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Financial and Ratio Analysis for Vodafone


VODAFONE is one of the largest telecommunication operators throughout the world. Vodafone made the first call in United Kingdom on 1st January 1985. Before that Vodafone was subsidy of Racal Electronics.

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After Racal electronics got demerged in 1991 the name was changed to VODAFONE GROUP PLC. Vodafone started in 1985 with 50 employees and increased rapidly to 5,000 employees and in 2004 the strength was almost near to 60,000 and by the end of financial year 2009 the number of employees reached to 79,000.

I have chosen Vodafone because it is a big brand name in telecommunication industry. Vodafone not only operate in U.K. but throughout the world Vodafone has acquired almost every continent. Within two decades, Vodafone has become the telecommunications leader in Global Systems for Mobile networks (GSM). Vodafone was ranked the second largest multinational in 2004 by the World Investment report. Vodafone Group Plc provides an extensive range of mobile telecommunications services, including voice and data communications, and is the world’s largest mobile telecommunications company. , with a significant presence in Continental Europe, the United Kingdom, the United States and the Far East through the Company’s subsidiary undertakings, associated undertakings and investments. Vodafone’s goal is to integrate data services and telecommunication into a worldwide network. (Vodafone official website)

It is operated throughout the world in some countries if the brand name is not a Vodafone but still it is having a joint venture with other local telecommunications operator such as in Japan. In India the Vodafone started as Hutchinson Essar but later on took over that and changed the name to Vodafone Essar. The Vodafone is known for its services throughout the world. The Vodafone story is one of investment, innovation and award-winning customer service. Above all, it’s one of growth and the ability to deliver the tremendous benefits of mobile communications, not just in the UK but worldwide. These are the reason for choosing the Vodafone group PLC for the ratio analysis. (Vodafone official website)


Vodafone group PLC is twenty year old multinational company of United Kingdom, one of the leading firms in telecommunication sector throughout the world. Vodafone made the first call in United Kingdom on 1st January 1985. Before that Vodafone was subsidy of Racal Electronics. Then known as Racal Telecom Limited, approximately 20% of the company’s capital was offered to the public in October 1988. It was fully demerged from Racal Electronics Plc and became an independent company in September 1991, at that time it changed its name to Vodafone Group Plc. The Vodafone story is one of investment, innovation and award-winning customer service. Above all, it’s one of growth and the ability to deliver the tremendous benefits of mobile communications, not just in the UK but worldwide. (Vodafone official website)

Vodafone group PLC has become the telecommunication leader in Global System of Mobile Networks (GSM) in past two decades. Vodafone has grown rapidly throughout the globe so it is one of the largest telecommunication industries in the world. Vodafone started in 1985 with 50 employees and increased rapidly to 5,000 employees and in 2004 the strength was almost near to 60,000 and by the end of financial year 2009 the number of employees reached to 79,000. (Vodafone official website)

In past few years Vodafone has strived for continuous growth and success. The group has spread not only in Europe but also to Africa, Asia, and Australia at a rapid rate. In 1993 Vodafone Group International is formed to acquire licences and supervise overseas interests. In 1994 VO data is the first network operator in the UK to launch data, fax and SMS services over the digital network. In 1996 Vodafone is the first network operator in the UK to launch a Pre-Pay analogue packages. In 1999 on 5 January Vodafone connects with the five million customers in the UK. In 1999 Vodafone Air Touch Plc is created as a result of a successful merger between Vodafone Group Plc and Air Touch Communications Inc. In 2000 The Global star satellite communications service is launched in the UK. In 2000 Vodafone acquires the largest available 3G license in the UK. In parallel with the development of 3G, Vodafone announces its intention to offer GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) to UK corporate customers. In 2000 the acquisition of Mannesmann AG almost doubles the size of the Vodafone Group making it the largest mobile telecommunications company and one of the top ten companies, by market capitalization, in the world. In 2001 Vodafone makes the world’s first 3G roaming call between Spain and Japan. (Vodafone official website)

