winter in revolutionary war. Very cold, but Washington kept the morale of the troops up
variable costs
things that vary w/ the quantity of sales
Variable profit
Sum of prifts on each increamental unit produced by a firm
variable sum games
games in which the outcome can at times be beneficial for all or most of the players
The technique of enhancing immunity by exposing patients to dried mucous taken from those already infected
Two categories of social identity of great importance in Indian history. Varna are the four major social divisions: the Brahmin priest class, the Kshatriya warrior/administrator class, the Vaishya merchant/farmer class, & the Shudra laborer class
Vasco da Gama
Portuguese explorer. In 1497 – 1498 he led the first naval expedition from Europe to sail to India, opening an important commercial sea route
Vasco Nunez de Balboa
Spanish explorer who discovered the Pacific & claimed it for Spain
In medieval Europe, a sworn supporter of a king or lord committed to rendering specified military service to that king or lord
vehicle/crew scheduling
finding the optimal way to use resources such as aircraft, bus, or trucks, & their operating crews to provide transportation services to customers & materials to be moved between different locations
Venezuelan Boundary Dispute
GC2 1895, Guiana & Venezula in conflict with each other discovery of gold, Cleveland called for arbitration, The US determined to enforce the Monroe Doctrine by itself, without relying on the British got most of the land navy
VENONA project
A long – running & highly secret collaboration between U. S. intelligence agencies & the United Kingdom’s MI5 & GCHQ that involved the cryptanalysis of messages sent by several Soviet intelligence agencies, starting in the 1940s
VER’s & VEA’s
Voluntary export restraints (VER’S) & voluntary export agreements (VEA’S)
Vertical FDI”
choosing to invest in economic activity upstream (Backward Vertical FDI), or Downstream (Forward Vertical FDI) from the core business activity of the business unit
Vertical Integration
Owning every step of the manufacturing process. Ex: An oil company owns the land the oil comes from, the business to extract the oil, the shipping business to ship the oil, & the gas stations to sell the oil
Vertical intercept
The value taken by the dependent variable when the independent variable equals zero
Vertical Marketing System
Consists of producers, wholesalers, & reltailers acting as a unified system. One channel member own the others, has contracts with them, or wields so much power that they must all cooperate
Vertical Merger
A combination of two companies that are involved in different phases of producing a product
vertical retailer
a company that designs, produces, & sells its own products, without using middlemen or wholesalers
Veterans Administration
The second – largest cabinet department, the VA coordinates the distribution of benefits for veterans of the American armed forces & their dependents. The benefits include compensation for disabilities, the management of veterans’ hospitals, & various insurance programs
Veterans’ Bureau Scandal
CC Colonel Forbes goes to jail for conspiring to sell narcotics, liquor, & other govt property
Veterans of Foreign Wars
An organization of American veterans who have taken part in a foreign military campaign or expedition of the U. S. Like the American Legion, it usually takes pro – defense stands on foreign policy issues
A negative vote cast in the UNSC by one of the five permanent members that defeats the issue being voted on
In the process of law making what power does the executive branch have over the Legislative branch
vice – admiralty courts
Military courts, in which defendants are not entitled to a trial by jury of peers. These were established in the colonies to try colonial smugglers because colonial juries often sympathized with smugglers & would not convict them
Vickrey Auction
A sealed – bid auction where the highest bidder wins pays the price bid by the next – highest bidder
AL, 1863 a decisive battle in the American Civil War 1863
victimless crime
A term sometimes used for various acts that are considered crimes under the law but apparently have no victim. One such crime is prostitution, which is viewed by some as a commercial exchange between two consenting adults
Victorian Age
Reign of Queen Victoria of Great Britain (1837 – 1901). The term is also used to describe late – nineteenth – century society, with its rigid moral standards & sharply differentiated roles for men & women & for middle – class & working – class people (711)
Vidkun Quisling
Norwegian collaborator during WWII. Made had of govt under German control
Viet Cong
communist guerilla movement in vietnam
communist dominated vietnamese nationalist movement, operate out of China in WWII, guerilla tactics
a merchandise display that shows how merchandise looks in use
Vilnius, Lithuania
Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic
violent disturbances
violently persecute Jews
What did the pogroms that occurred in the late 19th century Russia do
_ House of Burgesses was a bicameral legislature
Virginia & Kentucky Resolutions
Affirmations of States rights in the face of the Alien & Sedition Acts. Written by Madison & Jefferson. Included a statement of the power of nullification by the States
Virginia Company
A joint – stock company: based in Virginia in 1607, founded to find gold & a water way to the Indies. Confirmed all Englishmen that they would have the same life in the New World, as they had in England, with the same rights. 3 of their ships transported the people that would found Jamestown in 1607
Virginia Resolves
In response to the 1765 Stamp Act, Patrick Henry persuaded the Virginia House of Burgesses to adopt several strongly worded resolutions that denied Parliament’s right to tax the colonies. Known as the Virginia Resolves, these resolutions persuaded many other colonial legislatures to adopt similar positions
Virtual Representation
Virtual representation means that a representative is not elected by his constituents, but he resembles them in his political beliefs & goals. The colonies only had virtual representation in the British govt
A Hindu god that had its own devotional cult. The preserver of the world
Visible artifacts
visible signs of an organization’s culture, such as the office design & layout, company dress code, nd company benefits & perks, like stop options, personal parking spaces or the private company dining room
