first aid

define wounds and it types
• an injury to the soft tissue, is called a wound
wound is usually are classified as either
• open or close
in a close wound
• the skin surface is not broken. Therefore tissue damage and any bleeding occurs below the surface
• examples are
• A bruise (develops when the body is Bumped or hit such as when you bump your leg on the table or chair)
• another example can be because of a violent force hitting the body
what to do for a close wound and when to call 911
what to look for
signals for internal bleeding include
• tender, swollen bruised or hard areas of the body, such as the abdomen
• rapid week pulse
• skin that feels warm moist or looks pale or blushed
• vomiting blood, or coughing up blood
• excessive thirst
• an injured extremity that is you are extremely pale
• altered mental state, such as the person becoming confused fate. Drowsy or unconscious
when the call 911
• Call 911 or local emergency number. If
• a person, complains of severe pain or cannot move a body part, without
• you think the forcethat caused the injury was great enough to cause severe damage.
• An injured extremity is blue or extremely pale.
• The person and abdomen is tender and distanted.
• The person is vomiting blood, or coughing up blood.
• The person shows signals of shock. Or becomes confused. Drowsy or unconscious

what to do until help arrives
• many close wounds like bruises do not require special medical care to care for a close. Wound you can apply an ice pack to the area to decrease bleeding beneath the skin, applying cold also can be effective in helping to control both pain and swelling fill a plastic bag with ice and water or wrap ice in a wet cloth and apply it to the injured area for a period of about 20 min. Place a thin barrier between the ice and bare skin. Remove the ice and wait 20 min. before reapplying. If the person is not able to tolerate a 20 min. application apply icepack for periods of 10 min. on and off elevated injured area may help to reduce swelling. However, do not elevated injured part if it cause more pain do not assume that all wounds are minor injuries take time to find out whether more serious injuries could be present with all close wounds help the person to rest in the most comfortable position possible. In addition, keep the person from getting chilled or overheated . It also is helpful to comfort and reassure the person be sure that a person with an injury lower extremity does not build weight on it until advised to do so by a medical professional
cold compresser
• reduces pain
• constricts blood vessels
• and always put something between the bag of ice and the skin so that the skin doesn’t get damage
• this is for minor close wounds

open wounds and its type
in an open wound
• the skin surface is broken and blood may come through the tier in the skin
• you have to control the bleeding
• sometimes it will stop by itself the to the clotting factor
when you bleed from the artery. It pumps out
when you bleed from the vein. It ozzes out
sometimes the damage blood vessel. is tool large or the pressure in the blood vessel is too great for the blood to clot. Then bleeding can be life-threatening. This can happen with both close and open wounds
open wound
in an open wound the break in the skin can be as minor as a scrape on the surface layer or as severe as a deep penetration, the bleeding depends on the location and the severity of the injury
the four main types of open soft tissuewounds are
1. abrasions
2. lacerations
3. alvusion
4. punctures
• are the most common type of open wound
• they usually are caused by something rubbing roughly against the skin abrasions, do not bleed much any bleeding that occurs, from capillaries, dirt and germs frequently have been rubbed into this type of wound, which is why it is important to clean and irrigate and abrasion thoroughly with soap and water to prevent infection on his terms for and abrasion include a scrape a rug burn a rash or a strawberry abrasions usually are paying for because scraping of the outer skin. Lidia exposes sensitive nerve ending

• a laceration is a cut in the skin, which,, commonly is caused by a shop object such as a knife scissors or broken glass and laceration also can occur when a blunt force splits the skin deep lacerations may cut layer of fat and muscle damaging nerves and blood vessels bleeding may be heavy on their may be none at all lacerations are not always painful because damage nerves cannot’s send pain signals to the brain infections can easily occur with lacerations, if proper care is not given
• an avulsion is a serious soft tissue injury. It happens when a portion of the skin and sometimes other soft tissue is partially or completely torn away. This type of injury often damages deeper tissues causing significant bleeding sometimes a violent force may come legally tear away a body part, including Brown, such as finger. This is known as an amputation. With amputations, sometimes bleeding is easier to control because the tissue close around the vessel at the injure site. If there is a violent tearing twisting or crushing of the extremity. The bleeding may be hard to control
• punctures usually occur when a pointed object such as a nail pierces the skin a gunshot wound is a punctured wound puncture wound do not bleed much unless a blood vessel has been injured. However, an object that goes into the soft tissue beneath the skin can carry germs deep into the body. These germs can cause infections sometimes serious ones. If the object remains in the wound it is called and embedded object

tools to help with wounds- bandages
Tools we have to help us with wounds
• dressings
• bandages
in order to stop bleeding
• we put pressure on the wound using dressing
• also protect yourself with gloves
• then we place a bandage over it so that it keeps that pressure on it
• also raise the wound over the heart so that the heart will have tougher time to transfer the blood to that area
types of open wounds
• scratch (paper cut)
• cut/ laceration
• avulsion-tears the skin
using dressing and bandages
• all open wounds need some type of cover to help control bleeding and prevent infection. These coverings, we are referred to as dressing and bandages and there are many types

are pads placed directly on the wound to absorb blood and other fluids and to prevent infection to minimize the chance of infection dressings should be sterile. Most dressing are porous allowing air to circulate to the wound to promote healing standard dressing includes varying size of cotton gauze, commonly, ranging from 2 to 4 inch squares large addressing are used to cover very large wounds and multiple wounds in one body area. Some dressing have nonstick surfaces to prevent them from sticking to the wound.

an occlusive dressing
• is a bandage or dressing that closes a wound or damaged area of the body and prevent it from being exposed to the air or is water by preventing exposure to the air occlusive dressings help to keep in place, medication that have been applied to the affected area. They also help to keep in heat, body Fluid and moisture. occlusive dressing are manufactured, but can be improvised an example of and improvise occlusive dressing is plastic wrap secured with medical tape. This type of dressing can be use for certain chest and abdominal injuries
a bandage
• is any material that is used to wrap or cover any part of the body bandages are used to hold dressing in place to apply pressure to control bleeding to protect a wound from dirt and infection and to provide support to any injured limb or body part any bandage applied snugly to create pressure on a wound or any injury is called a pressure bandage.

