FSHN 120 – exam 2

aspartame cannot be used to prepare cooked foods because:
a. once it is heated, the body cannot metabolize it
b. heat destroys its flavor
c. its amino acids form ketones
d. its glycemic load becomes too high
b. heat destroys its flavor
a condition marked by blood glucose levels that are below normal fasting levels is:
a. hypoglycemia
b. type 2 diabetes
c. type 1 diabetes
d. ketoacidosis
a. hypoglycemia
a disaccharide is formed by the chemical bonding of:
a. one monosaccharide & one polysaccharide
b. two oligosaccharides
c. two polysaccharides
d. two monosaccharides
d. two monosaccharides
the glycogen stored in muscle cells is used primarily to provide glucose for red blood cells: T or F
F
Up to what percentage of a person’s total energy intake should carbohydrates make up, based on the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range?
a. 15%
b. 70%
c. 30%
d. 65%
d. 65%
lactose is composed of one molecule of glucose and one molecule of galactose: T or F?
T
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when fructose and glucose are bonded together, they form:
a. maltose
b. sucrose
c. galactose
d. lactose
b. sucrose
honey is a more nutritious and healthful sweetener than table sugar: T or F
F
a diet high in simple sugars has been shown to increase both triglycerides and “bad” cholesterol in the blood: T or F
F
the term “enriched” on a food label signifies that:
a. the food was processed without any artificial additives
b. nutrients were added to the food that did not originally exist in the food
c. the nutrients in the food were lost during processing and then added back in
d. nutrients were added to the food that have additional health benefits beyond those naturally found in the food
c. the nutrients in the food were lost during processing and then added back in
in january 2006 the FDA issued an optional recommendation to list the amounts of trans fatty acids on the Nutrition Facts panel of food products: T or F
F
which of the following is a rich source of polyunsaturated fatty acids:
a. corn oil
b. coconut oil
c. butter
d. beef fat
a. corn oil
during exercise, which of the following triggers the breakdown of stored fat:
a. lipoprotein lipase
b. insulin
c. adrenaline
d. estrogen
c. adrenaline
eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are metabolic derivatives of:
a. trans fat
b. cholesterol
c. linoleic acid
d. alpha-linolenic acid
d. alpha-linolenic acid
which of the following health problems has been associated with high intakes of fat replacers:
a. elevated blood cholesterol levels
b. allergies
c. gastrointestinal distress
d. hypertension
c. gastrointestinal distress
triglycerides, phospholipids, and glycerols are the three types of lips commonly found in foods: T or F?
F
fat is the most energy dense of all the macronutrients: T or F
T
what is the primary form of fat in the diet:
a. triglycerides
b. sterols
c. glycerols
d. phospholipids
a. triglycerides
which of the following is a fat replacer:
a. trans fat
b. olestra
c. phosphate
d. saccharin
b. olestra
olive oil, canola oil, and cashew nuts are rich in monounsaturated fatty acids: T or F?
T
the majority of athletes can obtain an adequate amount of protein from eating a healthy diet: T or F
T
which of the following processes involves both the synthesis of new proteins and the breakdown of existing proteins to provide amino acids for building new proteins:
a. transcription
b. acidosis
c. translation
d. turnover
d. turnover
which of the following is NOT typically a nutrient of concern for vegans:
a. vitamin B12
b. calcium
c. vitamin c
d. iron
c. vitamin c
as long as an athlete consumes adequate dietary protein, total caloric intake is not important in athletic performance: T or F?
F
what element makes protein different from carbohydrates and fats:
a. oxygen
b. carbon
c. nitrogen
d. hydrogen
c. nitrogen
the process of combining two incomplete proteins to make a complete protein is called:
a. protein
b. the protein-combining method
c. mutual supplementation
d. amino acid sequencing method
c. mutual supplementation
which of the following is the MOST complete protein from a plant source:
a. green beans
b. soybeans
c. apples
d. bread
b. soybeans
protein-energy malnutrition is seen only in developing countries: T or F?
