Final for Sociology

The statement that “culture is the complex whole” was made by:
Edward B. Tylor
Which discipline defines itself as “the systematic study of human society?”
sociology
What is the term for the ways of thinking, ways of acting, and material objects that together form a people’s way of life?
culture
Standards by which people who share culture define what is desirable, good, and beautiful are called:
values
What researchers employing (blank) methods do is collect data from written reports, newspaper articles, journals, transcripts, television programs, diaries, artwork, and other artifacts hat date tot he period they want to study
Historical
The process by which people act and react in relation to others is called
Social interaction
The functions of schooling include
Creating new culture, helping to integrate a diverse society, socializing the young
Knowledge that people use to make a way of life in their surroundings is known as:
An internalized sense of the total expectations of others in a variety of settings, regardless of whether we’ve encountered those people or places before is known as:
generalized others
behavior expected of someone who holds a particular status is known as
role
the social sciences, including sociology, make the claim that
humans have instincts that guide our lives
Peter Berger describes using the sociological perspective as seeing the (blank) in the (blank)
general; particular
the concept “sociology” was coined in 1838 by
Auguste Comte
According to the text, we might define (blank) as any formats or vehicles that carry, present or communicate information
media
Most of today’s sociologists agree with Auguste Comte’s claim that
science has an important place in sociology
Which concept refers to a status that has special importance for social identity, often shaping a person’s entire life?
master status
Our basic drives or needs as humans are reflected in Freud’s concept of the
id
Which early sociologist received the first doctorate ever awarded by Harvard University to a person of color?
W.E.B. Du Bois
Cars, computers, and iPhones are all examples of which of the following?
Material culture
Which of the following is an important element of nonverbal communication
hand gestures
Which of the following would be the focus of a social-conflict analysis of sports
how sports reflect social inequality
a research method for investigating cause and effect under highly controlled conditions is known as
an experiment
who coined the term sociological imagination
C. Wright Mills
Shawna is an excellent artist, but as a mother she feels that she cannot work and devote enough time to her family. She is experiencing
role conflict
unlike simple stereotypes, sociological generalizations
all of the above
When Charles Horton Cooley used the concept of the “looking-glass self,” he claimed that
people see themselves as they think others see them
Personal disorientation when experiencing an unfamiliar way of life . . . in other words, not being able to make sense of your surroundings is known as
culture shock
A framework for building theory that sees society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability is known as:
structural-functionalist approach
Family is important to the socialization process because
all of the above
(blank) refers to ties that reinforced through indirect paths within a social network
embeddedness
Cultural transmission refers to the process of
passing cultural patterns from one generation to another.
Which of the following examples illustrates a micro-level focus?
two people on an airplane getting to know one another
W.E.B. Du Bois described African Americans as having a “double consciousness” because
they are Americans citizens who have a second identity based on their skin color
When speaking about the social-conflict approach, Karl Marx argued that the point of studying society should be
to bring about greater social justice
From a historical perspective, the importance of the mass media to the socialization process has
increased over time
A ________________ is anything that carries a particular meaning recognized by people who share a culture.
symbol
________________ refers to the personal traits and social positions that members of a society attach to being female or male.
gender
_____________________ refers to how many rules guide your daily life and what you can reasonably expect from the world on a day-to-day basis.
social regulation
All of the statuses a person holds at any given time is known as:
Status set
A theoretical approach that explores ways in which human biology affects how we create culture is known as:
sociobiology
The surrounding area over which a person makes some claim to privacy is known as:
their bedroom
Which pioneering sociologist founded Chicago’s Hull House to assist immigrants and was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize?
Jane Addams
Humor is produced by:
the social construction of reality
A scientific approach to knowledge based on “positive” facts as opposed to mere speculation is known as:
positivism
The view advanced by Erving Goffman of social life as essentially a theatrical performance in which we are all actors is known as:
dramaturgical theory
Who helped launch the discipline of sociology by studying the evils of slavery and also by translating the writings of Auguste Comte?