In 2002 Vodafone group contributed ? 20 million to community program and Vodafone trials its global mobile payment system in the UK, Italy and Germany and launched the first commercial European GPRS roaming service. In 2003 Vodafone live attracts 1 million customers in its first six months. In 2004 Vodafone live with 3G is launched in 13 markets worldwide and also launched its first 3G service in Europe with the Vodafone Mobile Connect 3G/GPRS data card. (Vodafone official website)

In 2005 Vodafone completes acquisition of control of MobiFon in Romania and Oskar in the Czech Republic. Vodafone reaches 165 million proportionate customers and also announced new four year sponsorship of the England Cricket Team. VODAFONE also acquired 10% of economic interest in Bharti Tele-Ventures in India. Vodafone announces new football sponsorship with the UEFA Champions League in 2005 only. Acquisition of the assets was acquired in Telsim in Turkey. Vodafone signed contract with McLaren and Mercedes for the Title Sponsorship in 2005. Vodafone announces completion of acquisition of 10% economic interest in Bharti Tele-ventures in India. (Vodafone official website)

In 2006 completed the sale of Vodafone Sweden and Vodafone Japan to Softbank. Also announced the completion of acquisition of the assets of Telsim in Turkey
Vodafone and Softbank agree to form mobile partnership.Sale of 25% stake in Switzerland’s Swisscom and Belgium’s Proximus. South Africa increased stakes from 15% to 50 %. Also the group share holding in Netherlands increased to 100% and also acquired outstanding shares. In 2006 group also acquired the telecommunication in Italy and Spain for ?537 millions. (Vodafone official website)

In 2007 Vodafone agrees to buy a controlling interest in Hutchison Essar Limited, a leading operator in the fast growing Indian mobile market. Also agrees to buy a controlling interest in Hutchison Essar Limited. Vodafone agrees to acquire Tele2 Italia Spa and Tele2 Telecommunication Services SLU from Tele2 AB Group. Indus Towers Limited, an independent tower company in India is formed between Vodafone, Idea and Bharti. (Vodafone official website)

In 2008 the Vodafone group increased the share in Arcos for ?366 million and after that owns the 100% Arcos group. Vodafone also acquired Ghana telecommunication for ?486 million. In the last quarter of 2008 the Vodafone group increased the stake in Polkomtel in Poland from 4.8% to 24.4% for ?171 million. (Vodafone official website)

In 2009 Hutchinson and Vodafone agree to merge Australian telecom operations to form the 50:50 joint ventures. Telefonica and Vodafone announce milestone Pan European collaboration to share network infrastructure in Germany, Spain, Ireland and the UK. Vodafone completed the full merger between Vodafone Australia Limited and Hutchinson 3G Australia Pty Limited. (Vodafone official website)





COST OF SALES25,84221,89018.05%W

OPERATING PROFIT5,85710,047-41.64%W

PROFIT AFTER TAX3,0806,756-54.41%W

FIXED ASSETS139,670118,54617.81%B


EQUITY84,77776,471FIXED ASSETS13,96,7011,85,46

TOTAL C.A13,0298,724

TOTAL C.L27,94721,973

CAPITAL EMPLOYED12,475210,5297T.A-C.L12,475210,5297


RATIO 20092008B/W
ROCE =OPERATING PROFIT * 100 / TOTAL ASSETS – C.LIABILITIES5857*100/12,47524.69%10047*100/10,52979.54%W
MARGIN(net profit ratio)=OPERATING PROFIT * 100 / SALES5857*100/41,01714.27%10,047*100/35,47828.31%W
ASSETS TURN OVER RATIO= SALES / TOTAL ASSETS – C. LIABILITIES41,017/12,47520.32Times35,478/10,52970.33timesW
COST OF SALES RATIO= COST OF SALES*100/SALES25,842*100/41,01763.00%21,890*100/35,47861.70%B
STOCK TURN OVER RATIO IN DAYS = STOCK * 365 / COST OF SALES412*365/25,8425.81 DAYS417*365/21,8906.95 DAYSB


