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Financial Statement Discussion and Analysis

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IPSASB Exposure Draft (ED) 47 March 2012 Comments due: July 31, 2012 Proposed International Public Sector Accounting Standard Financial Statement Discussion and Analysis The International Public Sector Accounting Standards Board (IPSASB) sets International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSASs) for use by public sector entities, including national, regional, and local governments, and related governmental agencies. A key part of the IPSASB’s strategy is to converge the IPSASs, to the extent appropriate, with the IFRSs issued by the IASB.

The objective of the IPSASB is to serve the public interest by setting high-quality public sector accounting standards and by facilitating the adoption and implementation of these, thereby enhancing the quality and consistency of practice throughout the world and strengthening transparency and accountability of public sector finances. ——————– The structures and processes that support the operations of the IPSASB are facilitated by the International Federation of Accountants (IFAC).

The mission of the International Federation of Accountants (IFAC) is to serve the public interest by: contributing to the development, adoption and implementation of high-quality international standards and guidance; contributing to the development of strong professional accountancy organizations and accounting firms, and to high-quality practices by professional accountants; promoting the value of professional accountants worldwide; speaking out on public interest issues where the accountancy profession’s expertise is most relevant.

International Public Sector Accounting Standards, Exposure Drafts, Consultation Papers, and other IPSASB publications are published by, and copyright of, IFAC. The IPSASB and IFAC do not accept responsibility for loss caused to any person who acts or refrains from acting in reliance on the material in this publication, whether such loss is caused by negligence or otherwise.

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The IPSASB logo, ‘International Public Sector Accounting Standards Board’, ‘IPSASB’, ‘International Public Sector Accounting Standards’ ‘IPSAS’, the IFAC logo, ‘International Federation of Accountants’, and ‘IFAC’ are trademarks and service marks of IFAC.

Copyright © March 2012 by the International Federation of Accountants (IFAC). All rights reserved. Permission is granted to make copies of this work to achieve maximum exposure and feedback provided that each copy bears the following credit line: “Copyright © March 2012 by the International Federation of Accountants (IFAC). All rights reserved. Used with permission of IFAC. Permission is granted to make copies of this work to achieve maximum exposure and feedback. ” Published by: REQUEST FOR COMMENTS

This Exposure Draft 47, Financial Statement Discussion and Analysis, was developed and approved by the International Public Sector Accounting Standards Board (IPSASB). The proposals in this Exposure Draft may be modified in light of comments received before being issued in final form. Comments are requested by July 31, 2012. Respondents are asked to submit their comments electronically through the IPSASB website, using the “Submit a Comment” link. Please submit comments in both a PDF and Word file.

Also, please note that first-time users must register to use this feature. All comments will be considered a matter of public record and will ultimately be posted on the website. Although IPSASB prefers that comments are submitted via its website, comments can also be sent to Stephenie Fox, IPSASB Technical Director at [email protected] org. This publication may be downloaded free of charge from the IPSASB website: www. ipsasb. org. The approved text is published in the English language.

Objective of the Exposure Draft The objective of this Exposure Draft (ED) is to propose an authoritative Standard for the preparation of financial statement discussion and analysis by public sector entities. Guide for Respondents The IPSASB would welcome comments on all of the matters discussed in this Exposure Draft. Comments are most helpful if they indicate the specific paragraph or group of paragraphs to which they relate, contain a clear rationale and, where applicable, provide a suggestion for alternative wording.

The Specific Matter for Comments requested for the Exposure Draft are provided below. Specific Matter for Comment 1: Do you agree that the material presented in this Exposure Draft should be developed as an IPSAS, with the same level of authority as the accrual based IPSASs, which applies to all entities that prepare financial statements in accordance with IPSASs? Specific Matter for Comment 2: Do you agree that IPSAS 1 should be amended to clearly indicate that financial statement discussion and analysis is not a component of the financial statements?

Specific Matter for Comment 3: Is the scope of financial statement discussion and analysis clearly defined so as to distinguish it from other issues being addressed by the IPSASB (e. g. , financial statements, service performance reporting, reporting on the long-term sustainability of public finances)? Specific Matter for Comment 4: Is the required content for financial statement discussion and analysis appropriate? 3 Specific Matter for Comment 5: Do you agree with the transitional provisions?

Specific Matter for Comment 6: Is the Implementation Guidance useful to understanding the requirements of the proposed IPSAS? Specific Matter for Comment 7: Is the Illustrative Example a useful way of illustrating the requirements of the proposed IPSAS? 4 IPSAS XX (ED 47)—FINANCIAL STATEMENT DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS CONTENTS Paragraph Objective ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Scope ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

Requirement for Financial Statement Discussion and Analysis ……………………………………. Definition ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Qualitative Characteristics ………………………………………………………………………………………. Structure and Content of Financial Statement Discussion and Analysis ………………………… Identification and Responsibility ………………………………………………………………………….

Compliance with this IPSAS ………………………………………………………………………………. Minimum Required Content ……………………………………………………………………………….. Overview of the entity………………………………………………………………………………….. Information about the entity’s objectives and strategies …………………………………… Analysis of the entity’s financial statements ………………………………………………….