You can purchase many different types of bandages, including
• adhesive compresses-which are available in assorted sizes and consist of a small pad of nonstick Gaza on a strip of adhesive tape that is applied directly to minor wounds
• bandage compresses, which are thick Gaza, dressing, attached to a bandage that is tie in place advantage compresses are special designed to help control severe bleeding, and usually come in sterile packages
• roller bandage which are usually made of Gaza or Gaza, like material role of bandage are available in assorted wit from half to 12 inch and in length from five to 10 yards bandage would be used to wrap a hand or wrist a medium with bandage would be use to wrap a ankle a wide bandage would be used to wrap a leg a Roland bandage generally is wrapped around the body part it can be tied or tape in place a Roland bandage also may be used to hold a dressing in place secure a splint or control external bleeding (gauze pad dressing)
(purpose for dressing and bandages is that they help stop the bleeding or control the bleeding and it minimizes the chance for infection. So, it protects it from anything that enters it)
guidelines when applying a role of bandage
• check for feeling,. Warmth and color of the area below the injure site, especially fingers and toes before and after applying the bandage.
• Elevate the injure body part only. If you do not suspect that a Bone has been broken and in doing so does not cause more pain
• secure the end of the bandage in place with a turn of the bandage. Wrap the bandage around the body part on till the dressing is completely covered and the bandage extends several inches beyond the dressing. Tie or tape the bandage in place
• do not cover fingers or toes by keeping these parts uncovered. You will be able to see if the bandage is to tight if fingers or toes become cold or begin to turn pale or blue or ashen. The bandage is to tight and should be loosened slightly
• apply additional dressing and another bandage if blood soaks through the first bandage. Do not remove the blood soaked bandage and dressing disturbing them may disrupt the formation of a clot and restart the bleeding
• use a barrio between your hand and the wound (gloves)
specific care guidelines for major open
called 911
• put on disposable gloves. If you suspect that blood might splatter you may need to wear eye and face protection, control bleeding
• cover the wound with a dressing
• firmly press against the wound with a glove hand until the bleeding stopped
• apply a pressure bandage over the dressing to maintain pressure on the wound . and to hold the dressing in place
• if blood soaks through the bandage do not remove the bloodsoaked bandages. Instead, add more dressing and bandages and apply additional direct pressure
• continue to monitor the person condition observed the person closely for signals that may indicate that the person condition is worsening, such as faster. Or slower breeding changes in skin color and restlessness
• care for shock keep the person from getting chilled or overheated
• have the person rest controllable and provide reassurance
• wash your hands immediately after giving care even if you wore gloves
using tourniquets when help is delayed
• tourniquets is a tight band placed around an arm or leg to constrict blood vessels in order to stop blood flow to a wound. Because of the potential for adverse effects. a tourniquet should be use only as a last resort in case of delayed care or situations where response for EMS is delayed when direct pressure does not stop the bleeding, or you are not able to apply direct pressure
• a tourniquet may be appropriate if you cannot reach the wound because of entrapment. There are multiple injuries or the size of the wound prohibits application of direct pressure in most areas. Application of a tourniquet is considered to be a skill at the EMT level or higher, and requires proper training
• the tourniquet is applied around the wounded extremity, just above the wound the tag end of the strap is routed through the buckle and the strap is pulled tightly, which secures the tourniquet in place. The rod, then, is twisted to tighten the tourniquet on till the bright red bleeding stops the rod, then, is secure in place, the tourniquet should not be removed and the prehospital setting. Once it is applied. The time that the tourniquet was apply should be noted and recorded and then given to EMS personnel
(a tourniquet is a specific type of bandage that you do put a lot of pressure on so that you would not bleed out and is only used during Dyer circumstances)

Hemostatic agents
• are substances that speed clot formation by absorbing the excess moisture caused by the bleeding hemostatic agents are found in a variety of forms, including treated sponge or gauze pads and powder or granule forms the powder or granule of forms. I’ll pour directly on the bleeding vessel then other hemostatic agents such as gauze pads are used in conjunction with direct pressure
• over-the-counter versions of hemostatic bandages are available in addition to hemostatic agents intended for use by professional rescuers somewhat more effective than others. However, hemostatic agents in the first eight setting is not recommended due to the fact that it isn’t tended for use by professional rescuers

types of burns and what to do
Superficial burns
• involve only the top layer of skin
• cause skin to become red and dry usually painful and the area may swell
• usually heal with in a week without permanent scarring
partial thickness burns
• involve the top layer of skin
• cause skin to become red, usually painful have blisters that may open and weep clear fluid, making the skin appear wet may appear malted and often swells
• usually heal in 3 to 4 weeks and may scar
full thickness burns
• they destroy all layers of skin and some or all of the underlining structures that muscle bones and nerves
• the skin may be brown or black with the tissue underneath. Sometimes appearing white and can either be extremely painful or relatively painful
• healing may require medical assisting scarring is likely

what to do
• check the scene for safety
• stop the burning by removing the person from the source of the burn
• check for life-threatening conditions
• as soon as possible cool the burn with large amounts of cold running water, at least until pain is relieved.
• Covered the burn loosely with a sterile dressing.
• Take steps to minimize shock keep the person from getting chilled or overheated.
• Comfort and reassured the person.
• Do not apply ice and icy water to any burn ice and icy water can cause the body to lose heat rapidly and further damage body tissue.
• Do not touch a burn with anything except a clean covering
• do not remove pieces of clothing that’s stick to the burned area
• do not try to clean a severe burn.
• do not break blisters
• do not use any kind of ointment on a severe burn
critical burns
• occur in people who are very young and very old
• also, other burns that would affect more than one body part (face head hands and back)
• they are more in dyer need of help
• multiply site burns need critical help
chemical burns
• when caring for chemical burns, it is important to remember that the chemical will continue to burn as long as it is on the skin, you must remove the chemical from the skin as quickly as possible
• if the burn was caused by dry chemical brushed off the chemical use a glove hands or a towel and remove any contaminated clothes before flushing with tap water. Be careful not to get the chemical on yourself or on a different area of the person skin
• flushed the burn with large amounts of cooling, running water continue flushing the burn for at least 20 min. or until EMS personnel take over
• if, eye is burned by a chemical flush effective eye with the water until EMS personnel take over till the head so that the effective eye is lower then unaffected. Eye as you flush
• if possible, have the person remove contaminated close to prevent further contamination while you continue to flush the area
electrical burn
• never go near , the person until you are sure he or she is not still in contact with the power source
• turn off the power at its source and care for any life-threatening conditions
• called 911. Any person who has suffered an electrical shock needs to be evaluated by a medical professional to determine the extend of injury
• be aware that electrocution can cause cardiac and respiratory emergencies, therefore, be prepared to perform CPR or use an automated external defibrillator
• care for shock and thermal burns
• look for entry and exit’s wounds and give the appropriate care
• remember that anyone suffering from electric shock requires advanced medical care

other types of injuries
chest injuries.
• A chest injury is caused by strong pressure against a body part often a limb and may results in serious damage to underlining tissue, causing bruising, bleeding lacerations fractures, shock, and internal injuries called 911 for any serious or life-threatening conditions, care for specific injuries found and assumed that internal injuries are present. Also, care for shock. They may have broken bones, so you don’t want to move them

Sever body parts
• if parts of the body has been torn or cut t off called 911 then try to find the part and wrap it in sterile Gaza or any clean material such as a washcloth put the rap part in a plastic bag and seal the bag keep the part cold and bag cool by placing it in a larger bag or container of an ice and water slurry, not on ice alone and not on dry ice if possible, but do not freeze be sure part is taken to the hospital with the person doctor may be able to reattach it
embedded objects
• if an object such as a knife or a piece of glass or metal is embedded in a wound. Do not remove it. place several dressings around it to keep it from moving bandage the dressing in place around the object if it is only a splinter in the surface of the skin. It can be removed with tweezers. After removing the splinter from the skin wash the area out with soap and water rinsing the area with tap water for about 5 min. after drying area. Apply an antibiotic ointment to the area. If the person has no known allergies or sensitive to the medication, and then cover it to keep it clean. If the splinter is in the eye. Do not attempt to remove it called 911
occlusive dressing-helps keep it from entering a chest wound. When the person in the hills having an open Corner allows air to escape when the person X hale

