(Feist) Chapter 1

Sarah is observing high school students use Facebook and Skype. Her purpose is to see how these students perceive information, how they acquire and use language, and how these media change the way they communicate in the society. She is most likely a student of:

A. anthropology.
B. human resource management.
C. psychology.
D. history.

C. psychology.
______________ helps us understand people through its methods of storytelling, character exploration, setting, and imagery.
A. History
B. Anthropology
C. Literature
D. Psychology
C. Literature
______________ helps us understand people through description and analysis of past events and artifacts.
A. Literature
B. History
C. Sociology
D. Anthropology
B. History
______________ can be best defined as the study of human culture and origins.

A. Anthropology
B. Psychology
C. Literature
D. Archaeology

A. Anthropology
______________ seeks to understand people in terms of large-scale social forces and with a focus on groups rather than individuals.
A. Archaeology
B. Sociology
C. Literature
D. Psychology
B. Sociology
______________ is the science of understanding individuals—animals as well as people.
A. Archaeology
B. Sociology
C. Anthropology
D. Psychology
D. Psychology
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Psychology is most accurately defined as the _____________.
A. study of people through description and analysis of past events and artifacts
B. study of people in terms of large-scale social forces and with a focus on groups rather than individuals
C. scientific study of thought and behavior
D. scientific study of human culture and origins
C. scientific study of thought and behavior
Psyche, the root word of “psychology,” comes from the Greek for _____________.

A. heart
B. soul
C. mind
D. personality

C. mind
Which of the following statements is true of psychology?
A. Modern psychology is more likely to study the brain and behavior than the mind.
B. It does not have any other disciplines organized around it.
C. It is a core science, along with medicine, physics, and math.
D. It is not a science, but a clinical practice.
C. It is a core science, along with medicine, physics, and math.
______________ psychology is also known as folk psychology.
A. Research
B. Clinical
C. Scientific
D. Popular
D. Popular
A writer from a popular fashion magazine has penned an article titled “Dating in the 21st Century.” She analyzed her own dating experiences and incorporated them into this piece. This type of psychology is known as _____________.

A. folk psychology
B. health psychology
C. consumer psychology
D. forensic psychology

A. folk psychology
Common sense, rather than the scientific method, is used by:
A. research psychologists.
B. clinical psychologists.
C. folk psychologists.
D. social psychologists.
C. folk psychologists.
Core sciences are those that:
A. have many other disciplines organized around them.
B. are a combination of several different sciences.
C. are always drawn from common sense.
D. are the simplest to understand.
A. have many other disciplines organized around them.
______________ is the study of how we perceive information, how we learn and remember, how we acquire and use language, and how we solve problems.
A. Social psychology
B. Cognitive psychology
C. Clinical psychology
D. Educational psychology
B. Cognitive psychology
Dr. Hughes conducts laboratory studies of the thought processes involved in problem solving. Which of the following types of psychologists is she most likely to be?
A. Cognitive
B. Evolutionary
C. Educational
D. Social
A. Cognitive
In which of the following subdisciplines of psychology are researchers often referred to as experimental psychologists?
A. Social psychology
B. Cognitive psychology
C. Clinical psychology
D. Educational psychology
B. Cognitive psychology
Which of the following questions is most likely to be discussed by a cognitive psychologist?
A. How do people visualize objects in their minds?
B. How does the presence of other people change an individual’s thoughts, feeling, or perceptions?
C. Why are we attracted to particular kinds of people?
D. How does parent-infant bonding affect adult relationships?
A. How do people visualize objects in their minds?
Developmental psychology can be best described as the study of:

A. how we perceive information, how we learn and remember, how we acquire and use language, and how we solve problems.
B. the links among brain, mind, and behavior.
C. the relationship between bodily systems and chemicals and their relationship to behavior and thought.
D. how thought and behavior change and show stability across the life span.

D. how thought and behavior change and show stability across the life span.
Which of the following types of psychologists is most likely to conduct a research on how reasoning skills or emotional skills change with age?
A. Clinical psychologist
B. Behavioral psychologist
C. Developmental psychologist
D. Educational psychologist
C. Developmental psychologist
______________ can be best defined as the study of the links among brain, mind, and behavior.