F
a well-planned vegetarian diet reduces the risk for many chronic diseases. for which of the following conditions does such a diet NOT minimize the risk:
a. heart disease
b. cancer
c. anemia
d. obesity
c. anemia
which of the following is an excellent source of protein that includes foods such as kidney beans, pinto beans, black beans, soybeans, lentils, and chickpeas:
a. legumes
b. quorn
c. quinoa
d. nuts
a. legumes
overweight and obesity result from an imbalance in energy intake versus energy expenditure: T or F?
T
which of the following is NOT a potential health risk associated with eating a low-carbohydrate diet:
a. low blood glucose levels, leading to diminished cognitive functioning and ketoacidosis
b. increased risk for heart disease caused by consuming too much saturated fat
c. increase risk for type 2 diabetes
d. increased risk of some forms of cancer
c. increased risk for type 2 diabetes
an apple-shaped fat pattern increases a person’s risk for which kind of diseases:
a. heart
b. liver
c. respiratory
d. gastrointestinal
a. heart
which of the following is NOT considered a basal function:
a. walking up stairs
b. circulation of your blood and lymph
c. maintaining your body temperature
d. respiration (inhaling and exhaling)
a. walking up stairs
an individual’s body composition refers to the amount of fat tissue mass as compared with lean tissue mass: T or F?
T
the primary determinant of basal metabolic rate is the amount of lean body mass one has: T or F?
T
which of the following would NOT be good advice for someone who is trying to gain weight:
a. eat approximately 25 to 30% of kilocalories from fat
b. eat small, frequent meals
c. do not exercise
d. eat an additional 500 to 1,000 kcal a day
c. do not exercise
the amount of energy expended by the body in digesting, absorbing, transporting, metabolizing, and storing nutrients is called:
a. the basal metabolic rate
b. adaptive thermogenesis
c. the nutrient expenditure quotient
d. the thermic effect of food
d. the thermic effect of food
which of the following is NOT one of the primary components of a sound weight change plan:
a. application of behavior modification techniques
b. a change of more than 2 pounds per week
c. gradual change in energy intake
d. incorporation of regular and appropriate physical activity
b. a change of more than 2 pounds per week
body mass index (BMI) is BEST described as:
a. a ration of an individual’s body weight to their height squared
b. the percentage of an individual’s body weight as compared to a reference standard
c. the ratio of an individual’s fat tissue to their lean tissue mass squared
d. an individual’s body density squared
a. a ratio of an individual’s body weight to their height squared
lactic acid is an important intermediate of glucose breakdown, playing a critical role in supplying fuel to the working muscle, heart, and resting tissues: T or F?
T
the primary way the body loses heat is through:
a. urine
b. respiration
c. feces
d. sweating
d. sweating
fatty-acid molecules provide MOST of the energy for:
a. long-term activity such as hiking
b. participation in a marathon
c. springing in a 1500-meter race
d. high-intensity, short-term activity
a. long-term activity such as hiking
the amount of ATP stored in muscles is unlimited: T or F?
F
carbohydrate loading maximizes the amount of which substance stored in skeletal muscles:
a. calcium
b. glycogen
c. glucose
d. hemoglobin
b. glycogen
eating frequent small meals throughout the day is called:
a. carbohydrate loading
b. glycolyzing
c. ketoning
d. grazing
d. grazing
the FIT principle is:
a. the level of fitness one should achieve according to one’s age
b. a method to determine fitness based on flexibility and muscle strength
c. a method to determine your fitness level based on your target heart rate
d. the principle that a good physical fitness program should be based on frequency, intensity, and time
d. the principle that a good physical fitness program should be based on frequency, intensity, and time
which of the following is NOT a reason fat becomes an energy source for trained athletes:
a. replaces carbohydrates as an energy source during prolonged, intense training
b. increases the number and activity of various enzymes involved in fat metabolism
c. improves the ability of muscles to store fat
d. improves the ability to extract fat form the blood during exercise
a. replaces carbohydrates as an energy source during prolonged, intense training
the longer the fatty acid chain, the more ATP can be generated from breakdown: T or F?