TRADE CREDITORS TURN OVER RATIO = CREDITORS * 365 / COST OF SALES13,398*365/25,842189.2DAYS11,962*365/21,890199.4DAYSW
TRADE DEBTORS TURN OVER RATIO= DEBTORS * 365 / SALES7662*365/41,01768.18DAYS6551*365/35,47867.39DAYSW
CURRENT RATIO= CURRENT ASSETS / C. LIABILITIES13,029/27,9470.468724/21,9730.39B
QUICK RATIO= C. ASSETS / C. LIABILITIES – STOCK13,029 – 412/27,9470.458,724 – 417/21,9730.37B
GEARING RATIO= DEBT * 100 / EQUITY + DEBT39,975*100/12,475232.04%28,826*100/10,529727.37%W
DEBT TO EQUITY= DEBT * 100 / EQUITY39,975*100/84,77747.15%28,826*100/76,47137.69%W
RETURN ON EQUITY= PROFIT AFTER TAX * 100/ EQUITY3,080*100/84,7773.63%6,756*100/76,4718.83%W
SALES PER EMPLOYEE= RVENUE/NO. OF EMPLOYEES41017/79,097*?5185635,478/72,375?49016B
MARK UP RATIO=GROSS PROFIT*100/COST OF SALES15,175*100/25,84258.72%13,588*100/21,89062.07%W




Ratio analysis is a method which can be used to evaluate the account of business. Ratio analysis is an important aspect of the analysis because the ratio analysis provides quick and easy result to the organisation. Ratio analysis is easy to go through as compared to balance sheet and income statement. This analysis also helps company to determine whether the organisation is achieving its desired goals and also helps to evaluate how its competitors are going on. (Jones, Ed 2006; Dyson, 2007)

The ratios are divided into 4 categories:

Liquidity ratio: 1.Current asset ratio

2. Acid test ratio

Profitability ratio: 1. Return on capital employed (ROCE)

2. Gross profit ratio

3. Mark up ratio

4. Net profit ratio

Efficiency ratio: 1. Stock turnover ratio

2. Fixed asset turnover ratio

3. Trade debtor collection period

4. Trade creditor payment period

Investment ratio: 1. Dividend yield ratio

2. Dividend cover ratio

3. Earnings per share ratio

4. Price ratio

5. Capital gearing ratio

Profitability ratio: These ratios helps organisation to analyse how profitable is business operating. This is the key ratio o it is watched by the internal management and external share holders. This ratio includes following ratios:

1. Return on capital employed: This ratio tells how efficient company is using its capital employed. This also helps organisation to know whether the organisation is generating the adequate profit in relation to the investment. As in the case of VODAFONE the ROCE in 2008 was 9.54% and then this fall down in 2009 to 4.69%. As the figures shows the operating profit in 2008 was 10,047 and in 2009 operating profit was 5,857 as it dropped almost to half and capital employed increased to almost 1/4th so return on capital employed is going down and is not good for the organisation. So the VODAFONE need to invest their capital in right manner for the future growth. (Jones, Ed 2006; www. findoutinfo.com)

2. Gross profit ratio: This ratio plays the vital role in business. This ratio tells about the profit earned through selling the product or service after buying from wholesaler. In 2008 gross profit ratio for VODAFONE was 38.29% where as in 2009 the ratio dropped to 36.99% there is decrease of almost 1.2% which indicates that net profit is going down. The reason for the deprecation might be the rise in goodwill cost and equipments which company might have bought in this time span. But even though due to world economic recession the company did not have the huge difference between the gross profit between year 2008 and 2009. (Jones, Ed 2006; www.zimbio.com)