A. Social psychology
B. Industrial psychology
C. Behavioral neuroscience
D. Developmental psychology

C. Behavioral neuroscience
Which of the following questions is most likely to be discussed by a developmental psychologist?
A. How do people visualize objects in their minds?
B. How does the presence of other people change an individual’s thoughts, feelings, or perceptions?
C. Why are we attracted to particular kinds of people?
D. How does parent-infant bonding affect adult relationships?
D. How does parent-infant bonding affect adult relationships?
______________ can be best defined as the study of the relationship between bodily systems and chemicals and their relationship to behavior and thought.

A. Clinical psychology
B. Biological psychology
C. Social psychology
D. Educational psychology

B. Biological psychology
Using noninvasive advanced imaging techniques and electrical recordings, _______ study the structure and functions of the living brain.

A. behavioral neuroscientists
B. developmental psychologists
C. positive psychologists
D. personality psychologists

A. behavioral neuroscientists
There is a great deal of overlap between neuroscience and ______________ psychology. The latter is an older term that is being replaced by behavioral neuroscience in contemporary psychology.
A. biological
B. social
C. clinical
D. educational
A. biological
Which of the following studies is most likely to be conducted by Cathy, who is majoring in biological psychology, for her honors thesis?
A. The social origins of major depressive disorders
B. The extent to which childhood peer experiences influence adult behavior
C. The relationship between the neurotransmitter serotonin and happiness
D. A computer model of humans’ deductive reasoning processes
C. The relationship between the neurotransmitter serotonin and happiness
Personality psychology can be best defined as the study of:

A. how the real or imagined presence of others influences thought, feeling, and behavior.
B. the relationship between bodily systems and chemicals and their relationship to behavior and thought.
C. the treatment of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders.
D. what makes people unique as well as the consistencies in people’s behavior across time and situations.

D. what makes people unique as well as the consistencies in people’s behavior across time and situations.
______________ can be best defined as the study of how the real or imagined presence of others influences thought, feeling, and behavior.

A. Clinical psychology
B. Social psychology
C. Educational psychology
D. Industrial psychology

B. Social psychology
Dr. Hansen is conducting a study to understand whether or not one’s level of extraversion stays the same from infancy to adulthood. She is most likely a _____________.

A. geneticist
B. cognitive psychologist
C. personality psychologist
D. doctor of osteopathy

C. personality psychologist
Which of the following questions is most likely to be discussed by a social psychologist?
A. Why are we attracted to particular kinds of people?
B. How do our reasoning skills change as we age?
C. How do people visualize objects in their minds?
D. How does parent-infant bonding affect adult relationships?
A. Why are we attracted to particular kinds of people?
Clinical psychology can be best defined as the study of:

A. how the real or imagined presence of others influences thought, feeling, and behavior.

B. how thought and behavior change and show stability across the life span.

C. the diagnosis and treatment of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders, and the promotion of psychological health.

