In this week, learning and understanding how import the financial account in the company’s financial performance is very important in becoming a manager. This account, records all financial information to which management, creditors, stockholders, potential investors and regulatory agencies understand the financial consequences of a company’s decision and actions. Whether the company has an increasing revenue or losing assets, the company’s credit worthy ness, complying with taxation and regulation of the agencies and government, financial statement is data recorded of the company’s activities (Cleaves, Hobbs, & Noble, 2012).
In creating a financial statement, one must understand the three fundamentals. The first one is an income statement which commonly known as profit and loss statement. It shows the number of profits produced by the company over a given time, let say 1 year. By subtracting the sales or revenue from cost of goods sold to yield to profits. Balance sheet is the second statement which deliver a snapshot on a specified date of a firm’s financial position, giving its asset holdings, liabilities, and owner-supplied capital (stockholders’ equity).
In an equation form, total debt (liabilities) plus total shareholders is equal to total assets. The total assets characterize the resources own by the company while liabilities and shareholder’s equity suggest how those resources had financed. By law, the company needs to report the amount of the company’s numerous assets in the balance sheet by using the actual cost of obtaining them to show the historical transaction at their cost. There are two types of analysis used in comparing information in the balance sheet, horizontal and vertical.
Horizontal or trend analysis pertains to item by item comparison with a number of quarters within a fiscal year or other years. Vertical analysis uses percentage to compare an each item against total asset of financial statement. The last statement is cash flow recognizes the sources and expenditures of a company’s cash. In measuring cash flow, we can use two approaches, statement of cash flows and free cash flows or financing cash flows.
Statement of cash flows identifies the bases and expenditures of cash that describe the change in the company’s cash balance reported in the balance sheet. Once the company has compensated all of its operating overheads and taxes and completed all of its investments, any residual cash is free to be dispersed to the creditors and shareholders. On the other hand, if the free cash flows are negative, manager will have to procure financing from creditors or shareholders (Keown, Martin & Petty, 2014).