3. Mark up ratio: This is gross profit divided by the cost of sales*100. In 2008 the ratio was 62.07% and in 2009 the ratio again came down to 58.71% this might be because as it was the period of world recession so in order to survive in the market VODAFONE might have reduced their mark up price so in order to retain more customers during the global slowdown. (Dyson,1991)

4. Net profit ratio and Margin ratio: This is another financial indicator and one of the most important ratios. This ratio is calculated after all the expenses are paid by the organisation. This can also help the organisation to compare its net profit for the previous years. The net profit ratio for VODAFONE in 2008 was 28.31% whereas in 209 it was 14.27%. The reason behind the downfall of the net profit ratio is might be VODAFONE has increased their administrative cost and exceptional operating items due to which net profit ratio may decrease. As the operating profit has decreased so that could be the other reason for the downfall of net profit ratio. Margin ratio: This ratio helps the organisation to analyse the profit on the goods and services sold in the year. In the case of VODAFONE there is no variation in the profit margin for the year 2008 is 14.27% and 2009 is 28.31%. The reason behind this must be that there is competition in the telecommunication sector so they might have increased their margin to get more revenue. (Pizzy, 2001; www.findtheinfo.com; Jones, Ed 2006; www.zimbio.com)

Efficiency ratio: These ratios help in analysing the effectiveness of business. This also helps to tell how long it will take for the organisation to pay its debtors and creditors. This includes following ratio:

5. Trade debtor’s turnover ratio: this ratio helps to calculate how long and how many days will customer take to pay his debt to the company. This can be worked on the daily, weekly and monthly basis. In the case of VODAFONE debtors take 67.39 days in 2008 and in 2009 the days rose to 68.18 days. So it is almost the same in both the years without any major increase in the days. So the reason might be that VODAFONE is using its current assets efficiently. In order to improve more in this sector VODAFONE cut their debtors day to 1 month which will help them to run more efficiently so that would be good for the organisation. (Jones, Ed 2006; www.zimbio.com)

6. Trade creditor’s turnover ratio: This is opposite to trade debtors and shows how long organisation takes to pay its creditors. The more the creditors days the good it is for the organisation. In case of VODAFONE the creditor’s day in 2008 was 199.4 days and in 2009 the number of days fall down to 189.2 days. As the number of days decreased to 10 days in a period of 1 year this might be because the capital must have been used to pay the acquisition and this might have risk for the company and other reason might be that VODAFONE has lot of contracts going on so this might not be good for the organisation. (Jones, Ed 2006; www.zimbio.com)

7. Stock turnover ratio in day: This ratio measures the speed with which stock moves out of business. This ratio varies from business to business and product to product. The stock turnover ratio for VODAFONE in 2008 was 6.95 days and in 2009 it was 5.81 days. So this has stock turnover ratio has improved in 2009 as compared to 2008 so it is good for the company because the sell their stock faster in 2009 as compared to 2008. Since the VODAFONE is the telecommunication company so they will have lower stock turnover compared to other organisation. (Jones, Ed 2006; Dyson, 2007)

8. The fixed asset turnover ratio: This ratio compares sales to total assets employed. Business with large infrastructure will have lower ratios and vice versa. The fixed asst turnover ratio is same in 2008 and 2009 as 0.29. As the VODAFONE is Telecommunication Company so they don’t have big machinery or such big infrastructure like multinationals so it doesn’t make a big difference in this ratio. (Jones, Ed 2006; www.zimbio.com)

Liquidity ratio: These ratios are obtained from balance sheet and tell how easily organisation can pay its debt, loan creditor such as bank and financers are particularly interested in these ratios. These ratios are divided into 2 parts:

9. Current ratio: This shows whether short term assets cover short term liabilities. In the case of VODAFONE in 2008 the ratio was 0.39 where as in 2009 this increased to 0.46. the ratio in 2009 is good as compared to 2008 so the VODAFONE has improved in this aspect but overall this ratio should be 1.0 or more so this shows even though VODAFONE has made improvement in this ratio compared to 2008 but still the organisation might be in trouble so they should be careful when dealing with the liabilities and this could also because of the expansion plans which might be helpful for the organisation in near future. (www.zimbo .com)