a statement of a company’s purpose or reason for existing
Visionary Leadership
The ability to create & articulate a realisitic, credible, & attractive vision of the future that improves upon the current situation
visual aids
appeal to our sense of sight
Voice of America
1. One of the world’s most trusted sources for news & information from the U. S. & around the world; 2. A type of Media Propaganda
Voice vote
A congressional voting procedure in which members shout “yea” in approval or “nay” in disapproval; allows members to vote quickly or anonymously on bills
Volstead Act
WW, implemented the 18th Admendment. It established illegal alcohol at above 5%, but then comes the speakeasies
vote of confidence
a vote in a parliament expressing support for a govt; a govt losing a vote of confidence is expected to resign
vote of the people
What does the word Plebiscite mean
voter registration
system designed to reduce voter fraud by limiting voting to those who have established eligibility by submitting the proper form
Voting – age population
The citizens who are eligible to vote after reaching a minimum age requirement. In the U. S. a citizen must be at least eighteen years old in order to vote
Voting Rights Act of 1965
Eliminated obstacles used to block black voting, such as literacy tests. Enabled federal registrars to register voters
Vroom’s expectancy theory
Certain behaviors are linked to certain outcomes. Outcomes (rewards) have varying degrees of of value, worth and attractiveness. Certain behaviors are are associated with a probability of success
W. E. B. DuBois
Black leader who fought for universal suffrage & civil rights, & founded the Nigara Movement & NAACP
Wabash vs. Illinois
1886 – Stated that individual states can control trade in their states, but cannot regulate railroads coming through them. Congress has exclusive jurisdiction over interstate commerce. States cannot regulate or place restrictions on businesses which only pass through them, such as interstate transportation
Wade – Davis Bill
Bill declared that the Reconstruction of the South was a legislative, not executive, matter. It was an attempt to weaken the power of the pres. Lincoln vetoed it. Wade – Davis Manifesto said Lincoln was acting like a dictator by vetoing
Payments for labor services that are directly tied to time worked, or to the number of units of output produced
Wagner Act (National Labor Relations Act of 1935) NLRA
nation’s basic labor legislation; est. employee rights to form unions, requires employers to bargain w/ such unions in good faith, & prohibits unfair labor practices
Walker tariff
Democratic bill that reversed the high rates of tariffs imposed by the Whig – backed “Black Tariff” of 1842 under pres. John Tyler
Wall – of – separation principle
A Supreme Court interpretation of the establishment clause in the First Amendment that prevents govt involvement with religion, even on a nonpreferential basis
Walsh – Healy Act
Passed in 1936, the Walsh – Healy Act stated that workers must be paid not less than the prevailing minimumw age normally paid in a locality, restricted regular working hours to eigh hours a day, & 40 hours a week, with time & a half pay for additional hours, prohibited the employment of convicts & children under 18, & established sanitation & safety standards
war crimes
Violations of the law governing the conduct of warfare, such as by mistreating prisoners of war or unnecessarily targeting civilians
War Hawks
A term originally used to describe a member of the House of Representatives of the Twelfth Congress of the U. S. who advocated going to war against Great Britain in the War of 1812
War Industries Board
WW Headed by Bernard Baruch, could order businesses to support war by building more plants, etc
War is hell
Statement of Union General Sherman during Civil War
War on poverty
Johnson’s programs to help poor Americans, including job retraining & improvement of housing
War Powers Act
Passed in 1973 – Pres. is Limited in deployment of troops overseas to a 60 – day period in peacetime unless Congress explicitly gives its approval for a longer period
War Production Board
Converted factories from civilian to military production. Manufacturing output tripled
Andean civilization culturally linked to Tiwanaku, perhaps beginning as colony of Tiwanaku
Was the Cold War Over
RR, Gorbachev = supported political settlements in Angola & Cambodia, & took out troops from Afghanistan, wanted more open society perestroika “restructing”, glasnost “openess”, also reduced miltary spendings, Bush didn’t support the programs like Star Wars
Washington Conference of 1921
The U. S. & nine other countries discussed limits on naval armaments. They felt that a naval arms race had contributed to the start of WW I. They created quotas for different classes of ships that could be built by each country based on its economic power & size of existing navies
Washington Naval Disarmament Conference
meeting held in 1921 aand 1922 where world leaders agreed to limit construction of warships
Washington’s Farewell Address
Just & amicable feelings towards all nations “No permanent attachments or hate for any nations” “Troubles seperating economic & political ties”
Washington’s Farewell Address
Never delivered. Warned of the dangers of divisive party politics & warned agaisnt US alliances with other countries
Washinton’s Neutrality Proclamation
Established isolationist policy, proclaimed govt’s official neutrality in widening European conflicts also warned American citizens about intervening on either side of conflict. (1793)
water wheel
A mechanism that harnesses the energy in flowing water to grind grain or to power machinery. It was used in many parts of the world but was especially common in Europe from 1200 to 1900
Refers to the office complex in DC where members of the committee to re – elect Richard Nixon, posing as burglars, broke into the offices of the Democratic Party’s national headquarters. They were caught, & the scandal ultimately led to Nixon’s resignation
Watts riots
Riots in LA in 1965, 30 people died
Ways & Means Committee
GF where almost all important work on tax law occurs; decides whether to go along with presidential requests for tax cuts or increases, changed under Ford
Ways to manage conflict
What is the level of conflict, who is in conflict & what is the source of conflic
We communicate to direct, influence or inform our audience
For what three reasons do we generally try to communicate with each other
We shall overcome
Best known song of the civil rights movement