Risks and uncertainties ……………………………………………………………………………….. Transition………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Effective Date ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Appendix A: Amendments to Other IPSASs Basis for Conclusions Alternative View Implementation Guidance Illustrative Example 1 2? 5 6–7 8 9 10? 32 11–12 13–14 15? 32 18 19–20 21–26 7–32 33–34 35–36 5 FINANCIAL STATEMENT DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS International Public Sector Accounting Standard XX (ED 47), Financial Statement Discussion and Analysis is set out in paragraphs 1–36. All the paragraphs have equal authority. IPSAS XX (ED 47) should be read in the context of its objective, the Basis for Conclusions, and the Preface to International Public Sector Accounting Standards. IPSAS 3, Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors provides a basis for selecting and applying accounting policies in the absence of explicit guidance. FINANCIAL STATEMENT DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS Objective 1. The objective of this Standard is to prescribe the manner in which financial statement discussion and analysis should be prepared and presented. To achieve this objective, this Standard sets out overall considerations for the guidance for its structure, minimum requirements for the content and presentation to allow entities to prepare financial statement discussion and analysis for their specific circumstances to assist users to understand the financial statements. Scope 2.

An entity that prepares and presents general purpose financial statements (“financial statements”) in accordance with IPSAS 1, Presentation of Financial Statements, shall prepare and present financial statement discussion and analysis. Financial statement discussion and analysis shall be prepared for the same reporting entity that prepares and presents financial statements under the accrual basis of accounting. This Standard applies only to financial statement discussion and analysis. It does not apply to other information included in public documents issued in conjunction with the financial statements.

This Standard applies to all public sector entities other than Government Business Enterprises. The Preface to International Public Sector Accounting Standards issued by the IPSASB explains that Government Business Enterprises (GBEs) apply IFRSs issued by the IASB. GBEs are defined in IPSAS 1. 3. 4. 5. Requirement for Financial Statement Discussion and Analysis 6. 7. An entity shall issue the financial statement discussion and analysis when it issues financial statements. IPSAS 1 requires financial statements to be prepared at least annually. Some entities may prepare condensed interim financial information.

This Standard requires an entity to issue financial discussion and analysis in conjunction with the entity’s annual financial statements. Definition 8. The following term is used in this Standard with the meaning specified: Financial statement discussion and analysis is an explanation of the significant items, transactions, and events presented in an entity’s financial statements and the trends and factors that influenced them. Terms defined in other IPSASs are used in this Standard with the same meaning as in those Standards, and are reproduced in the Glossary of Defined Terms published separately.

Qualitative Characteristics 9. Financial statement discussion and analysis shall include information that possesses the qualitative characteristics of general purpose financial reports identified in Appendix A of IPSAS 1. 7 FINANCIAL STATEMENT DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS Structure and Content of Financial Statement Discussion and Analysis 10. Financial statement discussion and analysis shall be consistent with the financial statements, and based on currently-known facts and supportable assumptions.

Identification of Financial Statement Discussion and Analysis 11. 12. Financial statement discussion and analysis shall be identified clearly, and distinguished from the financial statements. Separate identification of financial statement discussion and analysis enables users to distinguish: (a) (b) Financial statements prepared and presented under the accrual basis of accounting in accordance with IPSASs; and Other information presented in an annual report or other document that may be useful to users but is not the subject of requirements in IPSASs.

Compliance with this IPSAS 13. An entity whose financial statement discussion and analysis complies with this IPSAS shall make an explicit and unreserved statement of such compliance. Financial statement discussion and analysis shall not be described as complying with this IPSAS unless it complies with all the requirements of this IPSAS. In some jurisdictions, preparation and presentation of financial statement discussion and analysis is required by legislative, regulatory, or other externally-imposed regulations.

Entities are encouraged to disclose information about compliance with those requirements. 14. Minimum Required Content 15. To the extent it does not replicate information in the financial statements, financial statement discussion and analysis shall include, at a minimum: (a) (b) (c) (d) 16. An overview of the entity; Information about the entity’s objectives and strategies; An analysis of the entity’s financial statements, including variances and trends; and Information about the entity’s risks and uncertainties, including its risk management strategy.

Financial statement discussion and analysis provides useful information to users for accountability and decision-making purposes. However, some matters may be required to be included in the financial statements by relevant IPSASs that may also be required to be included in financial statement discussion and analysis in accordance with this Standard. In those cases, financial statement discussion and analysis should not merely repeat what is in the financial statements, but it should complement and supplement the financial statement explanations by providing insights and perspectives thereon.

Although the specific information contained in an entity’s financial statement discussion and analysis will vary depending on the facts and circumstances specific to the entity, certain essential elements are important to all financial statement discussion and analysis, as discussed below. 17. 8 FINANCIAL STATEMENT DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS Overview of the Entity 18. An overview of the entity helps users to understand the entity and how the environment in which it operates affect an entity’s financial statements. This information is the starting point in assisting users’ understanding of an entity’s financial statements.

Information provided about an entity’s operations in financial statement discussion and analysis may include current information, and changes from the prior year, about: (a) (b) (c) (d) The entity’s mission and vision; The entity’s governance (e. g. , legislative or regulatory structure, management structure); The entity’s relationships with other entities (e. g. , funding arrangements); External trends, events and developments in the legal, regulatory, social, political, and macro-economic environment specific to the entity, which have or may have a material impact on the entity’s financial position and financial performance (e. . , the impact of a regional or international financial crisis on employment, the tax base, or interest rates in the jurisdiction); and The entity’s main operations, including service delivery methods (e. g. , outsourcing, service concession arrangements) and significant changes in them. (e) Information about the Entity’s Objectives and Strategies 19. Financial statement discussion and analysis should discuss the entity’s objectives and strategies in a way that enables users of the financial statements to understand the entity’s priorities and to identify the resources that must be managed to achieve its objectives.

Financial statement discussion and analysis should also explain how the achievement of the entity’s financial objectives (e. g. , debt reduction strategy) will be measured. Financial statement discussion and analysis should discuss significant changes in an entity’s objectives and strategies from the previous period or periods. 20. Analysis of the Entity’s Financial Statements 21. Financial statement discussion and analysis should describe the significant events and activities that have affected the financial statements, without simply reiterating the information presented in those financial statements.