Abdominal injury
• an injury to the abdomen may be either open or close injuries to the abdomen can be very painful. Even with a close wound the rupture of an organ can cause serious internal bleeding, resulting in shock. It is especially difficult to determine if a person has an internal abdominal injury. If he or she is unconscious
• always suspect an abdominal injury in a person who has multiple injuries
what to look for
• severe pain
• bruising
• external bleeding
• nausea
• vomiting blood. Sometimes
• weakness
• thurist
• pain, tenderness or a tight feeling in the abdominal
• organ protrusion
• rigid abdominal muscle
• auto signals of shock
apply moist, sterile dressing loosely overdue. Convert dressing loosely with plastic wrap

Controlling external bleeding
1. if severe call 911 immediately
2. check scene for safety
3. obtain consent before giving care
4. you stated cautions, such as gloves when providing care
5. covered the wound with a sterilized dressing
6. apply pressure on till bleeding stops
7. wrap a role of bandage around area start from farthest from the heart overlap the banded several times to completely wrapped the dressing tape or time off the end of the bandage to keep it in place
8. check for circulation beyond the injury check for feeling warm and color
9. apply more pressure and called 911
10. if bleeding does not stop
11. apply more dressing and bandages and continue to apply additional pressure
12. do not wash or clean a severe bleeding wound your first priority is to control the bleeding take steps to minimize shock
13. call 911 if not already done
14. wash hands with soap and water after given care

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injury to muscle bone and joint
Breaking something is called a fracture it can be open or close when it comes through the skin. It is open
injuries to muscle, bone, joints happen to people of all ages at home, work and play
little kids are more to having juries less susceptible to broken bones, because the development of their bones are not complete so they are more flexible
if you have to know the person that have a broken arm or a broken leg, then you have to use a split

600 muscles are attached. To bones, by strong tissues called tendons and the joints are kept together by ligaments connect muscle and given support. They all work together to allow body to move

Types of injuries
the four basic types of injuries. To muscle, bone and joints are fractures. dislocation sprain and strain. They occur in a variety of ways
• a fracture is, complete break a chip or a crack in a bone a fall, a blow or sometimes even, a twisting movement can cause a fracture
• fractures are open or close an open fracture involves an open wound. It occurs when the end of a bone tears through the skin and object that goes into the skin and break the bone, such as a bullet also can cause an open fracture in a close fractured the skin is not broken
the breaking point of osteoporosis
• eat a well balanced diet rich in calcium vitamins and minerals and low in salt is essential for both help limiting caffeine intake and avoid a high-protein diet also are important for bone health. Have a adequate calcium intake, 3 to 4 daily servings of low-fat dairy products, vitamin D
• take vitamins and supplements, if necessary
• exercise weight-bearing exercises
• stop smoking
• avoid too much. Alchol
• and insufficient intake of phosphorous magnesium, vitamins K B6 and B12 increase your risk of osteoporosis
• is the movement of bone at a joint away from its normal position. This movement usually is caused by a violent force tearing the ligament that hold the bone in place when the bone is move out of place. The joint no longer functions, the disabled end of the bone often forms a bump a ridge a hollow that does not normally exists
• a sprain. It is the tearing of ligaments at a joint. Mild sprains may swell, but usually heal quickly. The person might not feel much pain and is active again. Soon, if a person ignores the signals of swelling and pain and becomes active too Soon the joint will not heal properly and will remain weak. There is a good chance that it will become reinjured only this time more severely a severe sprain. Also can involve a fracture dislocation of the bones at the joint. The joint most easily injured are at ankle, knee, wrists and finger (iceing it reduces pain and swelling )

• a strain is a stretching and tearing of muscles or tendons strains often are caused by lifting something heavy. Or working a muscle to hard . They usually involve the muscle in the neck, back, thigh or the back of the lower leg. Some strain can recur, especially in the neck and back
• or. Getting into exercise too quickly

Call 911
• when there is obvious deformity
• there is moderate or severe swelling and discoloration
• bones sound or feel like they are rubbing together
• a snap or pop was heard or felt at the time of the injury
• there is a fracture with an open wound at or bone piercing through the injured site
• the injured person cannot move or use the affective part normally
• the injured area is cold and numb
• the injury involve the head, neck, or spine
• the injured person has trouble breathing
• the cause of the injury suggest that the injury may be severe
• it is not possible to safely or comfortably move the person to a vehicle for transport to a hospital
what to do until help arrives
• Rice
• Rests-do not move or straighten the injured area
• Immobilize-stabilized the injured area in the position it was found. Split the injured part only if the person must be moved or transported to receive medical care, and it does not cause more pain. Minimizing movement can prevent further injury
• Cold- fill a plastic bag with ice and water or wrap ice with a damp cloth and apply ice to the injured area for periods of about 20 min. Place a thin barrier between the ice and bearskin. If 20 min. icing cannot be tolerated apply ice for periods of 10 min. If continued ice is needed. Remove the pack for 20 min. and then replace it. Cold reduces internal bleeding, pain and swelling. Do not apply heat as there is no evidence that applying heat helps muscle, bone or joint injuries
• Elevate-elevate the injured part only if it does not cause more pain elevating the injured part may help reduce swelling

splinting an injury
• splinting is a method of mobilizing an injured part to minimize movement and prevent further injury and should be used only if you have to move or transport the person to seek medical attention, and if it does not cause more pain
methods of splinting
• anatomical splints-the person body is in the splint. For example, you can split an arm to Chest or an injured leg to the uninjured leg, you’re in the anatomical position/body to body (using one body part to support another)
• soft splints-soft materials such as a folded blanket towel pillow or folded triangle bandage can be used for the splint. A sling is a specific kind of soft splints that use a triangular bandage tied to support an injured arm,w rist or hand
• rigid splints-padded board, fold in magazines or newspapers or patted metal strips that do not have any sharp edges can serve as splint
• the ground – an injured leg stretched out on the ground is supported by the ground
(if you have an injury to you hand use gauze pad support it and us a triangular bandage around it and that will support it)
after you have splinted the injury apply ice to the injured area. Keep the person from getting chilled or overheated and be reassuring