weak state
a state with little capacity for carrying out policies adopted or a state in which teh extent of any part of the state is limited
Wealth Accounts
A balance sheet of an economy’s stock of assets & liabilities
Welfare Reform
WJC”end welfare as we know it”, poor ppl move from welfare to work, welfare payments to max of five years, welfare recipients engage in work within two years
welfare state
a state which provides a wide array of social services to its members
Wendell Wilkie
The Republicans chose Wendell L. Willkie to run against Pres. Roosevelt. Willkie’s great appeal lay in his personality. The Republican platform condemned FDR’s alleged dictatorship, as well as the New Deal. Willkie was opposed not so much to the New Deal as to its extravagances & inefficiencies
Western Front
A line of trenches & fortifications in WWI that stretched without a break from Switzerland to the North Sea. Scene of most of the fighting between Germany, on the one hand, & France & Britain, on the other
Western Russia
Where are the Ural Mountains
Western Sahara
Claims itself as independent from Morocco; not widely recognized
What are Alliances
Alliances are groups of states in opposition to other groups of states. Each alliance is developed to help the member states promote their national interests & achieve foreign policy objectives
What are Foreign Policy Objectives
Foreign Policy Objectives are the goals of a foreign policy, derived by relating a state’s national interest to the international situation & the power available to the state
What are islam’s three holy books
The quran, hadith, & sunna. Respectively gods words to Muhammed, Muhammed’s sayings, & Muhammed’s deeds
What are Narrows
The entrance to New York Harbor
What are North – South relations
North – South relations are the relationship between industrialized, developed countries (the North) & mostly poor, developing countries (the South). Most developed countries are geographically north of Lesser Developed Countries
What are powers of the Executive Branch
Commander in Chief, Pardons, Appointments, Treaties, Law enforement
What are some exemptions to the 1966 FOIA
National security, personal right to privacy, law enforcement, & well water geographic data. Most other info must be provided within 10 days under the 1966 Freedom of Information Act
What are some powers of the Pres.
1. Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces; 2. Appoints ambassadors; 3. Represents the nation to foreign countries; 4. Vetoes or signs Bills into Law; 5. Appoints Supreme Court justices
What are the 3 components of Social Security in the US
Old Age, Survivors & Disability Insurance. Because of this, SS is sometimes called OASDI
What are the 3 qualifications for Pres.
35 years old, born in US, live in US for 14 years
What are the 3 qualifications of a Senator
30 years old, 9 years in US, live in the state they represent
What are the 3 qualifications to be a representative
25 years old, live in US for 7 years, live in the state you represent
What are the Lower Federal Courts
the District Courts & the Court of Appeals
What are three powers of Congress
Declare war, collect taxes, create money, created army, create courts
What are two primary objectives of govt intervention in international trade
1. To help domestic firms achieve first mover advantages. 2. Help domestic firms compete against firms who have first mover advantages
what areas should you focas on When writing your draft
Introduction, body, conclusion, transitions, andsupport
What branch of govt negotiates treaties
The Executive, subject to the approval of the senate
What caused low food supplies in Africa during European colonization
Europeans insisted on the growth of cash crops, such as cotton
What contributed to the weakness of the Weimar Republic
uncontrollable inflation, a lack of democratic tradition, a large number of political parties
What countries have access to the Black Sea
Romania, Bulgaria, Turkey, Georgia, Russia, Ukraine
What did Napoleon not accomplish
An expansion of freedom of speech
What did Sergey Witte do to finance Russian industries
launched a program of higher taxes & foreign investments
What did the Central Powers gain over Russia at the battle near Tannenberg
Germany drove the Russians into full retreat, G regained East Prussia, G seized numerous guns & horses
What did the policy of unrestricted submarine warfare refer to
Germany’s policy to sink any ship in Britain’s water without warning
What did the Roman empire contribute to the world
Roads, bridges, aqueducts, & a codified legal system. It lasted 800 years
What did Voltaire Believe
That heretical views should not be persecuted by the govt
What does fascism stress
what does it mean by capital intensive
Is a country relying on machinery, rather than labor
What does the Elastic Clause give Congress the power to make
Any law that is necessary & proper to running the govt
What does the voice of your writing indicate
Voice shows if the subject acts or is acted upon
What effect did the Dawes Plan have on the economy of Postwar Germany
it saved Germany from an inflationary crisis & stabilized the economy
What ere the goals of the five year plans
rapid industrial growth, stronger national defense, modernization of the Soviet economy
What excuses do jewish & islamic men need to divorce their wives
None. They can divorce with no explanation. Women can only divorce in a few circumstances
What five steps are involved in the prewriting phase
Selecting your purpose & objective, analizing your audience, researching your subject, selecting a pattern, & outlining
What form of communication dose the construction of a bullet statement resemble Why the compairison of the two forms
The wording of a telegram. Since each word of a telegram costs the same, word economizing is integral to save money while ensuring the message meaning; the same concept is applicable to developing bullet statements
What gamble did Germany make before the U. S. entered the war
that their blockade would defeat Britain before US troops arrived
What happens if the fed interest rate goes too high
Unemployment & low economic growth
What impact did Russia’s involvement in WWI have on the Russian gov
it revealed the weaknesses of czarist rule & military leadership
What important policy implications evolve from an understanding of Porter’s Diamond of National Advantage