T
some athletes believe that caffeine can enhance athletic performance because it has been shown to:
a. increase the transport of amino acids to exercising muscle
b. increase the use of fatty acids as a fuel source
c. increase muscle flexibility and strength
d. regenerate ATP for energy
b. increase the use of fatty acids as a fuel source
individuals with the disease phenylketonuria (PKU) should NOT consume the artificial sweetener aspartame. Why?
a. people with PKU are highly prone to development of diabetes
b. people with PKU experience severe headaches when they consume aspartame
c. people with PKU cannot metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine
c. people with PKU cannot metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine
which of the following is an example of a soluble fiber:
a. lignins
b. hemicelluloses
c. pectins
d. cellulose
c. pectins
sugar alcohols are most often used in which of the following products:
a. infant formulas
b. baked confections
c. chewing gums
d. diet sodas
c. chewing gums
fiber is composed of long chains of monosaccharides: T or F?
F
what is the major monosaccharide found in the body:
a. fructose
b. galactose
c. glycogen
d. glucose
d. glucose
molasses is made from:
a. fructose
b. honey
c. tree sap
d. sugarcane
d. sugarcane
in the diet, the nondigestible parts of plants that form the support structures of leaves, stems, and seeds are known as:
a. total fiber
b. functional fiber
c. starches
d. dietary fiber
d. dietary fiber
how many strings of amino acids does a polypeptide consist of:
a. two
b. more than four
c. more than ten
d. nine
c. more than ten
the twisting, spiral shape formed by the sequence and chemical properties of its amino acids refers to what part of a protein’s structure:
a. primary
b. secondary
c. tertiary
d. quaternary
b. secondary
soybeans are good sources of protein, and the protein quality is almost identical to that of meet: T or F?
T
what dictates the structure of a protein molecule synthesized by the body:
a. the combination of proteins consumed in the diet
b. the body’s need for a protein
c. the DNA inside the nucleus of the cell
d. the number of essential amino acids available
c. the DNA inside the nucleus of the cell
alkalosis is a condition in which the pH of the blood becomes too basic: T or F?
T
bodybuilders and weight lifters need as much as 2 times more protein than the RDA: T or F?
T
because of their increased protein needs, it is unhealthy for athletes to choose to become vegetarians: T or F?
F
Egg whites stiffen when they are whipped. the change that occurs in the protein is called:
a. translocation
b. deamination
c. denaturation
d. transcription
c. denaturation
which of the following health problems is NOT associated with high protein intakes:
a. kidney disease
b. bone loss
c. heart disease
d. sickle cell anemia
d. sickle cell anemia
on average, an individual’s BMR decreases approximately 3 to 5 percent per decade after they reach what age:
a. 20
b. 30
c. 50
d. 70
b. 30
the label on a ready-to-eat cereal box indicates that 1 cup contains 32 grams of carbohydrates, 4 grams of protein, and 2 grams of fat. how many kilocalories are there in two cups of this cereal?
a. 162
b. 187
c. 256
d. 324
d. 324
which of these is the MOST important dietary aspect to modify for weight loss:
a. carbohydrates
b. protein
c. calories
d. fat
c. calories
high-protein diets are typically high in fat and low in carbohydrates: T or F?
T
Jill is 5’10” tall and weighs 167 pounds. What is her BMI?
a. 27 kg/m^2
b. 20 kg/m^2
c. 24 kg/m^2
d. 32 kg/m^2
c. 24 kg/m^2
BMI is calculated by taking an individual’s body weight (in kilograms) divided by their height^2 (in meters): T or F?
T
the shoulder-to-hip ratio is useful to assess one’s fat distribution pattern and future chronic disease risk: T or F?
F
the early weight loss often seen on a high-protein diet is actually a result of:
a. a loss of water that is released when glycogen stores are broken down
b. a loss of body muscle as the high protein stimulates proteolysis
c. lower caloric intake
d. a loss of adipose tissue and total fat stores
a. a loss of water that is released when glycogen stores are broken down
glycolysis can be sustained only for a brief period of time, generally for less than 3 minutes: T or F?
T
more than 50% of adults in the United States do not meet national healthy recommendations for exercise: T or F?
T
at rest, the body’s fuel source is primarily:
a. fat
b. protein
c. carbohydrate
d. amino acids
a. fat
studies demonstrate that supplements of androstenedione and dehydoepiandrosterone (DHEA) are effective in raising testosterone concentrations in the body: T or F?