10. Quick ratio: This is also called acid test ratio. This measure short term liquidity. In 2008 VODAFONE has the result as 0.37 where as in 2009 this figure rose 0.45 which is good for the organisation but still this should be VODAFONE might need some extra funds or should opt to sanction some long term loans to improve the liquidity position and this should be helpful in the future. (Dyson, 2007; www.zimbo .com)

Other ratios:

11. Gearing ratio: This ratio is a part of investment ratio. This represents the relationship between the ordinary shareholder funds and debt capital of company. In the case of VODAFONE the gearing ratio in 2008 long term ownership capital was 27.37% and in 2009 the figure rose to 32.04% which is not good for the organisation. The reason behind this might be that organisation has some long term loans and even not making the enough profit to pay the interest as well as give the share of profit to ordinary share holders. (Jones, Ed 2006)

12. Cost of sales ratio: This is one of the important ratio as it helps the organisation to diagnose the sales for the year and shows whether is investing properly in cost of sales or not. In the case of VODAFONE the cost of sale ratio in 2008 was 61.70% and in 2009 it rose to 63.00% which is not good at all for the organisation. The reason might be that VODAFONE is investing lot in advertising and marketing which might be increasing their cost of sales so in order to run smoothly and earn more profit and revenue the group should cut down their cost of sales. (Jones, Ed 2006, Dyson, 2007)

13. Return on equity: This measures corporate profitability by revealing how much profit a company generates with the money which share holders have invested. In the case of Vodafone return on equity in 2008 was 8.83% but by the end of 2009 this decreased to 3.63%. This shows that this is not good for the organisation. The reason might be as the borrowings have increased in 2009 comparatively to 2008 to almost more than half so company might be paying high interest so that’s why they were not able to have good return on equity. (Dyson, 2007)

14. Sale per employee ratio: This is measured to know how much sales has been made by single employee in a year. The sale per employee in case of Vodafone has increased in 2009 to ?58185 as it was ?49016 in 2008. The reason might be as Vodafone has gone global and acquired many parts of the world so there sales have increased comparatively to 2008 so the sale per employee ratio is high in 2009. The other reason could be as in recession the Vodafone has kept their margin constant to 14.27% but their competitors might have increased the margin so they might have got more customers which increased the sale per employee ratio.


Vodafone is operating and dealing in telecommunication sector from past two decades. But however if we have look onto the financial situation of the organisation it was not good at all in the financial year 2009. The foremost reason behind the downfall of the financial situation might be the span of global recession which hit the world badly and all the big multinationals as well.

As we compare the revenue for 2009 with 2008 the revenue has increased but if we have a look on to the operating profit and profit after tax they significantly have come down almost the half which is not good indication for the organisation. The operating profit might have gone down because the cost of sales have increased that mean the Vodafone is spending a lot on the marketing and advertisement from their own budget so they need to cut down on the cost of sales. Even though Vodafone kept their margin constant as 14.27% but still got more revenue so the other reason for the downfall of profit might be that the group have invested the money in equipments and expansion plans which will be helpful in the near future.

The reason behind the downfall of the profit after tax is that the company have increased the borrowings in 2009 comparatively to 2008 so they might have to pay the higher interest in 2009. But if we have a look on to the fixed assets which have increased in 2009 so that is good for the organisation because if they are investing they will be going to get profit out of that in the near future. These are the impact of the current events on the VODAFONE.


As we know the Vodafone is one of the largest telecommunication industries in the world. We have already analysed in this report the financial situation of Vodafone in 2008 and 2009 and according to the analysis it proved that the year 2009 was not good for the organisation in terms of profit as we compare this with the previous years. The reason behind this could be the world economic recession and other factor might be that the company might have borrowed lots of funds from the bank and other agencies so need to pay higher interest as compared to 2008 so that’s why the profit of the organisation has decreased to almost half.