it is in the best interest of a firm to upgrade its advanced factors of production: eg: employee training & R & D. Equally, firms should lobby the govt to urge them to increase investment in education, infrastructure, & R & D, & to promote strong competition in domestic markets
What increased during the Great depression
bank closings, unemployment, business failures
What is a Capability Analysis
A Capability Analysis is an evaluation by the state of its military, political, diplomatic, & economic abilities to see if it has the means to achieve national interest & foreign policy objectives
What is a Colony
A Colony is a noncontiguous possession of a sovereign state, established by settlement, cession, and/or conquest
What is a compromise
Giving up something to get something else
What is a Constitution
A Written Form of govt
What is a controlled – circulation magazine
A magazine that sets its circulation & gets money from advertisers
What is a Leasehold
A Leasehold is an area used by a foreign state under an agreement with the sovereign state that owns the area
What is a Nation
A Nation is a social group that shares a common ideology, institutions, customs, & a sense of homogeneity. It may be a state, part of a state, or extend beyond the borders of a state
What is a National Style
A National Style is the behavior pattern of a state dealing with its foreign policy problems
What is a Pardon
Get out of jail for free
What is a Protectorate
a relationship between a strong sovereign state & a semisovereign state or an area not recognized as a state. Two traditional reasons for their establishment: – To thwart the interests of third states – To administer law in order in an area where no responsible govt exists
What is a Sphere of Influence
A Sphere of Influence is an area dominated by the national interests of a foreign power
What is a totalitarian state
a state in which the govt controls every aspect of public & private life
What is an aspect of procedural justice theory in management
If you are giving negative feedback on job performance, you must make it clear why negative feedback is being given
What is an aspect of procedural justice theory in management
If you are giving negative feedback on job performance, you must make it clear why negative feedback is being given
What is an Enumerated Power
Powers specifically given to Congress
What is an Implied Power
Powers given to Congress without really writing it out
What key factor led to th eformation of the Triple Alliance & the Triple Entete
Bismark’s fear of France’s army & Britain’s fear of Germany’s empire
What labor arrangement does the federal governement operate under
The Federal govt operates under “open shop” rules nationwide, although many of its employees are represented by unions. So, an employee cannot be compelled to join a union that may exist at the employer, nor can the employee be fired if s/he joins the union. In other words, the employee has the “right to work”, whether as a union member or not
What led to the economic downfall of Spain
expensive war, Jew & Muslim expulsion, english raids on Spanish ships
What nations are still part of the British Commonwealth
Antigua & Barbuda, Australia, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Canada, Grenada, Jamaica, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Saint Kitts & Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent & the Grenadines, the Soloman Islands, Tuvalu, the U. K
What nations oppose the ICC
US, China, Israel, Zimbabwe
What natural features border the Gobi Desert
The desert basins of the Gobi are bounded by the Altay Mountains & the grasslands & steppes of Mongolia on the north, by the Tibetan Plateau to the southwest, & by the North China Plain to the southeast
What options do corporations have for raising capital
Generally speaking, companies have three choices when they want to raise cash. They can issue shares of stock, they can borrow from the bank, or they can borrow from investors by issuing bonds
What outlining formats are mentioned in this lesson
This lesson covers four outline types: scratch; formal; informal; & talking paper
What political party did Alexander Hamilton start
The Federalist party in 1792, which advocated strong national govt. It was opposed by Thomas Jefferson & James Madison’s Republican party
What set the stage for Vietnamese resistance against the French
Peasants had less rice to eat bc the French exported most of it
What should be accomplished during the summary
The summary should restate the main points, the relationship between points, & the specific objective of the presentation
What states were part of the Northwest Territory
Ohio, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Indiana. They all became states in the early to mid 1800’s
What takes presedence, US domestic law or international law
The US considers its domestic law to hold sway over international law. European nations tend to hold international law in a higer regard
What territories did the US take from Spain in the spanish american war
Puerto Rico, The phillipines, & Cuba. it took place starting in 1898. The phillipinos, & later the cubans would fight for their independance
What theory did Leontief promote
Leontief Paradox: Leontief performed empirical tests on the “factor endowment” idea & found that it does not predict real world scenarios
What theory did Micheal Porter promote
National Competative Advantage (Porter’s Diamond): Combination of the following give competative advantage in the Global Economy: 1. Factor Endowments 2. Demand Conditions 3. Relating & Supporting Industries 4. Firm Strategy, structure, & rivalry
What theory did Raymond Vernon promote
The product life – cycle theory: the idea that products are intially produced in countries with a supporting market size. Then the are filtered down to the developing world after time as costs increase in the originating country
What trade theory did Adam Smith promote
Absolute advantage: A country has an absolute advantage in the production of a product when it is more efficient than other countries
What trade theory did David Ricardo promote
Comparitive Advantage: The theory that countries can specialize in the production of goods in which they are more efficient
What two things can a pres. do to a Bill
1. sign it to make it a Law; 2. veto it & send it back to Congress
What was an immediate economic cause of the french revolution
High govt spending with low tax collection from the nobles
what was common to both fascism & communism
a one – party system, a disregard for individual rights, supremacy of the state
What was France’s Vietnam