A brief discussion of the purpose of, and information provided by, each component of the financial statements set out in IPSAS1, and their interrelationships should also be provided. In addition, there should be a discussion of significant commitments, contingencies, and events occurring after the reporting date. If financial performance measures that are not required or defined by IPSASs are included within financial statement discussion and analysis, those measures should be defined and explained, including an explanation of the relevance of the measure to users.

When financial performance measures are derived or drawn from the financial statements, those measures should be reconciled to measures presented in the financial statements that have been prepared in accordance with IPSASs. In addition, narrative explanations of such illustrations should be provided if necessary to accurately and completely present the information. Comparative information should be included in financial statement discussion and analysis when it is relevant to an understanding of the current period’s financial statements. 9 22. 23. FINANCIAL STATEMENT DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS 4. Financial statements can have a predictive or prospective role. This Standard does not require the entity to disclose forward-looking information, such as forecasts or projections. However, financial statement discussion and analysis should explain significant changes and trends in an entity’s financial position and financial performance. An analysis of trends includes those financial statement items that are important and significant to gaining a better understanding of an entity’s financial position and performance and changes in financial position and performance over a period of time.

Identification of the main events, trends, and factors influencing the current reporting period may provide information about the entity’s intended actions in relation to such events, trends, and factors because the party responsible for the preparation of the entity’s financial statement discussion and analysis possesses informed expectations regarding the entity’s future operations based on its detailed knowledge of the entity’s current operations.

To the extent such information is not included in the financial statements, financial statement discussion and analysis should include information about significant positive and negative variances between: (a) (b) Actual results and the budget; and The prior year and current year financial statements, by explaining significant changes and highlighting trends. 25. 26. Risks and Uncertainties 27. Information about the entity’s risks and uncertainties helps users to evaluate the impact of risks in the current period (e. . , contingent liabilities disclosed in the financial statements) as well as expected outcomes. Information provided may include its main exposures to risk and changes in those risks, its opportunities, along with its policies and strategies for mitigating the risks and capitalizing on opportunities. It may also include the entity’s evaluation of the effectiveness of its risk management strategies.

It is noted, however, that these need to be fact-based and take into account currently-known conditions. In addition, underlying assumptions need to be disclosed. Information about the entity’s risks and uncertainties may include a discussion of such matters as a summary of the entity’s investment policy and other means of managing its risks, insurance coverage, and other controls intended to safeguard the entity’s assets.

It may also include the relevant legislation, regulation or body that sets the risk management policies for the entity (e. g. , when risks are managed at a government-wide level). A discussion of how the entity’s manages its risks helps users obtain a complete picture of the entity’s exposure to risks that directly affect financial statement items and disclosures, which allows them to evaluate the entity’s financial position and financial performance.

Such disclosure may include the entity’s decision to “self-insure”, or to mitigate risk by transferring or sharing it, or through insurance. Additional information may be provided about uncertainties such as environmental issues, and significant events after the reporting date (see IPSAS 14, Events After the Reporting Date), which may affect the entity’s future operations (e. g. debt issuance, guarantees issued in relation to a financial crisis, or entering into a new service concession arrangement). Information may also be provided about the entity’s opportunities; however in reporting such information, care must be taken to ensure it is fact-based, and neutral. This means that the assumptions made are based on conditions that exist at the reporting date and events that occurred in the current period. 10 28. 29. 30. FINANCIAL STATEMENT DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS 31.

A discussion of the risks the entity faces also provides relevant information to users about exposure or vulnerability to concentrations of risks such as significant loans to particular regions or industries, or dependence on a particular source of revenue. Risks and uncertainties may have a pervasive effect on the financial statements, therefore information pertaining to risks and uncertainties may be reported separately, or in relevant sections throughout the financial statement discussion and analysis. 2. Transition 33. 34. All provisions of this Standard shall be applied from the date of first adoption of this Standard. An entity that has applied the transitional provision in IPSAS 1 to present only current period information in the financial statements to which accrual accounting is first adopted in accordance with IPSASs is permitted to omit the comparative information described in paragraph 23 from its financial statement discussion and analysis for that period.

Effective Date 35. An entity shall apply this Standard to financial statement discussion and analysis that relates to annual financial statements covering periods beginning on or after MM DD, YYYY. Earlier application is encouraged. If an entity applies this Standard for a period beginning before MM DD, YYYY, it shall disclose that fact and apply IPSAS 1 and IPSAS 24, Presentation of Budget Information in Financial Statements at the same time. When an entity dopts the accrual basis of accounting as defined by IPSASs for financial reporting purposes subsequent to this effective date, this Standard applies to the entity’s financial statement discussion and analysis covering periods beginning on or after the date of adoption. 36. 11 FINANCIAL STATEMENT DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS Appendix A Amendments to Other IPSASs IPSAS 1, Presentation of Financial Statements A new paragraph is inserted after paragraph 21 as follows: Components of Financial Statements 21.

A complete set of financial statements comprises: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) A statement of financial position; A statement of financial performance; A statement of changes in net assets/equity; A cash flow statement; When the entity makes publicly available its approved budget, a comparison of budget and actual amounts either as a separate additional financial statement or as a budget column in the financial statements; and Notes, comprising a summary of significant accounting policies and other explanatory notes. (f) 21A. Financial statement discussion and analysis is not a component of the financial statements.