D. what makes people unique as well as the consistencies in people’s behavior across time and situations.

C. the diagnosis and treatment of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders, and the promotion of psychological health.
______________ psychology is the single largest subdiscipline in psychology.
A. Social
B. Clinical
C. Educational
D. Cognitive
B. Clinical
Stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination are topics most likely to be studied by _____________.
A. geneticists
B. cognitive psychologists
C. neurologists
D. social psychologists
D. social psychologists
______________ psychologists treat and assess relatively healthy people and assist them with career and vocational interests.
A. Cognitive
B. Health
C. Counseling
D. Clinical
C. Counseling
James has received training in medicine and has an MD degree; in addition to offering therapy he can prescribe drugs. Based on this information, it can be concluded that James is a:
A. clinical psychologist.
B. counseling psychologist.
C. psychiatrist.
D. psychologist with his own clinic.
C. psychiatrist.
Topics in ______________ psychology range from studies of how stress is linked to illness and immune function to research on the role of social factors in how people interact with health care professionals.
A. cognitive
B. health
C. forensic
D. educational
B. health
Which of the following is most likely to be the focus of educational psychology?
A. The relationship between bodily systems and chemicals and their relationship to behavior and thought
B. The role of psychological factors in the physical health and illness of students
C. The changes in our emotional skills that take place as we age
D. The effectiveness of particular teaching techniques
D. The effectiveness of particular teaching techniques
The industrial side of industrial/organizational psychology:
A. applies principles of psychology to the selection of employees and evaluate their job performance.
B. aims to increase productivity and satisfaction of workers by considering how the work environment and management styles influence worker motivation, satisfaction, and productivity.
C. develops treatments for mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders.
D. explores how thought and behavior change and show stability across the life span.
A. applies principles of psychology to the selection of employees and evaluate their job performance.
The organizational side of industrial/organizational psychology:
A. involves matching employees to their job and uses psychological methods to select and evaluate employees.
B. focuses on the treatment of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders and ways to promote psychological health.
C. aims to increase productivity and satisfaction of workers by considering how the work environment and management styles influence worker motivation, satisfaction, and productivity.
D. considers what makes people unique as well as the consistencies in people’s behavior across time and situations.
C. aims to increase productivity and satisfaction of workers by considering how the work environment and management styles influence worker motivation, satisfaction, and productivity.
______________ psychology is a blend of psychology, law, and criminal justice.
A. Social
B. Forensic
C. Developmental
D. Cognitive
B. Forensic
Which of the following tasks is most likely to be performed by a forensic psychologist?
A. Applying principles of psychology to the selection and training of employees
B. Evaluating the effectiveness of a particular teaching technique
C. Providing career counseling to students of criminal justice
D. Evaluating the state of mind of a defendant at the time of a crime
D. Evaluating the state of mind of a defendant at the time of a crime
Which of the following types of psychologists is most likely to be a part of the human resource department of a large corporation?
A. Cognitive psychologist
B. Industrial/organizational psychologist
C. Social psychologist
D. Developmental psychologist
B. Industrial/organizational psychologist
Which of the following is true concerning the science and practice of psychology?
A. The practice of psychology originated first, followed by the science of psychology.
B. The science of psychology originated first, followed by the practice of psychology.
C. The science and practice of psychology originated at roughly the same time.
D. The practice and science of psychology originated at the same time, but in different places.
A. The practice of psychology originated first, followed by the science of psychology.
For which of the following reasons is ancient Greece significant in the history of psychology?
A. The foundations for psychology as a science can be traced to ancient Greece.
B. Wilhelm Wundt, one of the first known psychologists, established his laboratory in ancient Greece.
C. The first doctorate in psychology was awarded in ancient Greece.
D. The ancient Greeks compiled the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM).
A. The foundations for psychology as a science can be traced to ancient Greece.
______________ can be best defined as medicine men or women who treat people with mental problems by driving out their demons with elaborate rituals, such as exorcisms, incantations, and prayers.

A. Hunters
B. Chiefs
C. Shamans
D. Laggards

C. Shamans
Trephination involves:
A. recruiting large numbers of individuals to participate in clinical trials of controversial pharmaceuticals.
B. associating a previously neutral stimulus with a meaningful stimulus to create a desired response.
C. studying large groups of individuals from various cultures to determine similarities and differences across these cultures.
D. drilling a small hole in someone’s skull for medical reasons or to release demons thought to possess the person.
D. drilling a small hole in someone’s skull for medical reasons or to release demons thought to possess the person.
The Greek physician ______________ was the first to write about a man suffering from a phobia of heights—what we now call acrophobia.
A. Galen
B. Hippocrates
C. Socrates
D. Aristotle
B. Hippocrates
Which of the following statements is true regarding the ancient views on psychology?
A. The ancient Chinese made connections between a person’s bodily organs and their emotions.
B. The earliest cultures to seek natural explanations for disorders were the ancient Americans.
C. The ancient Chinese (2,600 BCE) believed in supernatural explanations of psychological disorders.
D. Frenchman Philip Pinel was the first to write about a man suffering from a phobia of heights—what we now call acrophobia.
A. The ancient Chinese made connections between a person’s bodily organs and their emotions.
The ancient Chinese made connections between a person’s bodily organs and their emotions. According to these connections, the ______________ housed ideas and intelligence.
A. heart
B. liver
C. spleen
D. kidneys
C. spleen
In medieval Europe from approximately 400 to 1400 CE (Common Era), psychological disorders were attributed to:

A. biological issues.
B. deeds in past life.
C. social status.
D. supernatural causes.

D. supernatural causes.
Philip Pinel of France is said to have been the first major proponent of _____________.
A. the use of narcotics to treat pain
B. humane therapies for the mentally ill
C. the study of the mind-body connection
D. considering psychology as a science
B. humane therapies for the mentally ill
In the United States, the first practitioner of moral treatment of the mentally ill was _____________.

