No part of this proposal should be used without the prior permission by the author or Mom University. Name: Janet, Esther Signature... Date: 2nd Gauge 2014 Declaration by the supervisor This work has been submitted for examination with our approval as university Name... Supervisor Dedication ...... Date: This research is dedicated to my beloved parents, for the moral and financial support they have accorded me while preparing this paper. God bless them all. Acknowledgements I thank The Almighty God for the sustenance, wisdom and strength he has accorded me to undertake this project.
Secondly, I thank my family and friends for their love and moral support throughout the period of my studies. I would like to sincerely appreciate the work of my supervisor without whose guidance and incisive comments I would not have undertaken this project successfully. I also wish to thank the entire fraternity of the Mom University staff who were supportive through the entire fraternity of the school uniform limited . To all of you ,thank you and God bless you.
Abstract This research paper identifies the available tourist attraction facilities within the Moisakos County in Kenya. This is to address how the locals participate directly or can participate in the entrepreneurship either by providing accommodation and there attractions to either local or international tourists. This focus study in Moisakos County tries to find out the best way of re -imaging of rural areas features and activities to make them tourist attractive, and to relate rural tourism with social cultural and economic elements of rural areas.
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The area is not well imaged, commodities and packaged to tap the rural tourism potential of the area, despite the current county government trying to revivalist declining areas and ensure their possibilities of achieving a sustainable future; much still needs to be done. In the IANAL analysis, the identification of character as being significant for place is of critical importance for rural areas and the notion of reality. CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION OF THE STUDY 1. 1 Introduction This chapter provides an overview of the background that would enable an in depth analysis of the phenomena.
It also highlights the main objectives that further interrogate the underlying assumptions while guiding the study. 1. 2 Background of the Study People go to places for different reasons: Temporary change of location, relaxation, recreation, getting acquainted with traditions and spending the leisure time. Nowadays, rural tourism has turned into a leading economic activity and studies show a positive relationship between developing rural tourism and an increase in income. It can be a suitable way to enhance economic advantage and employment.
Considering the potentials for rural tourism, Moisakos County can act to enhance its economy and rural economy as well. Today, the importance of tourism and the necessity of conducting research on it because of significant economic, and social, and cultural roles that it can play is known for everyone. It had turned into one of the most important factors to create lath, Job, dynamism, moving people, and national assets . Len any country, the entrance of tourist corresponds with income enhancement and economic.
At this purpose, rural tourism must be considered like a complex plurality of multi - faced activities, contributing both to growth of other activities in rural areas and to improvement of life quality for local inhabitants, all this as part of an effective rural development integrated system. With downturns in rural economies over the last three decades, it is perhaps understandable that governments have given a great deal of attention to the economic benefits of tourism, particularly for rural areas attempting to keep pace and adapt to the vigorous globalizes economy.
As Teller (2002) suggested, growing numbers of city-dwellers are getting away from it all in the countryside. One of the advantages of rural tourism is that it is based on local; initiatives, local management, has local spin -offs, is rooted in local scenery and it taps into local culture. In theory, the emphasis on the local can help to generate regional development. According to Sharply and Sharply (1997), rural tourism is increasingly being used for socio - economic regeneration and diversification.
While the definition of rural varies in different countries, Sharply and Sharply (1997: 20) further describe rural as all areas 'both land and water, that lie beyond towns and cities which, in national and regional contexts, may be described as major urban centers'. For tourism to be described as rural tourism then it should mirror the characteristics that signify a rural area including small settlements, low population densities, agrarian -based economies and traditional societies. Lane (1994) details the difficulty in attempting to create a definition of rural tourism as not all tourism in rural areas is strictly rural.
Rural tourism extends beyond farm -based tourism to include: Special-interest nature holidays and customers, walking, climbing and riding holidays, adventure, sport and health tourism, hunting and angling, educational travel, arts and heritage tourism, and in some areas, ethnic tourism. (Lane, 1994:9) 1. 3 Statement of the Problem Against this background, it is at this point that useful reference may be made to the experience in Kenya on the ground that an understanding of entrepreneurial opportunities of rural tourism development issues in a different cultural and institutional context can add new perspective on common concerns.
The Government of Moisakos through the its devolved Ministry of Tourism and the central government's Kenya Tourist Board are working round the clock to develop the city in order to make it an international and domestic tourist destination. Greater strides have been already made with the bus station being decorated and artificial flower gardens placed in strategic places e. G. Mustang Junction. A greater part of Moisakos County is made up of rural areas, considering this; it means that most of the tourist activities and features that this region can offer are based in the rural areas within the county. 1. 4 Objectives of the Study . . 1 General Objectives The purpose of the study was to establish factors enhancing tourism on the local area . Moisakos County was our case study. 1. 4. 2 Specific Objectives The purposes of the study with a higher importance are as follows: a) Recognizing the inputs and the support the county government can offer for the growth of rural tourism in Moisakos County. B) The tourists' familiarity with tourist attractions in Moisakos County c) Training individuals for giving service to rural tourism in Moisakos county d) Preparing individuals for establishing and managing rural small industries in Moisakos county using technology. 5 Research Questions The following questions will guide the study a) How does the government of Moisakos county involvement help in rural tourism growth? B) How does culture affect rural tourism? C) How do training rural dwellers support and respond to changes induced by tourism? D) What is the effect of technology on growth of rural tourism? 1. 6. Justification of the Study The most important purpose of tourism development is economic and social development of the tourism areas.
