First Colonies: Jamestown, Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay Colonies

Jamestown
Jamestown
First permanent English settlement in North America
John Rolfe
John Rolfe
Found a way to make tobacco a cash crop and married Pocahontas
John Smith
John Smith
First strong leader of Jamestown. Helped save Jamestown by forcing them to work and communicate with Natives. Was injured in a gunpowder incident and returned to England.
Tobacco
Tobacco
Developed into cash crop by John Rolfe for Jamestown
King James I
King James I
Jamestown and the James River named for him
Advantage at Jamestown
Ships could come in and out of port easily for trade and supplies
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House of Burgesses
House of Burgesses
Established a representative form of government in colonial America
indentured servants
indentured servants
People who work for no pay for seven years in exchange for passage to the New World, clothing, and 50 acres of land
Joint Stock Company
Joint Stock Company
A group of people who own a business and share in its profits and losses. Virginia Company was the joint stock company that created Jamestown
Mayflower
Mayflower
Ship that took the settlers to Plymouth
Separatists
Separatists
People who separated from the Church of England and went to the Netherlands and later to Plymouth.
Mayflower Compact
Mayflower Compact
To create a “civil body politik” (government) that would help organize the the colony; established a government ran by the people
Pilgrims
Pilgrims
People who take a long journey for religious purposes
Squanto
Squanto
Native American who helped the Pilgrims at Plymouth by teaching them to farm and translating
Corn and pumpkins
Corn and pumpkins
Squanto taught the colonists to grow these.
John Winthrop
John Winthrop
Governor of the Massachusetts Bay colony elected by the General Court; wanted to create a “city upon a hill” to be Christian example to the rest of the world
William Bradford
William Bradford
Elected Governor of Plymouth in 1621 and served for 30 years; wrote “Of Plymouth Plantation” which explained what it was like to live in Plymouth
Pocahontas
Pocahontas
native that helped the Jamestown colonists; saved John Smith; married John Rolfe and moved to England
Starving Time
Starving Time
time in Jamestown when the settlers had no food because of crop failure
theocracy
theocracy
government where people are ruled by religious leaders; Mass Bay Colony
non-separatists
non-separatists
Puritans that didn’t want to break away from the Church of England; only wanted to improve it; founded the Mass Bay Colony
Puritans
Puritans
non-separatists that founded the Mass Bay Colony
Anne Hutchinson
lived in the Mass Bay Colony; began holding religious meetings in her home teaching her own interpretations of the Bible; she is excommunicated; later dies in an Indian raid in NY
town meetings
town meetings
used in the Mass Bay Colony; everyone in the colony (if you are Puritan) meets once a year to elect representatives
Roger Williams
Roger Williams
banished from Mass Bay because he didn’t believe in theocracy (mixing church and state) and he disliked stealing land from natives; forms Rhode Island colony
Thomas Hooker
Thomas Hooker
left the Mass Bay Colony and created Connecticut Colony because he thought voting rights should not be limited to Puritans
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
first constitution in the “new world”; created an election for governors and a 2 house legislature
Salem Witchcraft Trials
Salem Witchcraft Trials
a time of hysteria in Mass Bay; young girls accused older women of witchcraft; Puritan faith caused people to believe them