A. René Descartes
B. Sigmund Freud
C. Dorothea Dix
D. John Locke

C. Dorothea Dix
What modern view of psychological disorders developed at the end of the 1800s?
A. Psychological disorders are a form of illness that should be diagnosed and treated.
B. Psychological disorders are actually thought disorders, rather than instances of spirit possession caused by witchcraft.
C. Psychological disorders are mood disorders and should be treated by psychoanalysis.
D. Psychological disorders have medical causes and should be treated by trephination.
A. Psychological disorders are a form of illness that should be diagnosed and treated.
The German psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin was the first to describe “dementia praecox,” the mental disorder now known as _____________.

A. schizophrenia
B. bipolar disorder
C. major depressive disorder
D. Munchausen’s syndrome

A. schizophrenia
______________ was the first to distinguish thought disorders (schizophrenia) from the mood disorders of melancholia (depression) and manic depression (bipolar disorder). His views were a major influence on diagnostic categories formulated during the 20th century.
A. Dorothea Dix
B. Sigmund Freud
C. John Locke
D. Emil Kraepelin
D. Emil Kraepelin
Around the turning of the 20th century, Sigmund Freud developed a form of therapy known as _____________.

A. cognitive-behavioral therapy
B. aversion therapy
C. psychoanalysis
D. behavior modification

C. psychoanalysis
Psychoanalysis assumes that:
A. underlying biological events such as hormonal changes mediate all human behavior.
B. the unconscious mind is the most powerful motivator of behavior.
C. social forces are the most powerful motivators of adult behavior.
D. dreams have no meaning to or relationship with the unconscious mind.
B. the unconscious mind is the most powerful motivator of behavior.
The assumption that dreams have meaning and are the most direct route to the unconscious mind was put forth by:

A. Sigmund Freud.
B. Wilhelm Wundt.
C. William James.
D. G. Stanley Hall.

A. Sigmund Freud.
Psychoanalysis assumes that the unconscious blocking, or repression, of disturbing thoughts and impulses—especially ______________ impulses—is at the heart of all maladaptive adult behavior.
A. depressive and unethical
B. aggressive and unethical
C. illogical and depressive
D. sexual and aggressive
D. sexual and aggressive
The ______________ therapy focuses on changing a person’s maladaptive thought and behavior patterns by discussing and rewarding more appropriate ways of thinking and behaving.
A. sublimation
B. cognitive-behavioral
C. thought stimulation
D. reaction formation
B. cognitive-behavioral
Psychologists use a standardized reference when diagnosing psychological disorders called _____________.

A. the Interpretation of Dreams
B. the American Psychological Association Guide to Mental Disorders (APAGMD)

C. Dr. Freud’s Guide to Mental Illnesses
D. the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual

D. the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual
Which of the following behavior patterns was removed from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual in 1973?

A. Dissociative identity disorder
B. Homosexuality
C. Conversion disorder
D. Anxiety disorder

B. Homosexuality
Which of the following fields is considered a “parent” of the discipline of scientific psychology?

A. Literature
B. Physics
C. Philosophy
D. Chemistry

C. Philosophy
Empiricism is the belief that all knowledge and thoughts come from _____________.

A. scriptures
B. experience
C. genetic endowment
D. observation

B. experience
Psychology gained its independence from philosophy when researchers started to examine and test human sensations and perception using ______________ methods.
A. abstract
B. behavioral
C. scientific
D. reflection
C. scientific
In the context of psychology, which of the following is a major difference between scientists and philosophers?
A. Philosophers do not collect data to test their ideas.
B. According to scientists, the mind simply receives what our sensory organs—eyes, ears, nose, skin, and tongue—take in from the outside world.
C. Philosophers believe that human beings create knowledge from experience.
D. According to scientists, human beings create knowledge from reflection and thinking.
A. Philosophers do not collect data to test their ideas.
Psychology can be considered as a modern empirical science because:

A. psychology originates from medicine.
B. psychology is based on the laws of nature.
C. psychologists test predictions about behavior with systematic observations and by gathering data.
D. psychologists believe that human beings create knowledge from reflection and thinking.