Head neck and spinal injuries
• 12,000 Americans suffer a spinal cord injury, most are male victims with an average of about forty years, the leading cause of spinal cord injuries are motor vehicle crashes followed by falls, violence and sports.
• Injuries to the head, neck, or spine can cause paralysis speech or memory problems or other disabling conditions. These injuries can damage bone and soft tissues including the brain and spinal cord. Since generally only x-rays CAT scans or MRI scan showed the severity of an head neck or spinal injury, you should always care for such injuries as if they were serious
an injury to the brain can cause bleeding inside the skull. The blood can build up and cause pressure resulting in many damage the first and most important signal on brain injury is a change in the person level of consciousness, he or she may be, dizzy or confuse or maybe unconscious. The spine is a strong, flexible column of small bones that support the head and trunk. The spinal cord runs through the circulatory opening of the small bones called the vertebrae. The vertebrae are separated from each other by cushions of cartilage called disk nerves originating in the brain form branches extending to various parts of the body through opening end of vertebrae inside to the spine can fracture vertebrae and tear ligaments in some cases, the vertebrae can shift and cut or squeezed the spinal cord Disk paralyzed the person or be life-threatening

What to look for
• we encounter an injured person try to determine if there is a head, neck, or spinal injury. Think about what were the force involves great enough to cause one of these injuries. Someone may have fallen from a significant height, struck her head while diving, he or she might have been in a mortar vehicle crash and have not been wearing a safety belt. Maybe the person was thrown from the vehicle. Perhaps the person was struck by lightning or maybe a bullet that pierced his a back struck the spine always suspect a head, neck, or spinal injury. If a person is unconscious and or his or her safety helmet is broken
• also
• was involved in the motor vehicle crash or subjected to another significant force
• was injured as a result of a fall from greater, then a standing height
• is wearing a safety helmet that is broken
• complains of neck or back pain.
• Has tingling or weakness in the extremities.
• Is not fully alert
• appears to be intoxicated.
• Appears to be frail or older than 65 years.
• If a child younger than three years with evidence of a head or neck injury
what to do until help arrives
• while you’re waiting for EMS personnel to arrive the best care you can give is to minimize movement of the persons head neck or spine as long as the person is breathing normally support the head and neck in the position found
• do this by placing your hands on both sides of the persons head in the position in which you found it support the person’s head in the position until EMS personnel take over supporting the persons head. If head is sharply turned to one side, do not move it support the head and neck in the position found
• if a person with a suspected head, neck, or spinal injury is wearing a helmet. Do not remove it. Unless you are specifically trained to do so and it is necessary to access or assess the persons Airways minimize movement using the same manual technique you will use if the person were not wearing headgear. The person may become confused drowsy or unconscious breathing may stop the person may be bleeding. If the person is unconscious. Keep the airway open them check breathing, you should take steps to control severe bleeding and keep the person from getting chilled or overheated

Call 911
• every suspected, concussion should be treated seriously call 911 or the local emergency number
what to do until help arrived
• support the head and neck in the position in which you found it
• maintain open airway
• control any bleeding and apply dressing to any open would
• do not apply direct pressure. If there is any signs of an obvious skull fracture
• if there is clear fluid leaking from the air or wound in the Scout covered the area loosely with a sterile gauze dressing
• monitored the person for any changes in condition
• try to calm and reassured the person encourage the person to talk with you. It may prevent loss of consciousness
chest injuries
• injuries to the chess may be caused by falls sports mishap or crushing or penetrating forces
• chest injuries range from a simple broken rib too serious, life-threatening injuries
what to look for
• the person with broken rib will take small, shallow , breaths because normal or deep breathing is uncomfortable or painful. The person usually will attempt to ease the pain. By supporting the injured area with a hand or arm. If the injury is serious. The person will have trouble breathing. The person skin may appear flushed pale or ashen and he or she may cough up blood. Remembered that a person with a serious chest injury also may have a spinal injury.
• Broken ribs are less common in children because children’s ribs are more , flexible, to tend to bend rather than break. However, the force that can cause a broken rib in adults can severely bruised lung tissues of children which can be a life-threatening injury. Look for signal, such as what caused the injury bruising on the chest and trouble breathing to determine if a child has potential chest injury
pelvic injuries
• the large, heavy bones of the hip make up the pelvis like the chess injury to the pelvic bone can range from simple to life-threatening
putting it all together rice

splinting part 2 how to use it
Children and infants
• communicate with vocabulary that children may know and understand
• communicate with kids at eye level up clost or with someone. With A wheelchair
• which are you check from the feet up
asthma triggers
• dust and smoke
air pollution
• respiratory infection
• fear and anxiety
• perfume
• exercise
• plants and molds
• medications such as aspirin
• animal dander
• temperature extremes
• change in weather
when people injure muscle bones and a joint. They can be
• broken bones
• strain muscles
• or sprain or dislocated joint
an injury for muscle bones and a joint.
• Can be severe if the person cannot move or use that body part
• here a snap pop or experience graded bones or loss of feeling in the area
• you see bone fragments, swelling or deformity or noticed that the incident itself cause severe injury
call 911 or the local emergency number. If
• a muscle bone or joint injury appears to be severe
the general care for a muscle bone and joint enejury is

• should only be used if you have to move for transport the person to a hospital
• apply split morbleized the area above and below the injury
• do not try to straighten the body part split the body part in the position it was found
applying an anatomical split
• support injured part above and below site of injury
• check circulation check for feeling warm and color beyond the injury
• if a person is wearing a shoe do not remove it
• position bandages-position the triangular bandages above and below the injured body part
• online body parts-placed on injured body part next to the injured body part
• Thie bandages securely do not tied the ends directly over the injured area
• re check circulation for feeling warm and color
• if the person feels pale cold or blue losen the splint
applying a soft split
get consent
• soft splints, such as the blankets, towels, or pillows work well
• support injured part above and below the site of injury
• check beyond the injured area for feeling warm and color
• position bandages-placed several folded the triangular bandages above and below the injured body part
• gently wrapped a soft object (folded blanket and pillow) around the injured body part
• tired bandages securely with knots (do not tie end directly over the injured area
• recheck for beyond the injured area for feeling of warmth and color check circulation to make sure the splint is not typed
applying a sling and binder
• get consent
• support injured part above and below the site of the injury
• check beyond the injured area for feeling warm and color
• position sling-placed a triangular bandage under the injured arm, and over the uninjured shoulder to form a sling
• secure sling-tied the ends of the sling at the side of the persons neck pad the knot at the side of the binder for comfort
• bind bandage-bind the injured body part to the chess with a folded triangular bandage to keep the area stable
• we checked beyond the injured area for feeling warmth and color if too tight losen split
Rigid splint-such as padded boards, folded magazines, or padded metal strips that the not have any sharp edges can be use to immobilize injured areas
• get consent
• support injured part-support both above and below the site of injury
• check for warmth and color beyond the injury-check for circulation
• place splint-Place an appropriate size rigid splint under the in injured body part, immobilize the elbow, as well as the forearm (place a roller bandage inside a person hand)(the person hand should be in resting position)
• secure bandages-tie several folded triangular bandages above and below the injured body part(tied not on board)
• recheck circulation-four feeling warmth and Color
• if it is a forearm injury bind the arm to the chest using folded triangular bandages or apply a sling