Although a minor part of tourism includes rural tourism and plays an important role in economics of rural areas of developed Mounties, but other advantages and even received harms through these activities in rural areas should not be neglected. As some benefits may be obtained from tourist development, its inappropriate development will bring about losses and negative effects. Nevertheless, the level of these effects would be changed proportionate to different factors such as importance of local tourism industry, potentials of tourists and their activities, consolidation of local environment and authority of local cultures and customs.
Certainly, tourism development would not be met unless some expenses are being considered for it and in line with this purpose the village's environment may be put at risk. Moisakos County has a diversity of rural residential areas and tourist attraction sites, and the most attractive sites which enjoy a higher potential for tourism enter this study. Here we have conducted field and library research using two types of questionnaires distributed to rural residents and organizations responsible for tourism. 1. 7. Limitation of the Study 1. 7. Accessibility to Information Accessibility to information and premises was thought would be challenging but the duty will attempt to make some formal request from the relevant authority to enable effective facilitation of the study. 1. 7. 2 Confidentiality Confidentiality issues in work place are thought would pose a daunting challenge but an attempt will be made in earnest to mitigate these issues. 1. 7. Study area The study will be confined to the Moisakos County rural and the focus will be in assessing the factors enhancing rural tourism on the local areas.
The study will be carried out during the months of June and July 2014. CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 2. 1 Introduction This section reviews literature related to the current study. This chapter comprises the review of past studies, critical review and the summary. 2. 2 Review of Theoretical Literature The motivation behind most villages is to escape limitations and the urban routine life and the regulations opposite to the free will and voluntary entertainment.
Nevertheless, organizing the tourists is a crucial part in the procedures of rural tourism management (Tag, 2004). Rural tourism is tourism, which is directly and positively linked to the economic, social, cultural and natural resource in the rural region in which it takes place. It seeks to make optimal use of these resources. It is classically a perspective or an approach to tourism development, which is sensitive to the nature of local resources, traditions and opportunities, for sharing in the benefits of tourism development.
Operationally, it is characterized by a number of concepts, which reflect adherence to certain guiding procedures and processes Judged to be desirable for the development of tourism in rural areas. These are outlined below, and in the case of each, key findings from the study are reported: 2. 2. 1 . Destination profiling and promotion Tourism in the rural is mainly small-scale and centered on the special interest markets. It is heavily dependent on its extensive inland waterways, in particular its lakes, rivers and canals, attracting those seeking water-based activity, more especially angling and inland cruising.
In general tourism terms, the region does not hold a definite tourism image that distinguishes nor differentiates it from other similar regions, resulting in a mixed and confused tourism image. Such mixed images are evident among tourists themselves. Prior to visiting, they perceive the region as being an out of the way place, a nothing to do place; lacking in spectacular scenery but, that it has an excellent road infrastructure which routes hem to other destinations like Tsars.
Though some businesses and agencies are firmly built on place-specific resources, their use of images and imagery in their promotional and marketing activity is perceived as weak. The use of imagery in promotion is characteristic of the tourism industry in that the tangible nature of regions such as the Sawmill product means that potential customers place greater importance on the image being portrayed in order to inform their purchasing decision.
This study suggests that the lack of such an image may be attributed to the fact that he Moisakos County has no clear status as a tourism destination, rendering it difficult to have a tourism image associated with it. The associated rural areas of Moisakos counties are also linked with witchcraft a phenomenon perceived by respondents to be the 'poor relation' within the regional tourism structure. For effective tourism development to occur there is a real need for the region to expand its tourism image beyond the Sawmill alone, and to develop the other resource images such as cultural and human, which are readily available.
Distinct regional imagery can add to the differentiation of the regional quality products and revives, and there is scope in the study to link its defined characteristics with customers' perceptions and values. 2. 2. 2. Appropriate scale Moisakos County Draft envisages tourism development to be appropriate to issues of congestion, carrying capacity and seasonality. For tourism in rural areas to be effectively 'integrated', it must be organized at an appropriate scale, and lean more towards 'soft', rather than 'hard' tourism.
Compared to its spatial extent and variety of resources, the volume of tourism to the study is relatively low. The season is short, although some events/activities take place throughout the year. Some local areas have a comparatively high influx of visitors at certain times, placing constraints on catering services, creating traffic congestion, as well as limited parking space. But even then, the scale of tourism activity is not such as to raise serious problems about reaching the limits of 'absorption capacity - physically, culturally or socially.