C. psychologists test predictions about behavior with systematic observations and by gathering data.
In the 1870s the first laboratories in psychology were opened in _____________.
A. Germany
B. China
C. the United States
D. Austria
A. Germany
The earliest researchers in psychology examined the subjective experience of physical sensations. This area of study is known as:
A. neuroscience.
B. philosophy.
C. physiology.
D. psychophysics.
D. psychophysics.
To compare psychophysics and physics, if physicists study the physical properties of light and sound, psychophysicists study:
A. sources of light and sound.
B. human perception of light and sound.
C. commercial uses of light and sound.
D. effects of light and sound on the environment.
B. human perception of light and sound.
______________ conducted some of the earliest research in perception and laid the groundwork for what later became known as psychophysics.
A. William James
B. Johns Hopkins
C. Rosalie Raynor
D. Ernst Weber
D. Ernst Weber
______________ coined the term psychophysics.
A. Carl Jung
B. Wilhelm Wundt
C. Gustav Fechner
D. G. Stanley Hall
C. Gustav Fechner
In which year did Wundt set up a psychology laboratory in Leipzig, Germany, now considered the birthplace of experimental psychology?

A. 1729
B. 1652
C. 1965
D. 1879

D. 1879
Wilhelm Wundt is credited with:
A. giving psychology its independence from philosophy and physiology.
B. identifying the effects of childhood experiences on the development of our adult personality.
C. evaluating the effects of social forces on one’s behavior.
D. developing the discipline of psychophysics.
A. giving psychology its independence from philosophy and physiology.
Who is considered the founder of American psychology?
A. Elizabeth Loftus
B. Carl Jung
C. Sigmund Freud
D. William James
D. William James
______________ founded the American Psychological Association (APA).
A. Carl Jung
B. G. Stanley Hall
C. Gustav Fechner
D. Wilhelm Wundt
B. G. Stanley Hall
Which of the following is NOT one of G. Stanley Hall’s achievements?
A. He founded the American Psychological Association (APA).
B. He opened the first psychology laboratory in the United States.
C. He coined the term psychophysics.
D. He started the first scientific journal in American psychology, the American Journal of Psychology.
C. He coined the term psychophysics.
Mary Whiton Calkins:
A. was the first female president of the American Psychological Association.
B. was a student of Sigmund Freud.
C. opened the first psychology laboratory in the United States.
D. started the first scientific journal in American psychology, the American Journal of Psychology.
A. was the first female president of the American Psychological Association.
According to structuralism,

A. our experiences during childhood are a powerful force in the development of our adult personality.
B. psychology is a sub-discipline of philosophy.
C. breaking down experience into its elemental parts offers the best way to understand thought and behavior.
D. psychology is an empirical science which is independent of medicine and physiology.

C. breaking down experience into its elemental parts offers the best way to understand thought and behavior.
______________ believed that a detailed analysis of experience as it happened provides the most accurate glimpse into the workings of the human mind.
A. Socialists
B. Structuralists
C. Behaviorists
D. Functionalists
B. Structuralists
In which of the following approaches to psychology was introspection the primary research method used to understand thoughts and behavior?
A. Psychophysics
B. Structuralism
C. Empiricism
D. Behaviorism
B. Structuralism
Which of the following early approaches to psychology focused on why and how people think and feel?
A. Socialism
B. Behaviorism
C. Structuralism
D. Functionalism
D. Functionalism
Max, an early researcher in psychology, was interested in thought and behavior. He attempted to break experiences down into their component parts in order to study them. Max was most likely a:

A. structuralist.
B. functionalist.
C. behaviorist.
D. psychoanalyst.

A. structuralist.
Jim, an early researcher in psychology, was interested in how the mind works. He focused on his own experience of pain in an effort to understand how and why people feel pain. Jim was most likely a:
A. structuralist.
B. functionalist.
C. behaviorist.
D. psychoanalyst
B. functionalist.
Which of the following psychologists asserted that psychology can be a true science only if it examines observable behavior, not ideas, thoughts, feelings, or motives?
A. William James
B. Abraham Maslow
C. John Watson
D. Carl Rogers
C. John Watson
______________ asserts that psychology can be a true science only if it examines observable behavior, not ideas, thoughts, feelings, or motives.
A. Structuralism
B. Behaviorism
C. Socialism
D. Functionalism
B. Behaviorism
Ed, an early researcher in psychology, was interested in how the environment impacts tendencies to act. He believed that focusing on the mind through introspection was not scientific. Ed was most likely a:

A. structuralist.
B. functionalist.
C. behaviorist.
D. psychoanalyst.

C. behaviorist.
Dr. Hennessy believes that psychologists should analyze only human conduct that can be observed, not ideas, thoughts, feelings, or motives. He is most likely a strict _____________.