As we know Vodafone has spread throughout the world so in 2010 company would definitely going to achieve lot of revenue and profit as they have invested through their borrowings in 2009. As the organisation has already paid and invested a lot for the globalisation and marketing so they will be able to generate more sales and profit by the end of financial year 2010. The main revenue which Vodafone will be targeting is from the Asian and Middle East countries. Vodafone will also be planning to adopt some new strategies in 2010 to attract the more customers. As the organisation has captured some new shares in India so as it is a big market so they need to work out on their current strategies to acquire more customers in this sector of the world as they do have many rivals.

So finally the revenue for Vodafone will improve in 2010 by the growth of mobile data and fixed broadband. Cost reduction targets will be delivered ahead of schedule enabling commercial reinvestment to improve market share which will further strengthen technology platforms. Vodafone, which is positioned to return to revenue growth during the 2010 financial year, as economic recovery should benefit our key markets. On the other hand, the Vodafone group may be going to be profitable in the near future. Their acquisitions and goodwill will still reap the benefits probably in the future and so the ability to be profitable has increased and the main reason is the total group increase of operations. So according to the reasons mentioned above the group will be adopting the different strategies and planning and even the world economic conditions are getting better so the year 2010 will be asset for the Vodafone.


Vodafone official website. Available at www.vodafone.com, accessed on 1st May2010

Zimbo business. ww.zimbio.com/…/Vodafone+Insight+2009+Comparison+Relative, accessed on 26th may 2010

Business dictionary. Available at www.businessdictionary.com, accessed 30th may 2010.

Financial dictionary. Available at www.financialdictionary.thefreedictionary.com, accessed 30th may 2009.

Jones Michael. (2006) Accounting, Chichester: Atrium.

Atrill Peter & Mclaney Eddie. (2004) Accounting and Finance for Non-Specialists, Harlow: Prentice Hall

Dyson John R. (2007) Accounting for Non-Accounting Students, Harlow: Prentice Hall

Pizzy Alan. (2001) Accounting and Finance, London: Cornwall

For the years ended 31 MarchNote



Non-current asset



Other intangible assets9



Property, plant and equipment11



Investments in associated undertakings14



Other investments15



Deferred tax assets6



Post employment benefits26



Trade and other receivables17





Current assets



Taxation recoverable77


Trade and other receivables(DEBETS )17



Cash and cash equivalents18





Total assets152,699


Called up share capital19



Share premium account21



Own shares held21



Additional paid-in capital21



Capital redemption reserve21



Accumulated other recognised income and expense22



Retained losses23



Total equity shareholders’ funds86,162


Minority interests1,787


Written put options over minority interests(3,172)


Total minority interests(1,385)


Total equity84,777


Non-current liabilities
Long term borrowings25



Deferred tax liabilities6



Post employment benefits26






Trade and other payables28





Current liabilities
Short term borrowings25, 35



Current taxation liabilities4,552





Trade and other payables(CREDITORS)28





Total equity and liabilities152,699



For the years ended 31 March






Cost of sales(25,842)


Gross profit15,175


Selling and distribution expenses(2,738)


Administrative expenses(4,771)


Share of result in associated undertakings14



Impairment losses10


Other income and expense30


Operating profit/(loss)4



Non-operating income and expense30



Investment income5



Financing costs5



Profit/(loss) before taxation4,189


Income tax expense6



Profit/(loss) for the financial year from continuing operations3,080


Loss for the financial year from discontinued operations30

Profit/(loss) for the financial year3,080


Attributable to:
– Equity shareholders23



– Minority interests2




Basic earnings/(loss) per share
Profit/(loss) from continuing operations8



Loss from discontinued operations8, 30

Profit/(loss) for the financial year8



Diluted earnings/(loss) per share
Profit/(loss) from continuing operations8



Loss from discontinued operations8, 30

Profit/(loss) for the financial year8



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