assisting with an asthma inhaler
an asthma attack occurs when-
• a trigger causes a person is always swell and narrow
• dust and smoke
• air pollution
• respiratory infection
• fear and anxiety
• perfume
• exercise
• plants and molds
• medications such as aspirin
• animal dander
• temperature extremes
• changes in weather
people that have asthma attack may have
• trouble breathing and tightness in the chest
• as symptoms worsened. They may panic be confuse and need help
what to do
• check the scene for safety
• obtain consent
• follow standard precautions and checked the person
• ask the person if they have asthma if yes, ask if they have a prescribe inhaler
• and if they need help with the medication
• ensure that they are siting up in a comfortable position
• check the label for the persons name and is prescribed for(the medications name) quick relief or acute attacks ensured that the expiration date has not pass
• if the medication is current. Follow the instructions on the label
• Shake inhaler and remove mouthpiece cover if an extension tube is available. Attach and use it
• instruct person to breed out tell the person to breathe out as much as possible through the mouth
• then have the person sealed there lips tightly around the mouthpiece
• ask the person to breed in slowly as you quickly press down on the inhaler canister to release the medication
• instruct the person to hold their breath. While you count to 10, then tell them to exhale after you count to 10
• when using an extension to have the person take 5 to 6 deep breaths through the tube without holding his or her. Brett
• have the person rinse your mouth off with water to reduce side effects
• note the time you administered medication
• and monitor changes in the person’s condition
• if the person is breeding does not improve within 1 to 2 min. Repeat the medication
• (asthma inhalers may take from 5 to 15 min. to begin breathing normally. If a person breeding does not improve quickly call 911 or the local emergency number
• Care for shock monitor to the person’s condition and keep the person from getting cilled for overheated

sudden illness
Sudden illness
• something that happened sudden
signals of sudden illnesses
• fainting.
• Seizures.
• Stroke.
• emergencies.
• Allergic reaction.
• Poisoning.
• Substance abuse
want to call 911.
• Unconscious or altered levels of consciousness.
• Breathing problems.
• No breeding.
• Chest pain, discomfort, a pressure lasting more than 3 to 5 min. that goes away. It comes back order radiating the the shoulders on John neck stomach, or back.
• Persistence abdominal pain or pressure.
• Severe external bleeding.
• Vomiting blood, or passing blood.
• Severe burns.
• Suspect poisoning.
• Seizures.
• Strokes

what to do until help arrives
• careful sudden illness by following the same general guidelines as you would for any emergency
• check the scene for safety. Check the person.
• First care for life-threatening conditions such as unconsciousness, trouble breathing. No breeding severe bleeding severe chest pain or signals of the stroke, such as weakness, numbness, or trouble with speech.
• Help the person to rest comfortably.
• Keep the person from getting chilled overheated.
• Reassure the person because he or she may be anxious frighten
• Watch for changes in consciousness and breathing.
• If the person is conscious. Asked if he or she has any medical conditions or is taken any medications. The client does not give the person anything to eat or drink unless he or she is fully conscious is able to swallow and does not shown signs of a stroke.
• If the person vomits and his unconscious lying down position. The person on his or her side, so that you can clear the mount.
• If you know the persons having severe allergic reaction or a diabetic emergency assistance person with his or her prescribed medication. If ask
• fainting isn’t really serious unless it of occurs more than once
• fainting is temporary loss of consciousness
• observe the person if they need help, call 911
• a person who feels week or dizzy may prevent a fainting spell by lying down, sitting with his or her head level with the knee
what to do until help arrives
• lower the person to the ground or on a flat surface and position him or her on his or her back lying flat, such loosen any tight clothing such as tie or collar checked the person breeding not give the person anything to eat or drink. If the person vomits rolled him over onto one side
• Within normal function of the brain are disrupted by injury, disease, fever, section metabolic disturbance by disease causing a decrease oxygen level a seizure may occur. The seizure is a result of abnormal electrical activity in the brain and cause temporary involuntary changes in body, functioning sensation awareness and or behavior.
• Most common type of seizure is epilepsy are most 3 million Americans have some form of epilepsy seizure occurs with epilepsy usually can be controlled with medication. Still, some people with epilepsy who take seizure medication occasionally have seizures, arms will go a long time without a seizure may think that the condition has gone away and stop taking their medication, thus putting himself at risk for another seizure
• the febrile seizure-young children and infants may be at risk for febrile seizures, which are seizures brought on by a rapid increase in body temperature, they are most common in children younger than five years febrile seizure often are caused by infection of the ear throat or digestive system and are most likely to occur when a child or an infant runs a rectal temperature of over hundred and 2°F a child or an infant experience some or all of the signals listed below
• (if a child or a person has a seizure, you should move things out of the way, don’t try to stop a seizure. Don’t put nothing in their mouth)
what to look for
• a blank stare.
• . period of distort during which the person is unable to respond.
• Uncontrolled muscular contraction called compulsions, which last several minutes
• so they rise in body temperature.
• Change in consciousness.
• Rhythmic jerking of the head and limbs.
• Loss of bladder or bowel control.
• Confusion.
• Drowsiness.
• Crying out.
• Becoming rigid.
• Holding breath.
• Upward rolling of the eyes
• seizures usually lasts only for a few minutes and the person usually recovers without problems
• the person has a aura which means they have unusual sensation of feeling such as a visual hallucination strange sound taste or smell or an urgent need to get to safety. If the person recognized the aura he or she may have time to tell bystander and sit down before seizure occurs
when to call 911
• seizure lasts more than 5 min.
• The person has multiple seizures with no signs of slowing down
• the person appears to be injured or fails to regain consciousness after the seizure
• the cause of his seizures. Unknown
• person is pregnant.
• Person a diabetes.
• The person is a young child or an infant and experience afebrile seizure brought on by high fever.
• Sezier take place in water.
• The person is elderly and could have suffered a stroke.
• This is the persons first seizure
• if the person is known to have occasional seizures. You may not have to call 911. Here she usually will recover from a seizure in a few minutes
what do until help arrives
• general principle of managing a seizure or prevent injury protected persons airwave make sure that the person airway is open after the seizure has ended. Do not put anything in the person’s mouth or between petite, make sure that the environment is as safe as possible, remove any nearby furniture or objects give care to the person who has had a seizure the same way you would for an unconscious person. When the seizures over. Make sure that the person airways open if there’s fluid in the person’s mouth, such as saliva blood of vomit roll him or her over to the side that the fluid drains from the mouth if the child or infant has for Brill seizure. It is important to immediately cooled the body by giving a sponge bath with lukewarm water. Check to see if he or she was injured during the seizure be comforting and reassuring. If the seizure occurs in public. The person may be embarrassed and self-conscious. Ask bystander, not to crowd around the person stay on the scene with the person until he or she is fully conscious and aware of his surroundings
• stroke is the third leading killer and leading cause of long-term disability, the United States, nearly 800,000 Americans will have a stroke this year a stroke also was called papering attack is caused when blood flow to a part of the brain is cut off a win there is bleeding into the brain stroke can cause permanent brain damage. But sometimes the damage can be stop or reverse stroke is caused by a blockage and arteries that supply blood to the brain
risk factors.
• Age , gender, family history of strokes or cardiovascular diseases, diet, lifestyle, medication can control stroke history of high blood pressure, previous: Mini stroke, diabetes, heart disease
there’s two types of strokes
• major stroke or mini stroke. If you have a mini stroke, you are more than likely to have another stroke, so you should be treated for it. Most mini strokes get better with in a few minutes, although they can last several hours, although the signals of a mini stroke disappear quickly. The person is not out of danger. At that point. In fact, someone who has a mini stroke is at very high risk of having a full stroke within the next two days
signs that someone has had a stroke
• drooping
• mumbling
• can’t communicate well
• losing muscle control
• tell someone to hold up their arms is a test for a stroke
• it will affect one side of the body

u need to get help right away
some drugs can help with stroke, a clotting stroke can be cleared