The Algerian war, starting in 1954. Harsh crackdown on Algerian militants lead to independance for Algeria in 1962
What was NOT a social change during the French Revolution
Religious fever gripped the nation strengthening the catholic church
What was one part of Roosevelt’s New Deal program to fight the Depression
The stock market & banking system created their own reform council, gov. agencies took over businesses & farms, large publick works projects helped to provide jobs
What was stressed by socialist realism
value of hard work, glory of soviet life, achievements of Stalin
What was the 1975 Helsinki Conference
It founded the The Organization for Security & Co – operation in Europe (OSCE)
What was the Allies plan for victory over the Nazis
The allies would fight Germany on two fronts to weaken it
What was the concept of wergeld
the amount of compensation defined in money for loss of a persons life
What was the Conference for Security & Co – operation in Europe (CSCE)
held at the suggestion of the Soviet Union which wished to use the talks to maintain its control over the communist countries in Eastern Europe. Western Europe, however, saw these talks as a way to reduce the tension in the region, furthering economic cooperation & obtaining humanitarian improvements for the populations of the Communist Bloc
What was the European Defence Community
a plan proposed by René Pleven, the French foreign minister, in response to the American call for the rearmament of West Germany. intention to form a pan – European defence force as an alternative to Germany’s proposed accession to NATO, meant to harness its military potential in case of conflict with the Soviet bloc. never ratified & collapsed 30 of August, 1954
What was Transcendentalism
a philosophical & literacy movement of the 1800s that emphasized living a simple life & celebrating the truth found in nature & un – personal emotion
What was trench warfare intended to accomplish
to protect soldiers from enemy gun fire on the front lines
What was true about nationalism
one’s greatest loyalty is not to the king but to the nation of people & the people who ahve common culture
What was Wilson’s stated reason the US declared war on germany in 1917
The resumption of unrestricted submarine warfare in the atlantic
What were the Helinski Accords
the Final Act of the CSCE. The civil rights portion of the agreement provided the basis for the work of Helsinki Watch, an independent NGO created to monitor compliance to the Helsinki Accords. While these provisions applied to all signatories the focus of attention was on their application to the Soviet Union & its associates, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland & Romania
What were three major components of romanticism
Love of natures beauty, value of common people, glorification of heroes & heroic actions
What what the Thirty Years’ war a conflict over
Religion, Territories, & Power among European ruling families
What would Metternich most likely not agree with
A ruler should never violate the constitution of his or her country
What year did Bangladesh become independant
1971, resulting in the third india – pakistan war
What year did Mexico separate from Spain
1810. It’s war to win its freedom ended in 1821
What year was pakistan partitioned
1947, immediately fought war with india overt kashmir
wheel of retailing concept
retailing that states that new types of retailers usually begin as low margin, low price, low status operations but later evolve into higher priced, higher service operations, eventually becoming like the conventional retailers they replaced
When starting a presentation, what are some attention – getting devices you might consider
Rhetorical questions; direct questions; quotations; illustrations; a startling statement; unusual or dramatic devices; & refrences to the importance of the theme
When was Mercosur founded
In 1991. It is a trading block of Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, & Uruguay. Venezuela & Bolivia will become members soon
When was the CIO founded
In 1935 by 8 international unions within the AFL, which had either opposed or given only lukewarm support to organizing mass production industries, to change its policies. After failing to change AFL policy from within, five of these eight unions split from the AFL to found the Congress of Industrial Organizations as a rival federation in 1938
When was the renaissance
Approx. 1300 to 1600. It was preceded by the Middle (or Dark) ages & preceded the Modern age
When was the US Army desegregated
After WWII, 1945 – 1950 by decree of pres. Truman
Where are the Adirondack Mountains
Northeast New York state. It is a resort area
Where did the pilgrims settle
In Massachussetts, established Plymouth in 1620
Where do the majority of UN troops come from
Smaller countries. The top 5 troop donating nations are India, Nigeria, Jordan, Bangladesh, & Australia. The US is the top money donator to the UN, but it donates few troops
Where does a Bill go first to become a Law
It begins either in the Senate or in the House of Representatives
where they can be performed most efficiently
Where should firms locate their various production facilities
Where would you most likely use an SAB
EPRs, Awards/Decoration Nomination Package
Where would you most likely use an SIB
Talking paper, point paper, or bullet background paper
Which African countries are not part of the African Union
Only Morocco. founded in July 2002. The AU is a federation consisting of 53 states. The purpose of the federation is to help secure Africa’s democracy, human rights & a sustainable economy, especially by bringing an end to intra – African conflict & creating an effective common market
Which of the following factors led to the fall of France to the Nazis
the fall of dunkirk, evacuation of the British forces, Italy’s attack on France from the South
Which of the following motivated Japan to build an empire
Japan was overcrowded & faced shortages of raw materials, Japan wanted the rich European colonies of Southeast Asia, Japan took over Manchuria & later fought for the heartland of China (NOT the emperor wanted a larger empire to suit his divine status)
Which of the following two statements accurately reflects the trend in foreign direct investments over the past 20 years
There has been a rapid increase in the total volume of FDI undertaken & there has been a change in the importance of various countries as sources for FDI
Whig party