Harriet Martineau
As part of human culture, religion is an example of:
nonmaterial culture
__________ are rules about everyday, casual living; __________ are rules with great moral significance.
folkways; mores
A complex group of interdependent positions that, together, perform a social role and reproduce themselves over time, also defined in a narrow sense as any institution in a society that works to shape the behavior of the groups or people within it is known as a
social institution
Which sociological perspective claims that it is not so much what people do that matters as much as what meaning they attach to their behavior?
symbolic approach
crime differs from deviance in that crime
refers to a violation of norms enacted into the law
a temporary, loosely formed collection of people who may or may not interact is a
crowd
which type of leader encourages everyone in a group to have a say in what happens?
democratic leader
(blank) was known as the first lady of management
Lillian Gilbreth
(blank) had what many referred to as a humanizing influence on management
Henry Gantt
(blank) was known as the mother of conflict resolution
Mary Parker Follett
the U.S. department of justice has determined that a (blank) crime is organized criminal activity across one or more national borders
transnational crime
what is the sociological term coined by Irving Janis for a limited understanding of some issue resulting from group conformity
groupthink
the argument that some organizational researchers make that women bring special management skills that actually strengthen an organization is known as
female advantage
men are arrested (blank) as often as women for property crimes
twice
in Marx’s view, social stratification is rooted in
people’s relationship to the means of production
the concept feminization of poverty refers to the fact that in the US
women make up an increasing percentage of the poor
which type of social group commands a member’s esteem and loyalty
an in-group
according to the text, in general terms, the concept of due process means that anyone charged with a crime must receive all but one of the following
the right to have an arresting officer removed from the force
according to the ancient Greek philosopher (blank) every culture considers some type of inequality fair
plato
a business supplying illegal goods or services is known as
organized crime
crimes against the person are known as
violent crimes
the attempt by society to regulate people’s thought and behavior is known as
social control
which of the following statements illustrates the medicalization of deviance
all of the above
in Robert Merton’s strain theory of deviance, which of the following concepts refers to the process of seeking conventional goals but rejecting the conventional means to achieve them
innovation
Stanley Milgram’s research, in which subjects used a shock generator showed
people are surprisingly likely to follow the orders of not only real authority figures but also groups of ordinary individuals
relative poverty is
found everywhere
(blank) is closely related to social standing
the concept of mcdonaldization of society refers to
mcdonald’s organizational principles moving to dominate all of society
social stratification based on personal merit is known as
meritocracy
which of the following is the best example of a primary group
a family that has gathered to celebrate a religious holiday
by world standards, the U.S. crime rate is
high
while some deviance may be necessary for a society to function (blank) argued that too much deviance results from particular social arrangements
Robert Merton
According to the text, one important dimension of economic inequality is
income
work involving mostly mental activity is called
white-collar work
A statistical technique called “individual fixed effects” is sometimes used in the social sciences. This technique involves:
comparing an outcome across time as some factor changes
Your text defines poverty as a condition of deprivation due to:
economic circumstances
Which of the following is a practice that supports the culture of poverty argument?
multifamily households
During the mid-twentieth century in the United States, many blacks moved north to escape Jim Crow laws in
competition for housing and employment in the North, resulting in violent clashes between whites and blacks
Asians have been applauded for their smooth assimilation and are referred to as:
model minority
The study of gender is basically the study of how two spheres shape each other. What are the two spheres?
nature and nurture
Which theoretical perspective assumed that every society had certain structures that existed to fulfill some set of necessary functions?
structural-functionalism
Alfred Kinsey’s 1948 study, Sexual Behavior in the Human Male, is important because:
it studied subjects that were once considered abnormal
Although race has no deterministic, biological basis, it still:
important social influence
Which term refers to the belief that members of separate races possess different and unequal traits?
Which nation has one of the highest poverty rates in the advanced world?
United States
One of the explanations of continued racism in America is:
we colonized others within the country itself, as with slavery
According to the underclass thesis, the poor are:
deviant and dangerous to the mainstream
Surgeons today recommend prompt surgery to make intersex children conform to an ideal of normal genitalia. About 90 percent of these surgeries
change a male into a female
A lot of people who are eligible for food stamps in the United States don’t apply for them. Why?
are not always optimally located for recipients.
What was one of the major outcomes of Clinton’s 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act?
limited the amount of time one could receive benefits
Which term describes the measurement of poverty where a household’s income falls below the necessary level to purchase food to physically sustain its members?
absolute poverty
Inappropriate jokes on the job and sexual bartering are both examples of:
sexual harrassment
Jobs that have been feminized, such as teaching or secretarial work, are also referred to as:
pink-collared jobs
Although women now outnumber men in terms of college enrollment, men still dominate which fields?
math and physics
Until 1973, the American Psychiatric Association and the American Psychological Association listed homosexuality as:
mental disorder
In cultures where scant resources are available, homosexuality is practical because:
keep down the birthrate
Patricia Hill Collins claims that gender intersects with race, class, nationality, and religion. Which group has made the case that early liberal feminism was largely by, about, and for white middle-class women?
black feminists
Which of the following situations provides an example of how the social categories of gender influence the biology of sex?