IPSAS XX (ED 47), Financial Statement Discussion and Analysis requires financial statement discussion and analysis to be presented in conjunction with its financial statements. A new paragraph is inserted after paragraph 24 as follows: 24. Public sector entities are typically subject to budgetary limits in the form of appropriations or budget authorizations (or equivalent), which may be given effect through authorizing legislation. General purpose financial reporting by public sector entities may provide information on whether resources were obtained and used in accordance with the legally adopted budget.

Entities that make publicly available their approved budget(s) are required to comply with the requirements of IPSAS 24, Presentation of Budget Information in Financial Statements. For other entities, where the financial statements and the budget are on the same basis of accounting, this Standard encourages the inclusion in the financial statements of a comparison with the budgeted amounts for the reporting period. Reporting against budget(s) for these entities may be presented in various different ways, including: ?

The use of a columnar format for the financial statements, with separate columns for budgeted amounts and actual amounts. A column showing any variances from the budget or appropriation may also be presented for completeness; and Disclosure that the budgeted amounts have not been exceeded. If any budgeted amounts or appropriations have been exceeded, or expenses incurred without appropriation or other form of authority, then details may be disclosed by way of footnote to the relevant item in the financial statements. ? 12 FINANCIAL STATEMENT DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS 4A. When an entity elects, under IPSAS 24, to explain, in financial statement discussion and analysis rather than by way of note disclosure, material differences between the budgeted and actual amounts identified in paragraph 24, it applies the guidance in IPSAS XX (ED 47). Paragraphs 27 and 28 are amended as follows: Overall Considerations Fair Presentation and Compliance with IPSASs 27. Financial statements shall present fairly the financial position, financial performance, and cash flows of an entity. Fair presentation of the financial statements requires the aithful representation of the effects of transactions, other events, and conditions in accordance with the definitions and recognition criteria for assets, liabilities, revenue, and expenses set out in IPSASs applicable to the financial statements. The application of these IPSASs, with additional disclosures when necessary, is presumed to result in financial statements that achieve a fair presentation. An entity whose financial statements comply with IPSASs applicable to the financial statements shall make an explicit and unreserved statement of such compliance in the notes.

Financial statements shall not be described as complying with IPSASs unless they comply with all the requirements of those IPSASs. 28. Paragraph 62 is amended as follows: Identification of the Financial Statements … 62. IPSASs apply to financial statements and financial statement discussion and analysis, and not to other information presented in an annual report or other document. Therefore, it is important that users can distinguish information that is prepared using IPSASs from other information that may be useful to users but is not the subject of those requirements.

A new paragraph is inserted after paragraph 153D as follows: Effective Date 153E. Paragraphs 21A and 24A were inserted and paragraphs 27, 28 and 62 were amended by IPSAS XX (ED 47) issued in Month 201X. An entity shall apply those amendments for annual financial statements covering periods beginning on or after Month DD, 201X. Earlier application is encouraged. If an entity applies the amendments for a period beginning before Month DD, 201X, it shall disclose that fact and at the same time apply IPSAS XX (ED 47) and the amendments to paragraphs 14, 19 and 54A of IPSAS 24. 3 FINANCIAL STATEMENT DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS IPSAS 24 Presentation of Budget Information in Financial Statements Paragraph 14 is amended as follows: Presentation of a Comparison of Budget and Actual Amounts 14. Subject to the requirements of paragraph 21, an entity shall present a comparison of the budget amounts for which it is held publicly accountable and actual amounts, either as a separate additional financial statement or as additional budget columns in the financial statements currently presented in accordance with IPSASs.

The comparison of budget and actual amounts shall present separately for each level of legislative oversight: (a) (b) (c) The original and final budget amounts; The actual amounts on a comparable basis; and By way of note disclosure, an explanation of material differences between the budget for which the entity is held publicly accountable and actual amounts, unless such explanation is included in either the financial statement discussion and analysis or other public documents issued in conjunction with the financial statements, and a cross reference to those documents is made in the notes.

Paragraph 19 is amended as follows: 19. Management IPSAS XX (ED 47), Financial Statement Discussion and Analysis requires presentation of a financial statement discussion and analysis, operations review, or other public reports that provides commentary on the performance and achievements of the entity during the reporting period,. It can include including explanations of any material differences from budget amounts,. Alternatively, this explanation could be included in other public documents are often issued in conjunction with the financial statements.

In accordance with paragraph 14(c) of this Standard, explanation of material differences between actual and budget amounts will be included in notes to the financial statements, unless (a) included in the financial statement discussion and analysis or other public reports or documents issued in conjunction with the financial statements, and (b) the notes to the financial statements identify the reports or documents in which the explanation can be found. When an entity presents the actual-to-budget comparison in financial statement discussion and analysis, it applies the guidance in IPSAS XX (ED 47).

A new paragraph is inserted after paragraph 54 as follows: Effective Date 54A. Paragraphs 14 and 19 were amended by IPSAS XX (ED 47) issued in Month 201X. An entity shall apply those amendments for annual financial statements covering periods beginning on or after Month DD, 201X. Earlier application is encouraged. If an entity applies the amendments for a period beginning before Month DD, 201X, it shall disclose that fact and at the same time apply IPSAS XX (ED 47) and the amendments to paragraphs 21A, 24A, 27, 28, 62 and 153E of IPSAS 1. 14 FINANCIAL STATEMENT DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS Basis for Conclusions

This Basis for Conclusions accompanies, but is not part of, IPSAS XX (ED 47). Scope and Authority BC1. The IPSASB approved a project in March 2008 to address “narrative reporting”. In developing this Standard, the IPSASB clarified that the scope of the project is to address only those reports that provide discussion and analysis specifically pertaining to an entity’s general purpose financial statements (“financial statements”) as set out in IPSAS 1, and not broader types of reports that may be considered general purpose financial reports as envisaged in the IPSASB’s Conceptual Framework.