Party formed to oppose Jackson & the democrats. Supported protective tariffs, national banking & federal aid for infrastructure. Fell into disunity over slavery, & later Republican party emerged from it
A senator or representative who helps the party leader stay informed about what party members are thinking, rounds up members when important votes are to be taken, & attempts to keep a nose count on how the voting on controversial issues is likely to go
Whiskey Rebellion
group of farmers refused to pay federal excise tax on whiskey, Washington responds decisively with troops (1794)
Whiskey Ring
After the Whiskey Ring robbed the Treasury, Grant delcared, “Let no guilty man escape,” his own secretary was found to be a culprit. However, he wrote a letter on his behalf & country began to turn on Grant
reporting others’ ethics violations to management or legal authorities
White Flight
Whites migrating/moving to the suburbs by the millions
White House staff
directly advises the pres. on a daily basis, it includes the more than 600 people who work at the White House, from the chef to the advance people who make travel arrangements. The key staff departments include Intergovernmental Affairs. It includes the support services of Scheduling, Personnel, & Secret Service & the policy offices of the National Security Affairs, Domestic Policy Affairs, & cabinet secretaries
White primary
The practice of keeping African Americans from voting in primary elections (at the time, the only meaningful election in the one – party South was the Democratic primary) through arbitrary implementation of registration requirements & intimidation. Such practices were declared unconstitutional in 1944
WJC an Ame political controversy that began with the real estate dealings of the Clintons & their associates in the Whitewater Development Corporation, a failed business venture. David Hale claimed in November 1993 that Bill, while govnr of AK, pressured him to provide an illegal $300,000 loan to Susan McDougal, Kenneth Starr major player
Who can legally violate equal opportunity laws
Churches. They can discriminate in hiring based on religion
Who can participate in cases at the ICJ
Cases can only be between states, both of whom have to accept the jurisdiction of the court to try the case
Who determines the GAAPs for state & local governement
The governmental Accounting Standards Board, since 1984. It is a private, non – governmental, organization. The mission is to establish & improve standards of state & local governmental accounting & financial reporting that will result in useful information for users of financial reports & guide & educate the public, including issuers, auditors, & users of those financial reports
Who does the Freedom of Information Act apply to
The 1966 Act applies only to federal agencies. However, all of the states, as well as the DC & some territories, have enacted similar statutes to require disclosures by agencies of the state & of local govts, though some are significantly broader than others. Many combine this with Open Meetings legislation, which requires govt meetings to be held publicly
Who embraced fascism
Juan Peron, Hitler, Mussolini
Who is most affected by per unit taxes
The cost of per unit taxes is split between the buyer & the seller
Who is on the $10 bill
Alexander Hamilton
Who is on the $2 bill
Thomas Jefferson
Who is on the $20 bill
Andrew Jackson
Who is on the $5 bill
Who is on the $50 bill
Ulysses S. Grant
Who is Stewart Brand
An author, editor, & creator of The Whole Earth Catalog & CoEvolution Quarterly. intent was to enable people to find virtually any sort of information useful to themselves,
Who may suspend the writ of habeas corpus & when
Who: Good question. Traditionally it was thought that only congress could do so as the power to suspend HC was found in article I of the constitution, wherein the legislature’s powers are defined. Lincoln did it, & though it was found to be unconstitutional, he merely ignored the ruling. PResident Grant also did it
Who must the pres. inform before conducting a covert military operation
The Congressional intelligence committees. For the CIA, it is the senate foreign relations committe as well
Who supported Caesar
He was greatly supported by the lower classes, but fought constantly with the Senate
who you are is reflected how
physically, socially, psychologically, & holistically
whorf – sapir hypothesis
theory that the structure of a language shapes the world view of its users
Why ddi the Maji Maji Rebellion fail
East Africans believed that magic water would protect them from bullets
Why did American sugar planters overthrow Queen Liliuokalani
She wanted to restore the political power of the native Hawaiians
Why did Britain take control of Suez Canal
Egypt could not pay its foreign debt
Why did coalition govts usually prove unstable
they were alliances of several parties who disagreed on many policies
Why did coastal nations gain in power during the age of Exploration
They became very rich & influential due to increased trade. Inland states such as Germany declined in power
Why did westen nations desire lands in the Pacific Rim
because of their natural resources & strategic location
Why is “extemporaneous” approach to speaking appealing
It is the least hostile & most intimate form of communicating with your audience. You are able to speak “off the cuff”, but may also use spaeking aids, such as index cards, outlines, etc
Why is communication a process
because it is ever changing, ongoing activity
Why is ethics important
It’s going to increase your awareness of communicating in a global village
Why is the “extemporaneous” approach to speaking appealing
It is the least hostile & most intimate form of communicating with an audience. You are able to speak “off the cuff,” but may also use speaking aids, such as index cards, outlines, etc
Why is the price elasticity of demand almost always a negative number
Because the law of demand says that the demand curves slope downward
Why study communication
communicate to satisfy needs, provide a meaning that others will understand
why study self – concept
it’s the frame through which we communicate, it influences the roles we play & how we behave, & it affects the way we view others
Wild Bill Hickok
US marshall who pursued some of the worst outlaws of the old west
Wildcat strike
A strike without union authorization
Willa Cather
December 7, 1873 – April 24, 1947 is among the most eminent female American authors. She is known for her depictions of US prairie life in novels like O Pioneers!