Risk factor for stroke
• high blood pressure is the number one risk factor for stroke. If you have high blood pressure, you approximately 7 times more likely to have a stroke compared with someone who does not have high blood pressure. Even mild elevated blood pressure Increase one’s risk factor of stroke
• diabetes is a major risk factor for stroke elevated sugar levels can damage blood vessels
• cigarette smoking is another major risk factor spoken increase blood pressure damage blood vessels and make blood more likely to clot
• diet that are high in saturated fats and cholesterol can increase your risk of stroke by calling fatty materials. The buildup on the walls of your blood vessels would I cholesterol include egg yolk and or did meet such as liver and kidneys saturated fats are found in beef, lamb, veal pork ham, whole milk, and a whole milk products limiting your intake of these foods can help prevent stroke
preventing stroke
• control your blood pressure
• quit smoking
• eat a healthy diet
• exercise regularly
• maintain a healthy weight
• control diabetes

what to look for
• weakness or numbness of the face arm or leg. This usually happens on only one side of the body
• face drops or drooling
• trouble with speech
• loss of the vision or disturbed vision in one or both eyes. The pupils may be u equal size
• sudden severe headache the person won’t know what caused the headache and may describe it as the worst headache ever
• dizziness agitation, loss of consciousness, or altered mental state
• loss of balance, coordination trouble walking or ringing in the ears
think fast for a stroke (face, arm, speech, time)
• which stands for
• face-weakness, numbness, or drooping on one side of the face. Ask the person to smile does one side of the face drops
• arm- weakness or numbness in one arm. Ask the person to raise both arms. Does one arm drift downward
• speech- slurred speech or difficult speaketh asked the person to repeat a simple sentence is the word slurred can The person repeat the sentence correctly
• time- try to determine when the signals began if the person shows any signals of stroke time is critical. Call 911 or the local emergency number right away
when to call 911
• call 911 immediately. If you encounter someone who is having or has had a stroke
perform the same steps as for any incident. Check call care

Diabetic emergencies
• diabetes was the seventh leading cause of death listed on US debt certification thousand six diabetes is the inability of the body to change sugar slacks glucose from food and energy. This process is regulated by insulin diabetes can lead to other medical conditions such as blindness nerve disease, kidney disease, heart disease and stroke
type I diabetes
• the cause of type I diabetes is unknown
• formerly called juvenile diabetes. People with type I require insulin injections
• it has no cure
• affects our frequent urination increase hunger and thirst unexpected weight loss, irritability, weakness and fatigue
type II diabetes
• most common usually occurs in adults, the body makes insulin, but not enough to meet the body needs or the body becomes resistant to insulin produced
• becoming overweight or obese is a risk factor
• signals for type II diabetes are
• any signals of type I
• frequent infections, especially involving the skin, gum and bladder
• blurred vision
• numbness in the leg, feet and fingers
• cut or bruises that are slow to heal
• itching
people with diabetes should monitor the exercise and diet self-monitoring for blood sugar levels is a valuable tool
a diabetic emergencies caused by an imbalance between sugar and insulin in the body. a diabetes emergencies can happen when there is too much sugar in the blood hyperglycemia
or too little sugar in the blood, hypoglycemia

When to call 911
• the person is unconscience or about to lose consciousness do not give the person anything in mouth care for the person in the same way you would care for an unconscious person. This includes making sure the person airways clear or vomiting. Check for breeding and give care until advanced medical personnel take over.
• The person is conscious, but unable to swallow.
• The person does not feel better. Within about 5 min. after taken some form of sugar
• you cannot find any form of sugar immediately. Do not spend time looking for it
what to do until help arrives
• you may know the person is a diabetic or the person may tell you he or she is diabetic, often they know what is wrong and will ask for something with sugar in it. They may carry some form of sugar with them in case they need it. If the diabetic person is conscience and able to swallow and advise you he or she needs sugar give sugar in the form of several glucose tablets or glucose pace or 12 ounce serving of fruit juice, milk nondiet soft drink or table sugar dissolve a glass of water. Diabetics also may carry glucagon. People who take insulin to control diabetes may have injectable medication with them to care for hyperglycemia
• (what to look for-dizziness, rapid breathing, feeling a look and feeling ill, confuse)

Allergic reaction
• are caused by over activity of the immune system against specific antigens. People with allergic reactions are especially sensitive to their antigens when the immune system overreacts to the antigens is called an allergic reaction

antigens that often cause allergic reaction in at risk. People include the following
• be or insect venom.
• Antibiotics.
• Pollen.
• Animal dander.
• Latex.
• Sulfa drugs.
• Certain foods, peanuts, shellfish, dairy products
people who know that they are severely allergic to certain substances or bee stings may wear a medical ID tag necklace or bracelet

what to look for
• allergic reactions can arrange from mild to severe a mild reaction is an itch skin rash from touching poison ivy severe allergic reaction can cause a life-threatening condition called anaphylaxis, also called anaphylactic shock anaphylaxis usually occurs suddenly happens within seconds or minutes after contact with the substance the skin or area of the body that comes in contact with the substance, usually swells and turns red other signals include the following
• hives.
• Itching.
• Rash.
• Weakness.
• Nausea
• stomach cramps.
• Vomiting.
• Dizziness.
• Trouble breathing.
• Trouble breathing can progress to a block air way low and shock may accompany these reactions death from anaphylaxis may happen quickly, because the person’s breeding is restrict it severely
when to call 911
• has trouble breathing.
• Complains of the throat tightening.
• Explains that he or she is subjected to severe allergic reaction.
• Unconscious

what do until help arrived
• monitor the persons breeding and for a change in the person’s condition.
• Give care for life-threatening emergencies.
• Check a conscious person to determine the substance involved the route of exposure to the antigen. The effects of the exposure assist the person with using an enpinepherphin auto injection if available, assist the person with taken an anti-histamine, if available document any changes in the person’s condition. Over time