BC2. In undertaking this project, the IPSASB considered, under its Criteria for Modifying IASB Documents, whether to develop guidance that was converged with Management Commentary, an IFRS Practice Statement. The IPSASB did not consider this approach to be appropriate because: (a) The users identified in the Practice Statement are investors. IPSAS 1, Presentation of Financial Statements, identifies different users, which results in different information needs related to the financial statements.

Additionally, in the private sector there may be a strong influence from the securities exchanges and their regulators which help ensure and reinforce the information needs of the investors. In the public sector there may not be a comparable regulator, which participates in the process of standardizing financial statement discussion and analysis for a jurisdiction, and therefore reliance on the private sector guidance may result in loss of accountability in the public sector. (b) BC3.

Financial statement discussion and analysis is intended to address similar matters to reports that may be termed “management discussion and analysis” and “management commentary” in various jurisdictions. However, the IPSASB did not consider those terms to accurately describe the nature of the report in relation to the financial statements. The IPSASB decided it was important to link financial statement discussion and analysis to the financial statements because the financial statement discussion and analysis is intended to explain the financial statements, and not to stand alone.

The IPSASB considers the term “financial statement discussion and analysis” clearly defines the scope of applicability of this Standard and its close linkage to the financial statements. BC4. The IPSASB considered whether public sector entities that prepare and present financial statements in accordance with International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSAS): (a) (b) Should be required to prepare financial statement discussion and analysis; and If so, whether financial statement discussion and analysis should be included as an integral part of the general purpose financial statements.

BC5. The IPSASB considers that financial statement discussion and analysis provides additional information necessary to meet the objectives of financial statements. The IPSASB concluded that all entities that prepare and present their financial statements in accordance with IPSASs should be required to prepare financial statement discussion and analysis in accordance with this IPSAS, which has the same level of authority as accrual based IPSASs. 15 FINANCIAL STATEMENT DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS

BC6. The IPSASB decided it was important to develop a standard that provided principles for financial statement discussion and analysis, while allowing reporting on specific information most relevant to an entity. Accordingly, this Standard has been developed from a principlesbased perspective that can be applied to all public sector entities. In addition, entities are encouraged to prepare financial statement discussion and analysis that meets their specific circumstances.

The IPSASB considered whether a requirement to issue financial statement discussion and analysis when an entity issues financial statements prepared in accordance with IPSASs would be an impediment to the adoption of IPSASs. The IPSASB considered that the users of financial statements in such jurisdictions may even have a greater need for the benefit of financial statement discussion and analysis to help explain the financial statements.

The IPSASB considers that in all cases, the benefits of providing financial statement discussion and analysis would outweigh the costs of preparing it, as the information is used in the preparation of the financial statements, and tailored to the specific circumstances of the entity. The IPSASB therefore concluded that financial statement discussion and analysis should be prepared by all entities that prepare their financial statements in accordance with IPSASs. IPSAS 1 defines the scope of the financial statements.

The IPSASB does not consider financial statement discussion and analysis to be part of the financial statements prepared in accordance with IPSASs despite its close link to the financial statements. The IPSASB did not, therefore, amend IPSAS 1 to include financial statement discussion and analysis as an integral part of the financial statements. Nevertheless, the IPSASB has clarified the close link between the financial statements and financial statement discussion and analysis. BC7. BC8. BC9. BC10.

The IPSASB noted the concern that, if this Standard were an IPSAS, it could still be considered part of the financial statements and there could be confusion as to whether it would be subject to the same audit requirements as the financial statements. This could cause difficulties in some jurisdictions if the inclusion of financial statement discussion and analysis resulted in a qualified audit report on the financial statements. While the audit of financial statement discussion and analysis is desirable, the IPSASB considers that imposing an audit requirement on such information exceeds its mandate.

However, it is noted that an audit of financial statements would not automatically require audited financial statement discussion and analysis. The term “financial statements” ordinarily refers to a complete set of financial statements as determined by the requirements of the applicable financial reporting framework. The financial reporting framework for public sector entities is described in IPSAS 1, and does not include financial statement discussion and analysis. BC11.

To date, IPSASs have addressed only matters that pertain to the content of the financial statements themselves. The IPSASB considered whether it would be appropriate to allow for a new type of pronouncement that had equivalent authoritative status to the IPSASs. The IPSASB is of the view that introducing a new type of pronouncement would be confusing to its constituents. Accordingly, the IPSASB has decided that an International Public Sector Accounting Standard (IPSAS) is the appropriate type of pronouncement to apply to the financial statement discussion and analysis. 6 FINANCIAL STATEMENT DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS Qualitative Characteristics BC12. The IPSASB also concluded that the information in financial statement discussion and analysis should possess the qualitative characteristics and constraints in IPSAS 1. Accordingly, IPSAS XX (ED 47) contains requirements that financial statement discussion and analysis contain information that is consistent with those qualitative characteristics. Structure and Content of Financial Statement Discussion and Analysis BC13.

Paragraph 21 of IPSAS 1 states that a complete set of financial statements comprises: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) A statement of financial position; A statement of financial performance; A statement of changes in net assets/equity; A cash flow statement; When the entity makes publicly available its approved budget, a comparison of budget and actual amounts either as a separate additional financial statement or as a budget column in the financial statements; and Notes, comprising a summary of significant accounting policies and other explanatory notes.

