Finishing and Binding 420-441

Finishing
is a general term that applies to many types of operations carried out during or following printing

Ex: cutting, folding, slitting, perforating, creasing, scoring, die cutting, embossing, stamping, numbering, drilling, punching, varnishing, and laminating.

Binding
is the process of fastening together the sheets of a product with methods including gluing, sewing, stapling, or other mechanical means.
Purpose of packaging
is to contain, protect, preserve, and transport a product.
Cutting
making a large sheet of paper into several smaller sheets
Trimming
is the process of cutting off uneven edges of paper, as when trimming the 3 sides of a book.
Paper cutter & Guillotine cutter
the knife of a guillotine cutter is forced through the paper at a slight angle to produce an oblique shearing action.
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Dial gauge or digital readout
indicates the distance of the back gauge to the cutting edge of the blade
The amount of paper each cutter will cut depends on
paper type, weight, and size
Nonrepeat device
cutter blade will only come down once until reset
Two-handed operation
buttons on each side of the operator must be pressed simultaneously to make the cutter blade operate.
Electric eye stop
a detector that will automatically stop the descent of the cutter blade if a hand, arm, or other object is in its path.
Sheetwise imposition
many jobs are printed on one side and backed up with a second printing.
Buckle-type
most common folding machine for smaller sheets

uses roller action to buckle-fold the paper.

Folds
either parallel or right-angle
Self-cover stitched body
the cover is the same stock as the sheets inside the book. Sheets are folded on the long side and stitched along the spine of the book
Gate-fold book
The front and back cover have panels that are folded in toward the spine of the book
Folder
a pocket or a flap that can be on one or both sides of the inside of the cover stock.
Fold-out book
a fold-out in a book can fall anywhere in the book. some books and magazines use the fold-out format.
Folding area safety
Tie back long hair or loose sleeves
keep fingers clear of pinch points
handle paper carefully
turn off any machine before making adjustments
Lock out electrical power when performing maintenance.
Perforated
whenever it is necessary to remove a portion of the printed material
places a series of small cuts or slits in the substrate, using various types of blades or wheels
Slitting
is similar to perforating, but it involves making a continuous cut rather than a series of slits.
Usually done by one or more sharp-edged wheels that cut the stock as it passes through the folder.

Slit the wheels=produce finished size

Creasing
is the process of compressing the substrate so it will fold more easily.
Creasing rule
is made of a thin piece of metal that is pressed slightly into the stock.
Scoring
a slight cut made in heavy stock before it is folded.
Die cutting
used whenever an irregular shape must be cut in a substrate
pressure is used to force a sharp metal die through the stock.
Dies consist of
a base, or dieboard, wtih steel rules shaped and inserted in a saw kerf
Saw kerf
is the open area left after sawing the material.
Embossing
is a process that creates a raised image on a substrate by pressing it between two dies
One die is in relief and the other is recessed
When the two are brought together with the stock between them, the clamping force creates a raised image on the stock.
Blind embossing
the stock itself creates the image and ink is not used.
Debossing
if an image is sunk into the substrate, rather than being raised
Stamping
foil stamping, is a method of transferring a thin layer or metallic tone or color to a substrate, using heat and pressure.
A form of relief printing process
Numbering
the process of imprinting tickets, certificates, checks, or other items with consecutive figures
Numbering machine
the figures are transferred from an inked relief image onto the stock.
Punching and Drilling
produce holes in a substrate
Punching
is done by forcing a metal rod down through the paper to remove stock
Drilling
uses a revolving, hollow drill bit with very sharp edges.
Lift
a pile of paper, usually the amount cut or drilled in a single operation.
Varnishing
a coating applied after printing, used to provide a clear protective surface
coating makes the surface resistant to moisture and scuffing
Ex: glossy brochures, annual report covers
letterpress and screen printing
Epoxy
is a resin that forms a very hard surface coating when combined with other chemicals.
Laminating
is the bonding of 2 or more materials together to become one common unit.
a thin film of plastic with an adhesive coating is bonded to the substrate to provide protection against abrasion and moisture.
Liquid lamination
is a coating method similar to varnishing. the plastic coating material is applied in liquid form and then cured into a though protective layer by exposure to ultraviolet light. referred to as UV-cured coating.
Adhesive binding
aka padding, this is a classification for methods that use glue or adhesive to hold the sheets together but allow them to be removed, as in the case of notepads.
Mechanical binding
a broad category that includes many different devices used to hold sheets together. Spiral wire, metal posts, metal or plastic rings, plastic combs, and channels that rely on friction to hold are all mechanical methods. Since separate sheets are being fastened together, this is sometimes called loose-leaf binding.
books with larger number of pages
Side stitching
a form of stapling in which metal wire is forced through sides of sheets and formed to hold sheets together. Side sewing is similar, but uses threads rather than staples to bind sheets together.
Saddle stitching
a method in which metal wire is forced through the folded edge of a signature and formed into staples to hold the pages together. Saddle sewing is like saddle stitching, but is done with thread instead of wire.
commonly used for booklets or magazines
Perfect binding
aka softcover binding, this method uses an adhesive to hold sheets or signatures together and to fasten the flexible cloth or paper cover onto the body
Edition binding
the most complex and permanent form of binding, in which a rigid cover is attached to a book body that is held together by sewing. aka case binding or hard binding
Self-cover binding
a term used to describe using the same material for both the cover and body of the book. SC books may be perfect bound, but are most often saddle stitched or side-stitched.
Fastening techniques
pamphlet binding, edition binding, perfect binding, and mechanical binding.
Pamphlet binding
magazines, catalogs, booklets
created by saddle wire stitching
Gathering
the assembling of printed signatures
Collating
the gathering of sheets or signatures, usually after they are printed.
or
the assembling of single sheets
Signature
is a large sheet that has been folded to form a group of pages
Stitching
is a common binding method that holds the sheets together with wire staples.
used on products with fewer than 120 pages
Creep
a pushing out or extension of pages on the outer edge of a saddle-stitched book, caused by the greater thickness at the spine. An allowance for creep must be made in the prepress phase ( laying out the pages).
Edition binding
aka case binding, is considered the most durable and permanent method of binding books that will be used extensively over a period of time, such as textbooks and reference volumes.
Perfect binding
used for producing books that are usually described as softcover or paperback, is a fast and low-cost method.
Burst binding
involves notching the spine of the book body and applying a high-strength adhesive under pressure.
Mechanical binding
consists of a number of methods that employ a mechanical device to hold sheets together in loose-leaf form.
Plastic Comb binding
is commonly used for booklets that might have to be altered by adding or removing pages.
Spiral binding
is similar to the plastic comb method, does not allow opening the binding for the addition or removal of pages.
smaller round holes are punched, then the wire is spiral fed through the booklet using automatic equipment.
small pocket notebooks, calendars
Packaging
involves wrapping, strapping, or boxing the printed pieces together for delivery to the customer.
Shrink-wrap
a packaging method in which a stack of printed pieces is enclosed with a thin plastic in sheet form.
Banding machine
aka loop press, to wrap and bond a plastic or metal band around a bundle of booklets, books, boxes, or other products. this holds the products together for shipping.
Taping machine
is used in shipping departments to automatically apply tape to seal the tops of boxes.

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