A. humanistic psychologist
B. functionalist
C. behaviorist
D. social psychologist

C. behaviorist
Behaviorism is an extreme form of _____________.
A. functionalism
B. environmentalism
C. structuralism
D. empiricism
B. environmentalism
______________ psychology promotes personal growth and meaning as a way of reaching one’s highest potential.
A. Humanistic
B. Gestalt
C. Positive
D. Holistic
A. Humanistic
______________ psychology shares with humanism a belief that psychology should focus on studying, understanding, and promoting healthy and positive psychological functioning.
A. Health
B. Developmental
C. Gestalt
D. Positive
D. Positive
______________ psychology can be defined as a scientific approach to studying, understanding, and promoting healthy and positive psychological functioning.

A. Health
B. Developmental
C. Positive
D. Clinical

C. Positive
Gestalt psychology proposed that:
A. people learn by making associations.
B. breaking down experience into its elemental parts offers the best way we can understand thought and behavior.

C. psychology is a sub-discipline of philosophy.
D. we perceive things as wholes rather than as a compilation of parts.

D. we perceive things as wholes rather than as a compilation of parts.
Samantha sees a sign on a club’s marquee that says “CLUB _ EN FRO_ 8PM TO 4AM.” Although some letters are missing from the sign, she knows it is listing the hours when the club is open. Samantha’s perception would be of greatest interest to ______________ psychologists.

A. positive
B. Gestalt
C. industrial/organizational
D. social

B. Gestalt
Cognitive science focuses on the scientific study of _____________.
A. thought
B. asylums
C. computers
D. school psychology
A. thought
If we compare the human mind with a computer, sensation would be analogous to _____________.
A. central processing unit (CPU)
B. output
C. storage device
D. input
D. input
If we compare the human mind with a computer, behavior and thoughts would be analogous to _____________.
A. central processing unit (CPU)
B. output
C. storage device
D. input
B. output
Which of the following was used as a new metaphor for the human mind in cognitive psychology?

A. Light switch
B. Camera
C. Computer
D. Transmitter

C. Computer
By the 1980s, cognitive science combined many disciplines in addition to psychology. Which of the following is one of these disciplines?
A. Etymology
B. Genealogy
C. Chemistry
D. Anthropology
D. Anthropology
Some of the thinking in the new cognitive movement was based on a book by the British psychologist Frederick Bartlett (1886-1969). Which of the following statements most accurately reflects the views of Frederick Bartlett?

A. Memory is not an objective and accurate representation of events but rather a highly personal reconstruction based on one’s own beliefs, ideas, and point of view.

B. Psychology can be a true science only if it examines observable behavior, not ideas, thoughts, feelings, or motives.

C. A detailed analysis of experience as it happens provides the most accurate glimpse into the workings of the human mind.

D. Our experiences during childhood are a powerful force in the development of our adult personality.

A. Memory is not an objective and accurate representation of events but rather a highly personal reconstruction based on one’s own beliefs, ideas, and point of view.
By the 1980s, more and more psychologists had become receptive to the ideas that who we are and what we do and think are very much influenced by genetic factors and brain activity, with a long _______ past.

A. Gestalt
B. cognitive
C. educational
D. evolutionary

D. evolutionary
Millennia thinkers have argued over what determines our personality and behavior—innate biology or life experience—a conflict known as the ______________ debate.

A. nature-nurture
B. mind-body
C. internal-external
D. evolutionary-environmental

A. nature-nurture
According to the nature-only view, who we are comes from:
A. environmental forces.
B. our experiences.
C. inborn tendencies and genetically based traits.
D. introspection and analysis.
C. inborn tendencies and genetically based traits.
Alisha believes that human behavior is solely the result of genetic coding. Her point of view is referred to as the ______________ view.

A. nature-only
B. nurture-only
C. environment-only
D. evolution-only

A. nature-only
In terms of the nature-nurture debate, psychologists’ contemporary view is that human behavior is:
A. mostly a product of biology, inborn tendencies, and genetically based traits.
B. mostly a product of environmental experience.
C. a product of the interdependence between biology and experience.
D. solely a product of ancestral influences.
C. a product of the interdependence between biology and experience.
According to the nurture-only view, we are all essentially the same at birth and we are the product of our:

A. inherited traits.
B. experiences.
C. genetic makeup.
D. innate biology.

B. experiences.
The point of view that human behavior is solely the result of ______________ and that one can be anything she wants to be appears to be a very Western, very North American idea.