The IPSASB noted that in some of the minimum required content in paragraph 15 of IPSAS XX (ED 47) may also be required under other IPSASs for financial statements. IPSAS XX (ED 47) therefore requires financial statement discussion and analysis include significant items, transactions, and events that are presented in an entity’s financial statements to the extent it does not replicate information in the financial statements. BC14.

The IPSASB noted that the content and format of presentation of financial statement discussion and analysis should be determined by the entity, in a way that best reflects its circumstances, noting that the specific information contained in an entity’s financial statement discussion and analysis will vary depending on the facts and circumstances specific to the entity. The IPSASB wishes to avoid a checklist approach that may result in an entity reporting less relevant information. Accordingly, some flexibility is provided in the content and format.

However, the Standard contains certain essential required content that is important to all financial statement discussion and analysis. BC15. In determining the matters that should be required in financial statement discussion and analysis, the IPSASB reviewed and compared existing national standards, guidance, and regulatory requirements for financial statement discussion and analysis (or its equivalent) in the public sector. The existing approaches, identified in conducting the research, were used to help form the basis for the required content of financial statement discussion and analysis.

BC16. In some cases an IPSAS permits certain information to be included in separate reports (e. g. , financial statement discussion and analysis) rather than in the financial statements. The IPSASB did not consider it necessary to duplicate the financial statement disclosure in the financial statement discussion and analysis and has accordingly provided guidance to that effect. (f) 17 FINANCIAL STATEMENT DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS Forward-Looking Information BC17. This Standard does not require the entity to disclose forward-looking information, such as forecasts or projections.

However, the IPSASB noted that information in financial statements also has predictive ability about the entity’s operations, and that financial statement discussion and analysis could enhance that ability. For example, information about an entity’s risk management policies, and trend analyses of significant financial statement items, may assist users in assessing the extent to which resources will be available to support future service delivery objectives and the amounts and timing of future cash flows necessary to service and repay existing claims to the entity’s resources.

The IPSASB has thus provided guidance on how such information could be included in financial statement discussion and analysis. Transitional Provisions BC18. The IPSASB determined that a transitional provision was required to address the case when an entity has used the exemption under IPSAS 1 to not include comparative information in respect of the financial statements to which accrual accounting is first adopted in accordance with IPSASs.

This Standard states that comparative information should be included in financial statement discussion and analysis when it is relevant to an understanding of the current period’s financial statements. However, where an entity has applied the transitional provision in IPSAS 1 it is unlikely to have comparative information and thus it would not be possible to provide such comparative information. 18 FINANCIAL STATEMENT DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS Alternative View of Mr. Thomas Muller-Marques Berger AV1. This member is of the view that ED 47 should require entities to disclose forward-looking information, such as forecasts or projections.

As outlined in the IPSASB’s Conceptual Framework Exposure Draft 1, the objectives of financial reporting by public sector entities are to provide information about the entity that is useful to users of GPFRs for accountability purposes and for decision-making purposes. AV2. In the view of this member, the decision not to require entities to disclose forward-looking information does not completely fulfill user needs as the objective of decision-making is not sufficiently addressed. 19 FINANCIAL STATEMENT DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS Implementation Guidance

This guidance accompanies, but is not part of, IPSAS XX (ED 47). IG1. The purpose of this Implementation Guidance is to illustrate certain aspects of the requirements of IPSAS XX (ED 47). IG2. This Implementation Guidance is divided into three sections as follows: (a) (b) (c) Section A: Qualitative Characteristics of General Purpose Financial Reports— Applicability to Financial Statement Discussion and Analysis; Section B: Examples of Information about the Entity’s Financial Statements; and Section C: Examples of Information about Variances and Trends.

Section A: Qualitative Characteristics of General Purpose Financial Reports— Applicability to Financial Statement Discussion and Analysis A. IG1. Financial statement discussion and analysis is intended to explain the significant items, transactions, and events presented in an entity’s financial statements and the trends and factors that influenced the financial statements to assist users to understand the financial statements. It should, therefore, possess the same qualitative characteristics as for financial statements described in IPSAS 1, namely: (a) (b) (c) (d) Understandability; Relevance; Reliability; and Comparability.

A. IG2. Financial statement discussion and analysis should aim to achieve a balance between the qualitative characteristics to meet the objectives of providing the information. In some cases, depending on the circumstances of the entity, the relative importance of a particular qualitative characteristic may be greater than in others. A. IG3. Application of the qualitative characteristics to financial statement discussion and analysis is set out in paragraphs A. IG. 4? A. IG. 20. Understandability A. IG4.

Information provided in financial statement discussion and analysis should be clear and concise to explain and interpret the complex transactions, events, and conditions presented in the financial statements in a readable and simple manner. Financial statement discussion and analysis is understandable when it uses descriptions that are not overly technical, does not provide excessive detail, and clearly describes those transactions, events, and conditions. Relevance A. IG5. The matters that are relevant to an entity are also specific to that entity.

Financial statement discussion and analysis reflects detailed knowledge of the items, transactions, and events, presented in the entity’s financial statements and of the policies that govern the entity’s 20 FINANCIAL STATEMENT DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS operations. This means that financial statement discussion and analysis may not include some matters that are material to the components of the financial statements set out in IPSAS 1, or it may include some matters that are not material to the financial statements. A. IG6.

Financial statement discussion and analysis needs to be clear and concise to be useful, therefore the most important, or material, matters must be selected to be included, descriptions should be non-technical, and an appropriate but not excessive level of detail should be provided. Inclusion of information about immaterial items could make the more important information difficult to find. A. IG7. Generic or “boilerplate” information that does not relate to the specific operations, practices and circumstances of the entity is unlikely to be relevant and should not be included in financial statement discussion and analysis.