William & Mary
First Protestant kings of England
William Bennett
RR attention on educatio reform
William Ellery
born in Newport 1727 – educated at Harvard Member of Rhode Island Sons of Liberty & signer of the Declaration of Independence
William Halsey
Admiral of US fleet in Pacific in WWII
William K. Reilly
GB1 2000 EPA, antipollution, tighten automobile emissiosn
William Lloyd Garrison
A militant abolitionist, he became editor of the Boston publication, The Liberator, in 1831. Under his leadership, The Liberator gained national fame & notoriety due to his quotable & inflammatory language, attacking everything from slave holders to moderate abolitionists, & advocating northern secession
William Marcy Tweed
Ran a network of corrupt NYC officials called the Tweed ring. Tammany Hall. Name synonomous with municipal corruption. Boss Tweed
William of Orange
WHat did the Glorious Revolution bring to England’s throne
William Randolph Hurst
Pioneer in the kind of sensational reporting often called Yellow Journalism. Helped whip up hostility toward Spain, which led to the Spanish American war
William Sherman
AL scorched earth” policies that he implemented in conducting total war. Leading Union general. Known for saying ‘War is Hell. ‘
The maximum price at which he or she would buy a good
Wilmot Proviso
JP, David Wilmot Bill that would ban slavery in the territories acquired after the War with Mexico 1846, Calhoun against with his compact theory govt. created by states
Wilson Gorman Tariff
GC2 1894, This tariff passed by Congress in 1894 restricted US sugar imports. The tariff led to an economic downturn in Cuba, & in turn helped to increase the anger of Cuban natives against colonial Spain. Was 40% rate compared to McKinley Tariff, however again he was defeated on tariff program
Wilson Suffers Stroke
Oct. 3, 1919 – Wilson suffered a catastrophic, disabling stroke while campaigning for passage of the Versailles Treaty. The campaign was cut short & Wilson was never the same. This doomed any chance of passage of the treaty as Wilson, in this disabled state, withdrew from negotiations with Senate Republicans & refused to entertain any amendments to the treaty
Wilsonian Idealism
Set idealistic goals for peace
Wilson’s 14 points
Presented at Peace Talks (1919) at end of WWI: Versailles. St. Germain & Trianon Treaties. Free trade & lower tariffs. Reductions is armaments. Decolonization of empires. Self determination with trusteeships. Create international peacekeeping force with collective security provisions
win – lose conflicts
approach to conflict resoloution in which one party reaches it’s goal at the expense of the others
win – win problem solving
approach to conflict resoloution in which the parties work together all to satisfy their goals
Winner – take – all labor market
One in which small differences in human capital translate into large differences in pay
winner – take – all system
an election system in which the candidate with the most votes wins
winner take all
another term for first past the post
Winston Churchill
Prime minister of GB in WWII. Kept brittain moral going during german aieral assults
Wire Service
An electronic delivery of news gathered by the news service’s correspondents & sent to all member news media organizations
witch – hunt
The pursuit of people suspected of witchcraft, especially in northern Europe in the late sixteenth & seventeenth centuries
Haywood was the leader of the Wobblies. The International Workers of the World (Wobblies) were a militant, radical union. They favored socialism & opposed free enterprise. They were disliked by big business & less radical unions
Women’s christin Temperance Union
Women’s group encouraging abstinence from alcohol. Leading force for prohibition
Women’s movement
A movement to secure legal, economic & social equality for women. Galvanized by work of Betty Friedan. Worked for equal pay, improved day care & abortion rights
Women’s Rights/Seneca Falls
Woman’s Right Convention, prominent feminists read Declaration of Sentiments: “all men & women are created equal”
Women’s Trade Union League
Organized by female activists, helped give femal reformers an national stage for social investigation & advocacy
Woodrow Wilson
nomination of Theodore Roosevelt as the presidential candidate for the “Bull Moose” party led to the election of which of the following pres.s
Woodrow Wilson in 1917 upon entering WWI
Who said “world must be made safe for democracy”
Work – to – rule
A type of slowdown used by workers. It is not completely covered by US labor law
work breakdown structure
defines the hierarchy of project tasks, subtasks, & work packages
Work ethic
A belief in the importance of hard work & personal achievement
Work Team Characteristics
A team composed of multiskilled workers, that does all the tasks previously done by individual member in a functional department or departments
worker performance & morale
contribute to productivity, product quality, & reputation of organization not only for its goods & services but also as a place to work
An alternative to the traditional welfare, where an individual is trained to work instead of receiving welfare
Workplace deviance
unethical behavior that violates organizational norms about right & wrong
Works Progress Administration
Program of the New Deal to perform public works to put people back to work
World Bank