A. genetics
B. nature
C. nurture
D. inborn tendencies

C. nurture
Which of the following terms best represents the view that biological systems involved in thought and behavior—genes, brain structures, brains cells, etc.—are inherited but are still open to modification from the environment?
A. Genetic constitution
B. Hardwiring
C. Mind-body dualism
D. Softwiring
D. Softwiring
Which of the following is true according to Kandel with respect to certain genes in the human brain?

A. They cannot facilitate new connections between neurons in an adult brain.
B. They are all present and functional at birth.
C. They do not differ between organisms despite variations in experience.
D. They can be turned on or off by our experiences.

D. They can be turned on or off by our experiences.
The brains of people and animals reared in richly stimulating environments differ from the brains of people reared in understimulating, neglectful, or abusive environments. This happens because:

A. Genetic forces have a role to play a minimal role in shaping who we are.

B. Environmental forces work along with genetic forces to shape who we are.

C. Who we are comes from inborn tendencies and genetically-based traits.

D. Who we are essentially comes from our innate biology.

B. Environmental forces work along with genetic forces to shape who we are.
As compared to babies of healthy mothers, babies whose mothers suffered from certain infections when they were pregnant were _____________.

A. more likely to develop advanced language skills
B. more likely to develop schizophrenia
C. less likely to develop an immune response

D. less likely to engage in peer conflicts as children

B. more likely to develop schizophrenia
In the 17th century, ______________ proposed the view that the mind and body were separate entities.

A. John Locke
B. Aristotle
C. René Descartes
D. Max Wertheimer

C. René Descartes
In psychology, the idea that the mind and the body are separate entities is referred to as:
A. nature through nurture.
B. mind-body dualism.
C. cogito ergo sum.
D. separatist theory.
B. mind-body dualism.
According to the view of René Descartes regarding mind-body dualism, the _______.

A. soul does not survive bodily death

B. mind controls the body

C. mind and the body are controlled by our genetic makeup

D. mind and the body refer to the same entity

B. mind controls the body
Which of the following concepts allows for the idea that a soul survives bodily death?
A. Nature versus nurture
B. Natural selection
C. Evolutionary theory
D. Mind-body dualism
D. Mind-body dualism
______ represents a false dichotomy because our thoughts, feelings, and ideas result from the functioning of the brain.

A. Mind-body dualism
B. The tabula rasa concept
C. Gestalt psychology
D. Positive psychology

A. Mind-body dualism
______________ has long emphasized the interdependence of body and mind.

A. Philosophy of empiricism
B. Gestalt psychology
C. Eastern philosophy
D. Developmental psychology

C. Eastern philosophy
With respect to biological species, evolution is based on _____________.
A. the tabula rasa concept
B. the product of our experiences
C. proper parenting skills
D. frequency of occurrence of specific genes
D. frequency of occurrence of specific genes
Which of the following individuals is known for his theory of natural selection?
A. Edward Titchener
B. Charles Darwin
C. Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi
D. Martin Seligman
B. Charles Darwin
______________ is formally defined as a feedback process whereby nature favors one design over another, depending on whether it has an impact on reproduction.
A. Natural selection
B. Nature through nurture
C. Collective efficacy
D. Reciprocal logrolling
A. Natural selection
Spontaneous changes in genes that can alter the design of a structure or a set of behaviors are called _____________.

A. differential selections
B. softwirings
C. chance mutations
D. external adaptations

C. chance mutations
Without chance mutations, which of the following would occur?
A. The human species would become a superspecies.
B. Our thoughts and behavior would depend entirely on our genetic makeup.
C. There would be no evolution.
D. Our thoughts and behavior would depend entirely on our upbringing and experiences.
C. There would be no evolution.
______________ creates structures and behaviors that solve adaptive problems.
A. Softwiring
B. Natural selection
C. Reciprocal logrolling
D. Collective efficacy
B. Natural selection
Which of the following terms refers to inherited solutions to ancestral problems that have been naturally selected because they directly contribute in some way to reproductive success?
A. Adaptation
B. Differential selection
C. Circular logrolling
D. Satisficing
A. Adaptation
Early humans, as hunter-gatherers, did not know when they would find food. If they found fat, they ate it, because fat could be stored in the body and used later when food might be scarce. For this reason, humans evolved to like fat. Human cravings have not changed much, even though our environments have. So our preference for fatty foods can be attributed to _____________.
A. softwiring
B. differential selection
C. collective efficacy
D. adaptation
D. adaptation
______________ psychology is the branch of psychology that aims to uncover the adaptive problems the human mind may have solved in the distant past and the effect of evolution on behavior today.