When practicable, duplication of the disclosures made in the notes to its financial statements should be avoided. Financial statement discussion and analysis that recites financial statement information without analysis or explanations, or presents discussions that do not provide insight into the entity’s past performance is unlikely to provide information that is relevant to users of the financial statements, and may create an obstacle for users to identify and understand the most significant matters the entity faces.

For example, commentary on the economy that relates specifically to the entity’s financial statements and expected impacts on the entity would be relevant information for users. A. IG8. When dealing with qualitative or forward-looking information (e. g. , expectations about financial results in the future), it is not generally possible to specify a uniform quantitative threshold above which a particular type of information becomes material. A. IG9. Financial statement discussion and analysis provides additional perspectives and insights about the financial statements, which increases the relevance of the information. Reliability A. IG10.

Information presented in financial statement discussion and analysis should be: (a) (b) (c) (d) Based on, and consistent with, the underlying financial statements; Neutral in discussing both positive and negative facts and views; Based on currently-known facts, decisions, or conditions; and Based on verifiable and supportable assumptions. A. IG11. It is important that information presented in the financial statement discussion and analysis is supported by information in the financial statements, and does not go beyond or contradict the information presented in the financial statements. A. IG12. Information that excludes certain facts (e. . , negative) is incomplete and thus could be not neutral. In cases when financial statement discussion and analysis presents ratios, tables, or charts, they should not distort the information in the financial statements by, for example, using a scale that exaggerates a positive or negative trend. A. IG13. Financial statement discussion and analysis should contain information specific to the entity and related to that reporting period. While the information provided in financial statement discussion and analysis may reflect information outside of the financial statements (e. g. , 21 FINANCIAL STATEMENT DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS conomic indicators such as changes in the tax base or the employment base), that information should be related to the reporting period and should be from a reliable source. A. IG14. The underlying assumptions and methodologies (including formulae) used to determine ratios and to prepare tables and charts included in financial statement discussion and analysis should be disclosed (e. g. , those used in analyses of trends and variances). In addition, the methodologies adopted in compiling the information, and the factors and circumstances that support the discussion and analyses, need to be transparent.

Disclosure of this information permits users to assess the reliability of the information provided. A. IG15. Assumptions should be mutually compatible. Assumptions are mutually compatible when they reflect economic relationships in the jurisdiction (e. g. , interest rates, employment rates, GDP). For example, all assumptions that depend on the tax base for a given future period would assume the same tax base level in that period. A. IG16. Financial statement discussion and analysis should clearly describe the basis for how the information is reported, including the unit of measurement.

For example, in cases when financial statement discussion and analysis presents ratios, tables, or charts, they should not distort the information in the financial statements by, for example, using a scale that exaggerates a positive or negative trend. Thus, when financial statement discussion and analysis contains charts or graphs showing trends, disclosure of the unit of measurement is necessary to ensure such information can be properly interpreted. When such information is presented, the scale of such illustrations should be on a basis that faithfully represents the relationships of the items being analyzed.

A. IG17. In some cases it may not be possible to verify the accuracy of all qualitative and quantitative explanations of such information until a future period, if at all. For example, if the entity’s strategy and risk management are described in financial statement discussion and analysis, such information would be less verifiable than, for example, a ratio calculated from information provided in the financial statements. Comparability A. IG18. Information in financial statement discussion and analysis should be comparable. Comparability pplies to information related to different entities and to the entity over periods of time. A. IG19. Comparability is enhanced when financial statement discussion and analysis is presented on a basis consistent with that in prior years and when the same principles and practices are used for each period for such items as determining ratios and preparation of tables and charts included in financial statement discussion and analysis. In addition, disclosure of those principles and practices, including underlying assumptions and formulae, is useful in interpreting the analyses.

Changes to the principles and practices used to prepare financial statement discussion and analysis from one period to the next should be disclosed. A. IG20. Enhancing the inter-period comparability of information assists users in making and evaluating decisions, especially by allowing the assessment of trends in financial information for predictive purposes. In some circumstances, it is impracticable to reclassify comparative information for a particular prior period to achieve comparability with the current period.

For example, data may not have been collected in the prior period(s) in a way that allows reclassification, and it may not be practicable to recreate the information. 22 FINANCIAL STATEMENT DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS Section B: Examples of Information about the Entity’s Financial Statements This Implementation Guidance includes guidance on how an entity may prepare and present financial statement discussion and analysis that includes information about all significant items, transactions, and events presented in the financial statements that are most relevant to enhancing users’ understanding of the financial statements. Financial Position B.

IG1. Information about the financial position will help users to identify the resources of the entity that can be used to provide particular services in future periods and claims to those resources at the reporting date. This will provide information useful as input to assessments of such matters as: ? ? ? The extent to which the entity has discharged its responsibilities for safekeeping and managing its resources; The extent to which resources are available to support future service delivery objectives; and The amounts and timing of future cash flows necessary to service and repay existing claims to the entity’s resources.

Financial Assets B. IG2. Financial statement discussion and analysis may include the following information pertaining to an entity’s financial assets: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) Changes in financial assets to illustrate volatility in the sources of funds; Provisions for loan losses; The rates of return on investment; Composition of investments; A government’s investment in GBEs as a percentage of the total financial assets; Taxes receivable to total tax revenues; and Restricted and designated assets set aside for specific purposes. Property, Plant, and Equipment B.