F
which of the following is traditionally used to evaluate the level of intensity of aerobic activity:
a. blood glucose level
b. heart rate
c. blood pressure
d. distance traveled per unit of time (steps per hour)
b. heart rate
during exercise what source(s) of energy is/are used by the body for glucose:
a. protein found in blood
b. glucose found in bones
c. fatty acids stored in adipose tissue
d. glycogen stored in muscles
d. glycogen stored in muscles
amino acids are the primary fuel source utilized in both anaerobic and aerobic exercise: T or F?
F
flexibility is defined as the ability to move a joint fluidly through its full range of motion: T or F?
T
petra is a long-distance track athlete who would like to optimize her glycogen stores. if she weighs 132 pounds, what is the minimum amount of carbohydrates she should consume to achieve this goal:
a. 800 grams
b. 360 grams
c. 250 grams
d. 290 grams
b. 360 grams
carbohydrate loading is effective for most athletes and poses no disadvantages: T or F?
F
what type of study compares self-reports of physical activity with rates of illness and mortality:
a. exercise training studies
b. population-based epidemiological studies
c. case-control studies
d. clinical trials
b. population-based epidemiological studies
which of the following is FALSE concerning aerobic metabolism:
a. it leads to muscle fatigue
b. it supplies more energy than anaerobic exercise
c. it provides fuel for low-intensity exercise
d. its by-products are carbon dioxide and water
a. it leads to muscle fatigue
creatine use is permitted by collegiate and professional sports organizations: T or F?
T
warm-up exercises prepare the muscles for exertion by increasing blood flow and temperature: T or F?
T
after completing an exercise session, adequate hydration in an athlete is BEST determined by:
a. urine that is light yellow in color
b. no sweat production
c. absence of leg cramps
d. lack of fatigue and soreness in the muscles
a. urine that is light yellow in color
insulin is synthesized and secreted by the —?
pancreas
which of the following hormones is released when your blood sugar is too high?
insulin
sex hormones and adrenal hormones are substances derived from which class of lipid?
sterols
the primary end product of glycolysis is:
a. ATP
b. lactic acid
c. pyruvic acid
d. CP
c. pyruvic acid
medium chain fatty acids are ____ carbon atoms in length
6-12
the National Institutes of Health currently recommend a reduction in dietary sodium intake to less than ____ mg per day
2,400
the primary determinant of basal metabolic rate is?
lean body mass
which of the following carbohydrates is in the end product of photosynthesis:
a. lactose
b. glucose
c. glycogen
d. galactose
b. glucose
which supplement would you recommend a vegan add to his/her diet?
b12
the major fuel source used by the working muscle during long duration physical activity is —?
fatty acids
in phenylketonuria (PKU), what amino acid becomes conditionally essential?
tyrosine
when fructose and glucose are bonded together, they form ___ sugar?
table
mucilage is a type of fiber used to:
a. promote regular bowel movements
b. thicken jams and yogurts
c. sweeten food
d. stabilize foods
d. stabilize foods
significant chemical digestion of protein begins in the —?
stomach
what is the name of the artificial sweetener that was almost banned because of a proposed relationship with bladder cancer in experimental animals?
saccharin
two amino acids are joined together by a peptide bond to form a dipeptide. what is the by-product of this process?
water
a fatty acid that contains a chain of 10 carbons and 1 double bond is termed a fatty acid:
a. unsaturated, medium chain
b. unsaturated, small chain
c. monounsaturated, medium chain
d. monounsaturated, long chain
c. monounsaturated, medium chain
to facilitate the digestion of dietary fats, the gallbladder stores and releases a substance known as —?
bile
fructose is also known as:
a. pectin
b. levulose
c. maltose
d. sucralose
b. levulose
currently, the best known treatment of eating disorders is:
a. IV therapy
b. a team-management approach
c. a high-calorie, high-protein diet
d. psychotropic medications
b. a team-management approach
you would be diagnosed with true hypertension if your systolic blood pressure was greater than or equal to 140 mm Hg and your diastolic blood pressure was:
a. greater than or equal to 90 mm Hg
b. greater than or equal to 120 mm Hg
c. greater than or equal to 160 mm Hg
d. greater than or equal to 140 mm Hg
a. greater than or equal to 90 mm Hg