Growing up as the opposite sex because of socialization
The basic idea behind feminism is that women and men should be:
accorded equal opportunities and respect
As defined by C. Wright Mills, which of the following “enables us to grasp history and biography and the relations between the two within society?
sociological imagination
How does the textbook author use the dialogue from Pulp Fiction, in which the characters discuss how in Holland people put mayonnaise on their french fries?
to explain the sociological imagination
Sociologists and economists have shown that the benefits of higher education include higher median incomes for college graduates. This is known as:
the returns to schooling
In today’s society, Randall Collins might suggest that getting a “piece of paper” is more important to many than actually having the knowledge to do a job. He calls the priority placed on formal education:
credentialism
A family, as a group of people living together sharing individual stories, make up a(n):
social institution
Which of the following sociologists developed the theory of positivism?
August Comte
Which of the following lists the individuals known as “the founding fathers of the sociological discipline”?
Durkheim, Marx, and Weber
Which of the following sociologists wrote Suicide in 1897?
Emile Durkheim
Which of the following was the first African American to receive a PhD from Harvard University?
W.E.B. Du Bois
In contrast to functionalism, which modern sociological theory borrows from Marx’s belief that competition, not consensus, is the essential cause of social change?
conflict theory
In the “nature versus nurture” argument regarding socialization, the “nurture” component refers to ________.
the social environment
What concept do sociologists refer to when they say that “society makes us human”?
socialization
The author of the text notes that ____________________ said because we are all actors with roles, the __________________ theory argues that we also need scripts, costumes, and sets.
Erving Goffman, dramaturgical analysis
According to the text, the socialization that occurs within the ______________ can be affected by various demographics.
families
The way in which we are socialized as adults is known as _____________________
adult socialization
Charles Horton Cooley referred to a small social group whose members share personal and enduring relationships as
primary group
What do sociologists call two or more people who identify and interact with one another?
a social group
The concept “bureaucracy” refers to
an organizational model rationally designed to perform tasks efficiently.
The concept “McDonaldization” of society refers to
McDonald’s organizational principles moving to dominate all of society.
Max Weber noted many traits of bureaucracy. Which of the following list is NOT one of them?
favoring family members over strangers
Formal organizations are
large secondary groups with a goal orientation.
In general, which of the following categories of people are “well connected” in terms of social networks?
All of these responses are correct.
Which of the following concepts refers to a social group that people use as a point of reference in making evaluations or decisions?
reference group
Stanley Milgram’s research, in which subjects used a “shock generator,” showed
people are surprisingly likely to follow the orders of not only real authority figures but also groups of ordinary individuals.
Solomon Asch’s research, in which subjects were asked to match lines, showed that
group membership has the power to generate conformity.
the basic idea behind labeling theory is that
deviance arises not so much from what people do as how others respond to what they do.
Which of the following statements illustrates the “medicalization of deviance”?
All of these responses are correct.
Which of the following concepts refers to “the recognized violation of cultural norms”?
deviance
Based on your reading, it would be correct to say that biological approaches offer
a very limited understanding of crime.
Both Albert Cohen and Walter Miller argue that deviance is MOST likely to arise among
low-income youths
Cloward and Ohlin extended Merton’s theory of deviance, stating that crime
results from limited (legal) opportunity as well as accessible (illegal) opportunity
In legal terms, a crime is composed of which two components?
the act and criminal intent
The concept of due process refers to
the criminal justice system operating within the bounds of the law
The concept criminal recidivism refers to
later offenses by people previously convicted of crimes.
Read the following four statements about the social foundations of deviance. Select the one statement that is FALSE.
There are many acts that are always deviant everywhere.
Using the sociological perspective, we see that social stratification
gives some people more privileges and opportunities than others
The concept of structural social mobility refers to
a shift in the social position of large numbers of people due more to changes in society itself than to individual efforts
According to Karl Marx, social stratification in a capitalist society always involves
class conflict
The concept “conspicuous consumption” refers to
the practice of buying things to make a statement about one’s social position
The wealthiest 1 percent of U.S. families (the “super-rich”) controls about _____ percent of the nation’s privately held wealth.
35 percent
Looking around the world today, income inequality is greatest in which of the following regions?
Latin America and Africa
Who coined the concept “survival of the fittest”?
Herbert Spencer
The concept “meritocracy” refers to social stratification
based entirely on personal merit
Comparing societies in history and around the world, we see that social stratification may be universal, but ______________ varies from one society to another.
what is unequal, how unequal people are, and why people are unequal

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