IG3. Financial statement discussion and analysis may include the following information pertaining to an entity’s property, plant, and equipment: (a) An analysis of required maintenance, including future expenditure requirements for maintenance and replacement, to allow users to make informed decisions regarding the ability of the capital assets to sustain and provide services in the future; An analysis of the change in the net book value of property, plant, and equipment by major class and an explanation of what the net book value and changes in it mean (e. g. a description of why the net book value has increased or decreased is useful in understanding asset replacement and usage); (b) 23 FINANCIAL STATEMENT DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS (c) (d) The average age and average useful life for each category of property, plant, and equipment; and An assessment of the assets’ physical condition carried out by a technical expert in such assessments. B. IG4. Asset management systems may contain information about an asset’s physical condition, but the absence of an asset management system does not necessarily preclude reporting on the physical condition.

B. IG5. Asset condition assessment methodologies and frequency of assessments can be different for major classes of property, plant, and equipment. For example, they could be different for bridges when compared to buildings. B. IG6. It may not be possible to complete a physical examination of all items of property, plant, and equipment. However, the physical condition could be estimated based on a combination of factors including, for example, age, construction materials and methods, breaks per kilometer, geological, and soil conditions.

B. IG7. Financial statement discussion and analysis may provide the average age and either the average remaining useful life or estimated average useful life of property, plant, and equipment in each major class. Information about the average age and the useful life allows users to assess the timing of rehabilitation and replacement expenditures. B. IG8. Financial statement discussion and analysis may contain a description and the quantity of the major components of property, plant, and equipment in each major class of asset.

Providing this information gives users an understanding of the nature and extent of the stock of property, plant, and equipment. B. IG9. The quantity could be based on a unit of measurement that represents the common characteristics of the class of property, plant, and equipment being assessed or components thereof (e. g. , lanes or kilometers for roads, kilometers of pipes for sewer for water systems, or the number of water treatment plants). This summary level unit of measure provides users with a reference that is useful in assessing the magnitude of the classes and components of items of property, plant, and equipment.

B. IG10. The information required to promote a better understanding of an entity’s property, plant, and equipment explains information in the financial statements. Reporting on the physical condition of property, plant, and equipment assists users when assessing: (a) (b) (c) (d) The effects on service potential of past resource allocation and funding decisions; The trends in the physical condition; The adequacy of existing maintenance, replacement and renewal funding; and The extent of current and future revenues needed to maintain, renew, and replace property, plant, and equipment.

Other Assets B. IG11. Financial statement discussion and analysis may include the following information pertaining to an entity’s other assets, to the extent they are material (e. g. , inventories of supplies—see IPSAS 12, Inventories, and prepaid expenses): 24 FINANCIAL STATEMENT DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS (a) (b) Liabilities The nature, extent and purpose of inventories of supplies (e. g. , maintenance materials, strategic stockpiles, and land/property held for resale); and The nature, extent, purpose, and timing of any prepaid items such as insurance. B. IG12.

Financial statement discussion and analysis may include the following information pertaining to an entity’s liabilities: (a) (b) A breakdown of the entity’s debt by domestic issues versus foreign issues. A description of the entity’s debt management policies and strategies, and the general terms and conditions associated with the debt, including whether the entity has complied with any debt covenants. An analysis of the entity’s total debt. Specific ratios or indicators may also be useful to highlight the magnitude of the entity’s debt and the changes in it over time.

For example, an analysis of the total debt outstanding at year end to the total liabilities of the entity may be provided. The impact of the debt servicing cost, expressed as public debt charges to revenues, may also be included. An assessment of any unfunded retirement and other employment or post employment benefit liabilities. This may include a discussion related to the timing of when the unfunded liability needs to be provided for. An analysis of revenues that are not earned at the end of the period including the terms and conditions (e. g. , commitments) associated with them.

The entity is not entitled to these revenues until it performs specific actions as outlined in the terms and conditions of the related contract or agreement. For example, in the case of service concession arrangements in which the operator is compensated by the entity granting it the right to earn third-party revenues, there may be substantial liabilities of this type. The nature of financial liabilities under service concession arrangements. An analysis of any sinking funds available for the discharge of long-term liabilities. (c) (d) (e) (f) Net Assets/Equity B.

IG13. An analysis of net assets/equity provides users with information relevant in assessing the entity’s overall financial position, and whether it has improved or deteriorated. Providing significant explanations and a trend analysis related to the net assets/equity provides users with an indication as to whether the entity’s liabilities are growing and allows them to make assessments about whether current levels of taxes or other charges are sufficient to maintain the volume and quality of services currently provided or to undertake any planned enhancements.

For example, explanations and a trend analysis related to the assets/equity may indicate to users that while debt is growing, the entity is accumulating resources, such as property, plant, and equipment. Financial Performance B. IG14. Information about the financial performance will inform assessments of matters such as whether the entity has acquired resources economically, and used them efficiently and effectively to achieve its service delivery objectives. Information about the costs of service 25

FINANCIAL STATEMENT DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS delivery and the amounts and sources of cost recovery during the reporting period will enable users to determine whether operating costs were recovered from, for example, taxes, user charges, contributions and transfers or were financed by increasing the level of indebtedness of the entity. B. IG15. Any currently-known conditions that have significantly affected revenues or expenses in the current period, as well as those that may impact future evenues or expenses, should be disclosed to assist users in determining trends. Revenues B. IG16. Financial statement discussion and analysis may include the following information pertaining to an entity’s revenues: (a) (b) An overview of total revenues by major source to indicate trends and dependencies on specific sources. Ratios may also be provided to highlight the level of dependence the entity has on particular sources of revenues, for example: (i) (ii) (c) Public-to-public transfers to revenues generated by the entity (e. g. taxes, user fees, licences); and Revenues generated by the entity as a percentage of total revenues. The impact of the of government business

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