The range of tourism activities, attractions and services offered does not entice many non-specialist or general type of visitor to the region; general visitors interviewed expressed dissatisfaction with what was on offer by the way of family-focused activities, local transport, choice of food outlets, and the range of package holidays available. What the region needs is more tourists as well as a tourism infrastructure that will meet their needs, such as an improved range of accommodation, information, and improved choice of attractions and activities.
Tourism development is well within its carrying capacity for resource based tourism. 2. 2. 3. Local control and retention of benefits Moisakos County draft is based on the desirability for local interests to have a strong influence on decision-making and that tourism benefits remain within the local immunity. In our study, a considerable share of tourism development action is instigated locally, but it is noticeable that the interest levels among actors to participate in the tourism decision-making process is low. Most of them see their role in tourism as minimal and unimportant.
At the community level difficulties in; accessing capital; feeling isolated from centralized organizations; disaffected by the bureaucratic procedures, as well as the perception that some national agencies, intentionally or otherwise, pay greater attention to the main tourism destinations, are rowing and have led to a feeling of communities being ad's-empowered over resource use in their region. Indirect and direct development agencies operating in the region are extensions of state or semi-state bodies and, as such, are exogenous.
The policy of the various county led tourism agencies involved in training, marketing and accommodation approval is determined at the county level, in "Matura's" interest. However, county tourism policy implementation has implications at the local level. The key policy decisions still tend to be taken at county level, which respondents felt further educes their influence in the rural. Core tourism institutions, which operate outside the region, are not built around the specific circumstances.
There is also a degree of concern about the influx of outside capital and enterprise in some of the newer types of development, such as self-catering accommodation and cruise hire company ownership. 2. 2. 4. Resource complementarily and cross use Tourism essentially happens if it Joins forces with some other resource, thus depending on partnership to some degree. The concept of complementarily and cross use includes a number of ideas: complementarily between tourism provision ND provision for the indigenous population; linkages between agency programmer, and between tourism and the resources within a place.
Resources can include human, social, natural, cultural and economic, through strategic packaging and marketing of 'linked-up' local products. There are good examples of multiple and compatible resource use in the rural areas. The study points to the fact that complementarily and cross use is not being fully embraced among stakeholders in the region, and tends to be an informal, task-oriented, once- off effort. Many stakeholders do not consciously give practical effect to achieving implementation in their resource use activities.
This may be attributed to their not seeing their role as primarily serving tourism. Other obstacles to complementarily may include the lack of strategic vision for developing the region and lack of complementarily among development activities such as housing, physical planning and infra-structural development. 2. 2. 5. Sustainability Potential to increase tourist numbers in certain areas and during low tourist periods was acknowledged. However, the type of tourism development was considered important in determining tourism impact on communities' everyday lives.
It was felt over, that the natural resources are being harnessed in a sustainable manner, and thus far have not been affected negatively by tourism. There is concern regarding farming and industry practices, which have shown some minor environmental impacts, and which in turn could impact on the long-term viability of water-based tourism. Further, these environmental impacts may at the same time have a negative influence on the social and recreational life of host communities.
Economically, the consensus prevails that tourism is not a viable option in the region unless serious support from the tourism agencies is provided, especially in regard to calculating effective collective action, product development and up-killing for tourism. Coupled with this is the region's attraction for the independent, older tourist, with limited purchasing power, rendering its tourism economically vulnerable? Its short tourism season has stifled commitment to businesses and tourists, and presents a real insecurity to those working in, and dependent on tourism.
Most providers, for example are holding down a second Job, with their tourism business operating on a seasonal basis. In the more remote areas, much of the tourism initiatives have depended on laundry effort within local communities. While volunteerism is an important contributor to locally based tourism, respondents believe that it alone cannot not sustain tourism initiatives in the long term. To counter such decline, integrated tourism development encourages tourism product and service diversification.
In the rural areas, tourism can be enhanced with further development focusing on the organic sector, the arts and cultural sector, underpinned by an improved range of tourism accommodation and food outlets. 2. 2. 6. Quality The pursuit of quality in all aspects of the rural tourism place, product and service is armament, and increasingly quality has become a major interest among providers in a growing competitive tourism sector. It is also an important determinant of consumers' choice.
In the Rural areas, while a high satisfaction rate prevails among tourists, they were critical in some respects. The quality, range and choice of tourism activities and services in the region were questioned and concern was raised as to its ability to remain sustainable or to compete with similar tourism destinations in Kenya. Non-specialist tourists in particular expressed dissatisfaction with the range of attractions and services available to tourists in the rural areas of Moisakos County.
Significant improvements were needed: greater opportunity for family focused recreation activities; improved bus and rail access; ease of access to walking trails; wider choice of food outlets and tourism accommodation and an improved range of package-holidays offered. Several other improvements included more provision of public amenities, parking areas, public toilets, lighting, litter control, security and tourist safety. These were seen as the responsibility of the relevant county government agencies, local
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