A specialized agency of the UN that makes loans to countries for economic development, trade promotion, & debt consolidation. Its formal name is the International Bank for Reconstruction & Development
World Court (International Court of Justice)
The judicial arm of the UN; located in The Hague, it hears only cases between states
world govt
A centralized world governing body with strong enforcement powers
World Health Organization (WHO)
Based in Geneva, it provides technical assistance to improve health conditions in the third world & conducts major immunization campaigns
comprehensive mental pictures of the critical problems facing the U. S. in the world & of the appropriate & inappropriate ways of responding to these problems
wholly owned subsidiary
WOTS – UP analysis
weaknesses, opportunities, threats & strengths underlying planning
Wounded knee
Creek in SD where US killed large number of Sioux in 1890. Last major military conflict between whites & Native Americans
Wright Brothers
Launched the air age
writ of certiorari
a legal document issued by the Supreme Court to request the court transcripts of a case, indicated that the Court will review a lower court’s decision
Writ of habeas corpus
A Latin term meaning “you shall have the body. ” A court order directing a police officer, sheriff, or warden who has a person in custody to bring the prisoner before a judge & show sufficient cause for his or her detention. The writ of habeas corpus was designed to prevent illegal arrests & imprisonment
Writ of Habeus Corpus
What can Congress not take away from a Person
writ of mandamus
court order directing an official to perform an official duty
write – in candidate
A candidate for public office whose name does not appear on the ballot (usually because he or she has not secured the nomination of a political party) but whose name must be written on the ballot by voters
enabled people to keep records, pass on learning & transfer information – allowed people to keep historical records of themselves – developed by Sumerians between 3500 & 3000 BCE
WW2 People
FDR Hitler, Mussolini Axis with H, Winston Churchill, SW – Stimson, SN – Knox, FDR, MacArthur
WWI was disrupting US trade with France & Britain
What was the major reason the US declared war on germany in 1917
Xenophobia is the fear & distrust of foreigners & the policies & objectives of other states
A confederation of nomadic peoples living beyond the northwest frontier of ancient China. Chinese rulers tried a variety of defenses & stratagems to ward off these ‘barbarians,’ as they called them, & dispersed them in 1st Century
XYZ Affair
Incident in which French officials demanded a bribe to speak to American diplomats. Published in newspapers (but French names were replaced with X, Y, & Z) & completely reversed American sentiment towards France
Hebrew name for God
Yale College
Founded in 1701, it was the third college of the colonies
Yalta Conferences
Confrences that established Soviet Union as a reasonable rational power that can be dealt with with diplomatically
Yamagata Arimoto
One of the leaders of the Meiji Restoration
Originally a nickname for people from New England, now applied to anyone from the U. S
Yellow journalism
Inflammatory, irresponsible reporting by newspapers to incite war. Used by William Randolph Hearst to incite the Spanish – American war
Yellow Peril
A supposed threat to the US posed by Japan & China. Fear of asian immigration & Japan’s rising military power
Yerevan, Armenia
San Salvador, El Salvador
Does the Bill of Rights give people the right to critisize the govt
Yi Kingdom
The Yi dynasty ruled Korea from the fall of the Koryo kingdom to the colonization of Korea by Japan
Yield Curve
A curve that shows the relationship between interest rates & bonds’ time to maturity
In Chinese belief, complementary factors that help to maintain the equilibrium of the world. Yin is associated with masculine, light, & active qualities; yang with feminine, dark, & passive qualities
you language
language that judges another person increasing the likely hood of a defensive reaction
Young Plan
lowered German reparations and limited how long they had to be paid, it also removed outside supervision and control of Germany
Your boys are not going to be sent into any foreign wars. “
1940 – Franklin Roosevelt campaign promise of 1940, though he had already begun some preparations for war
The founder of Zarathustrianism
The Japanese word for a branch of Mahayana Buddhism based on highly disciplined meditation. It is known in Sanskrit as dhyana, in Chinese as chan, & in Korean as son
the founder of Stoicism on the island of Cyprus
Zero Economic Profit
A frim is earning a normal return on its investment i. e. it is doing as well as it could by investing its money elsewhere
Zheng He
An imperial eunuch & Muslim, entrusted by the Ming emperor Yongle with a series of state voyages that took his gigantic ships through the Indian Ocean, from Southeast Asia to Africa
massive pyramidal stepped tower made of mudbricks. It is associated with religious complexes in ancient Mesopotamian cities, but its function is unknown
Zimmerman Note
1917 – Germany sent this to Mexico instructing an ambassador to convince Mexico to go to war with the U. S. It was intercepted & caused the U. S. to mobilized against Germany, which had proven it was hostile
Zionism is a movement which promotes political, economic, financial, & military support for Israel