Poisoning 79
• a poison is any substance that cause injury, illness or death if it enters the body
type so poisoning
• person can be poisoned by swallowing poison breathing it absorbing it to the skin and by having it injected into the body
swallow poison
• poison that can be swallowed include food, such as certain mushrooms shellfish, and overdose of drugs such as sleeping pills, tranquilizers, allchol, medication, such as high quantity of aspirin, household items such as cleaning products and pesticide and certain plans. Many substances that are not poison in small amounts, are poisoned in large amounts combining certain substances can result in poisoning. Although, if taken by themselves, they might not cause harm
inhale poisoned
• a person can be poisoned by breeding in toxic fumes example of poison can be inhaled include
• gas such as carbon monoxide from an engine or car exhausts.
• Carbon dioxide from wells and sewers.
• Chlorine found in many swimming pools.
• Fumes from household products such as glue’s and paints.
• Drugs such as crack cocaine
absorb poisons
• poisons that can be absorbed through the skin comes from many sources include plants such as poison ivy poison oak poison sumac and fertilizer and pesticide
injected poisons
• injected poisons entered the body through the bites of stings of insects, spiders, takes some marine life, snakes and other animals or through drugs or medications injected with a hypodermic needles
what to look for
• look for clues about what happened. Try to get information from the person or from bystander as you check the scene be aware of unusual orders planed smokes open-door spill containers and open medicine cabinet, or an overturned or damage plant also notice if the person is showing any of the following signals poison
• nausea, vomiting.
• Diarrhea.
• Chest Pain
• trouble breathing.
• Sweating.
• Change in consciousness
• seizures, headaches, dizziness, weakness, irregular pupil size, burning or tearing eyes, abnormal skin color.
• Burns around… lip toung or on the skin
• also may suspect a poison base on information from or about the person. If you suspect someone has swallowed a poison and try to find out the type of poison the quantity taken when it was taken, how much the person weighs
want to call 911 if a person is unconscious, or if not breeding or if a change in the level of consciousness occurs if the person is conscious and alert called the national poison control center hotline
what to do until help arrives
• after you have checked the scene is determined that the person has been poisoned
• remove the persons from the source of poison if the scene is dangerous. do this only if you are able to without endangering yourself.
• Check the person level of consciousness and breeding.
• Carefully life-threatening conditions.
• If the person is conscious, ask questions to get more information.
• Look for any containers and take them with you to the telephone.
• Call the national poison control center hotline.
• Follow the directors of the poison control center if you do not know what the poison was and the person vomits, save some of the vomit the hospital may analyze it to identify the poison

Special consideration
toxic fumes
• if the person inhales toxic fumes get the person to fresh air

• the case of poisoning with tri-chemicals brushoff. The dry chemicals with gloved hands or clot . Carefully remove any containing clothing but avoid contaminating yourself or others, then flushed area through with large amounts of water. Be sure not to get any of the chemicals in your eye or the eyes of the persons or of bystander. If the poisoning result from wet chemicals coming into contact with the skin flushed the effective area with large amounts of cool water. Have someone else call 911 or local emergency number. Keep flushing the area until EMS arrives
call 911 if the person is unconscious, confused, or seems to be losing consciousness.
• Has trouble breathing or is breathing irregularly.
• Has persisted chest pain or pressure.
• Has pale or pressure in the abdomen that does not go away.
• His vomiting blood, or passing blood.
• Have a seizure severe headache was slurred speech.
• Acts of violent
what to do until help arrives
• try to learn from others what substance may have been taken.
• Calm reassure the person.
• Keep the person from getting killed or overheated tomb minimize shock

enviromental emergencies
Heat related illnesses and cold related emergencies people at risk for heat related illnesses or cold related emergencies include
• those who work or exercise outdoors.
• Elderly people.
• Young children and people with health problems.
• Those who have had a heat related illness or cold related emergency. If the pass those with medical conditions that cause poor blood circulation and those who take medication to eliminate water from the body.
• People living in buildings with poor ventilation.
• Poor insulation or poor heating or cooling system are at increased risk of heat related illnesses or cold related emergencies
heat related illnesses
• heat cramps, heat exhaustion and heat stroke are condition caused by overexposure to heat, loss of fluids and electrolytes
heat cramps
• heat cramps are the least severe of heat related illnesses. They often are the first signals that the bodies having trouble with heat
• what to look for
• heat cramps are painful muscle spasm. They usually occur in the legs and abdomen. Think of them as the warning of a possible heat related illness
what to do for heat cramps

• to. Care for heat cramps, help the person move to a cool place to rest. Given electrolyte, and carbohydrate containing fluids such as a, sports drink, fruit juice or milk, water, also may be given lightly stretch the muscle and gently massage the area. The person should not take salt tablets. They can worsen the situation when cramps stopped the person usually can start activity against if they are not other signals of illness

heat exhaustion
• is a more severe condition then heat cramps. It often affects athletes, firefighters, construction workers and factory workers. It also affects those who wear heavy clothing any hot, humid environment
• what to look for-signals of heat exhaustion include cool, moist pale ashen or flushed skin, headaches, nausea, dizziness, weakness, and exhaustion
• what to do-when a heat related illnesses recognize in its early stage, it usually can be reversed. Get the person out of the heat move the person to a cooler environment with circulating air, loosen or remove as much clothing as possible and apply cool, wet cloth, such as towel or sheets taken care to remoist the Cloth periodically spraying the person with the water and Fanning also can’t help. If the person is conscious and able to swallow. Give the person small amounts of a cool fluids such as a commercial sports drink or fruit juice to restore fluids and electrolytes, milk or water also may be given to not let the conscious person drink too quickly give about 4 ounces of fluid every 15 min. Let the person rests in a comfortable position, and watch carefully for changes in their condition. The person should not resort abnormal activity. The same thing if the person’s condition do not improve or they refuse fluid have a change in consciousness, or vomits. Call 911
heat stroke (body totally shuts down due to heat)
• is the least common but most severe heat related illness. It occurs when people ignore the signals of heat exhaustion, heat stroke develops when the body systems are overwhelmed by heat and begin to stop functioning heatstroke is a serious medical emergency

what to look for-signals of heatstroke include extreme high body temperature, Redskin that can be either dry our moist , changes in consciousness rapidly weak. Pulse rapid shallow breathing, confusion vomiting seizure

when the call 911-immediately heatstroke is a life-threatening emergency

what to do until help arrives-preferred method-rapidly cool the body by immersing the body up to the neck in cold water. If possible, douse or spray the body with cold water.
• Sponge. The person with ice water. Douse towels over the entire body frequently rotate the cold, wet towel.
• Cover with a bag of ice.
• If you are not able to measure and monitor the persons temperature apply rapidly cooling methods for 20 min. or until the person condition improves.
• Give care. Accordingly, for other conditions found

cold related emergencies
frostbite and hyperthermia are two types of: the emergencies

• is the freezing of body parts exposed to the cold severity depends on the air temperature, length of exposure, and the wind frostbite can result in the loss of fingers, hands, arms, toes, feet and legs
what to look for and frost bites
• signals of frostbite concludes lack of feeling in the affected area, swelling and skin that appears waxy, is cold to the touch, or is discolored. In more serious cases, blisters may form and the effective part may turn black and show signs of deep tissue damage
when to call 911 for frostbite
• for more serious frostbite or seek emergency medical help as soon as possible

what to do until help arrives for frostbite (do not rub it)
• to care for frostbite handled the area gently. Remove wet clothing and jewelry, if possible, from the affected area. Never rub a frostbite area. Rubbing causes futher damage to soft tissue. Do not attempt to rewarm the frostbite area. If there is a chance that it might refreeze or if you are close to a medical facility for minor frostbite rapidly rewarm the effective part using skin to skin contact, such as with the a warm hand, to care for a more serious injury gently soak it in water, not warmer than about 105°. If you do not have a thomoter test the water temperature yourself. If the temperature is uncomfortable to your touch it is to warm keep the frostbite part in the water, until normal color returns and it feels warm . Loosely bandage the area with a dry sterile dressing. If fingers or toes are frostbitten place cotton or Gaza between them. Do not break any blisters take precautions to prevent hypothermia monitored the person’s condition and if you see that the person is going into shock. Give care. Accordingly, do not give ibuprofen or other nonsterile anti-inflammatory drugs when. Caring for frostbite
• the entire body cools because it’s ability to keep warm is failing the person will die if not given the proper care
• the air temperature does not have to be below freezing for people to develop hypothermia. This is especially true if the person is wet or if it is with the elder people in poorly heated homes can develop hypothermia holistic ill a young children also are at risk certain conditions more easily leave to hypothermia includes
• ingestion of substances that interfere with the body ability to regulate temperature (such as alcohol , other drugs, and certain medications)
• any medical condition that impair circulation, such as diabetes or cardiovascular diseases.
• Prolonged exposure to cold, wet and or windy conditions or wet clothing
what to look for for hyperthermia
• shivering.
• Numbness.
• Glassy stare.
• Indifference.
• Loss of consciousness
what to call 911 for hyperthermia
• Immediately

What to do until help arrives for hypothermia (little kids are effect faster than old people)
• start by caring for life-threatening conditions make the person comfortable, gently moved the persons we warm place. Remove wet clothing angina person put on strike loading what the body gradually by wrapping the person in blankets and plastic sheets to hold in body heat. Also, keep that had covered to further retain body heat. If you are far from medical care position. The person in a heat source, or applying heat pads for some type of heat source to the body, such as containers filled with warm water carefully monitor any heat source to avoid burning the person keeping area such as a blank towel or clothing between a heat source and the person if the person is alert to give warm liquid that do not contain alhol or caffeine do not want the person who quickly, such as by immersing the person in warm water. Checked breathing and monitor for any changes in the person’s condition and care for shock.
• In case of severe hypothermia. The person may be unconscious reading may have slowed or stopped. The body may feels this because the muscles become rigid check for breeding for no more than 10 seconds if the person is not breeding perform CPR continue to want the person until emergency medical services arrive. Be prepared to use an automatic external defibrillator if available

Bites and stings
insect stings
• most of the time insect stings are harmless if the person is allergic insect sting can lead to anaphylaxis a life-threatening condition
what to look for in insect stings
• presence of a stinger
• pain
• swelling
• signals of a allergic reaction
what to do for a insect sting
• if someone is stung by an insect removed any visible stinger
• scrape it away from the skin with a clean fingernail or a plastic card
• or use tweezers
• in the case of a be staying if you use tweezers grasp the stinger, not the venom sack
• wash the site with soap and water
• covered the site and keep it clean.
• Apply cold pack to the area to reduce pain and swelling. Call 911 if the person has any trouble breeding or for any other signals of anaphylaxis
tickborne diseases
• Pull out a tic with fine tweezer
• do not try to burn off the tic
• put the tic in a container or jar with rubbing all called to kill it cleaned up by away with soap and water and then and antiseptic apply an antibiotic ointment. If it is available in the person has no allergies and current the person to seek medical advice because of the risk of contracting a tickborne disease. If you cannot remove it take have the persons seek advanced medical care
West Nile virus
spider bites and scorpion stings
• call 911 or local emergency number immediately if you suspect that someone has been bitten by a black widow spider or brown spider stung by a scorpion, or if the person has any other life-threatening conditions
• call 911 if a person has been bitten from a venomous snake, such as a row snake copperhead cottonmouth or coral snake what to do until help arrives for bitten by Evan snake wash toward apply an elastic bandage to slow the spread of federal through the lymphatic system and follow the steps checked the feeling for what in color of the limb and no change in color and temperature.
• Placed the end of the bandage against the skin and use overlapping turns
• wrap should cover it a long body section, such as an arm or task begins at point for this from the heart for a joint, such as the knee or ankle use. Figure 8 turns to support the joint check above and below the injury for feeling walking color, especially fingers and toes. After you have applied elastic roller bandage by checking before-and-after bandage. You may be able to tell if any tingling or numbness is from the lasting bandage or the injury. Check the smugness and of the bandage a finger should easily, but not loosely pass under the bandage keep the injury area still and lowered then the heart. The person should walk only if absolutely necessary cannot apply ice does not cut the warm not apply suction do not apply tourniquet, do not use electric shock, such as from a car battery]
coral snake is the most venomous

Animal bites
• with to do -controlled bleeding first, if the wounds is bleeding. Sevarley , do not clean. It will be clean at a medical facility
• if bleeding is minor wash the wound with soap and water then irrigate with clean running tap water .
• Control any bleeding apply any antibiotic.oitment to a minor wound and covert thw qound with a dressing if the person has no allergies
• Watch for signals for infection

Marine life sting what to do
• Get a lifeguards to remove the person from the water as soon as possible. If a lifeguard not available use a reaching assess if possible, avoid touching the person with your bare hands, which could expose you to this thinking tentacles use glove or towel when removing any tentacles. If you do this thing is from a jellyfish. You’re a great the injured part with large amounts of vinegar as soon as possible for at least 30 seconds if this thing is known to be from a bottle jellyfish, also known as the Portuguese man of war use old-fashioned water instead of vinegar.
• Do not rub the high-pressure immobilize a should bandage or apply fresh water or other remedies because this may increase pain.
• Once the stinging action stopped and tentacles were careful pain by hot water merge have the person taking hot shower, if possible, at least in its if you build this thing is from a stingray see urgent was any fish flush the with tap water ocean water also may be used keep the injury part spill and so the affected area is not gelding hot water for at least 20 min. or until the pain goes away if hot water is not available packing. Hot sand have a similar effect if the sand is high enough that carefully clean the and applying a bandage Watts, forcing those of infection and check with the healthcare provider to determine if a tetanus shot is needed

poisonous plants
remove clothing and wash the exposed area thoroughly with soap and water as soon as possible
watch close exposed to plant oils, since the oils can linger on fabric washing hands thoroughly after handling exposed clothing washing hands after touch expose pets
put a paste of baking soda and water on the area. Several times a day. If a rash or weeping sore begins to develop
see healthcare provider if the conditions get worse or involves areas of the face or the throat that could affect breathing

• go to a big build building
• this strike something that is tall
• get low on the ground
• Get on something that is insulated
• give CPR right away and care for any injuries before help arrives


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