A. Clinical
B. Cognitive
C. Evolutionary
D. Developmental

C. Evolutionary
Jack is a psychologist. Rather than just describing what the mind does, he is more interested in the functions of the human mind. Jack is most likely a practitioner of ______________ psychology.

A. Gestalt
B. evolutionary
C. positive
D. clinical

B. evolutionary
______________ are examples of behavioral adaptations.

A. Chance mutations
B. Softwirings
C. Emotions
D. Habits

C. Emotions
______________ are quick and ready response patterns that tell us whether something is good or bad for our well-being.
A. Habits
B. Chance mutations
C. Softwirings
D. Emotions
D. Emotions
Structures or features that perform a function that did not arise through natural selection are often called _____________.
A. exaptations
B. adaptations
C. chance mutations
D. habits
A. exaptations
Exaptations are also called _____________.
A. adaptations
B. chance mutations
C. habits
D. by-products
D. by-products
Feathers probably evolved for insulation in flightless dinosaurs, but they turned out to be useful for flight in birds, the dinosaurs’ descendants. Feathers are considered ______ because feathers did not evolve for that purpose.

A. adaptation
B. exaptations
C. natural selection
D. chance mutations

B. exaptations
According to evolutionary psychology, language and science are examples of _____________.
A. chance mutations
B. natural selection
C. by-products of adaptation
D. softwiring
C. by-products of adaptation
Helen Mayberg stumbled on a surprising and counterintuitive discovery; she found that:

A. schizophrenia is a result of imbalance of neurotransmitters.

B. some unknown substance in childhood vaccines causes autism.

C. psychological disorders are mood disorders.

D. a particular part of brain is overactive in depressed people.

D. a particular part of brain is overactive in depressed people.
Julie is a psychologist and she is conducting research on the effect of talking on a hands-free cell phone while driving. Based on this information we can say that Julie is a(n) ______________ psychologist.
A. cognitive
B. developmental
C. evolutionary
D. educational
A. cognitive
Which of the following topics is most likely to be studied by a developmental psychologist?
A. How much of people’s personality is reflected in their Facebook profiles?
B. Are people who interact extensively with other people via Facebook more or less outgoing than those who do not?
C. What is the effect of talking on a hands-free cell phone while driving?
D. What is the effect of gender on interest and participation in social networking sites?
D. What is the effect of gender on interest and participation in social networking sites?
Which of the following types of psychologists is most likely to conduct research on the age at which the usage of Internet social networks peaks?
A. Evolutionary psychologist
B. Developmental psychologist
C. Clinical psychologist
D. Educational psychologist
B. Developmental psychologist
Steve is conducting a research on how cell phones and other electronic methods of communication have changed the way teenagers interact with others. This information indicates that Steve is a(n) ______________ psychologist.
A. educational
B. clinical
C. developmental
D. evolutionary
C. developmental
More than just about any other area of psychology, ______________ psychology lends itself to a rich set of research questions regarding electronic interactions.
A. clinical
B. positive
C. cognitive
D. social
D. social
Which of the following statements is true regarding electronic interactions?
A.
Electronic interactions can be easily used to hide one’s real personality.

B. Electronic interaction is a preferred method of contact for extroverts.
C. People use the Internet to arrange real face-to-face meetings.
D. Electronic interactions have strengthened boundaries between public and private means of connecting.

C. People use the Internet to arrange real face-to-face meetings.
In the context of electronic interactions, being privately public means:
A. connecting with many other people, while being relatively nonpublic about revealing who you are.
B. avoiding online interactions with those people whom you have never met face-to-face.
C. you ensure that you remove all the traces of your electronic interactions.
D. you disclose a lot of details of your private life and may or may not limit access to your site.
A. connecting with many other people, while being relatively nonpublic about revealing who you are.
In the context of electronic interactions, being publicly private means:
A. connecting with many other people, while being relatively nonpublic about revealing who you are.
B. avoiding online interactions with those people whom you have never met face-to-face.
C. ensuring that you remove all the traces of your electronic interactions.
D. disclosing a lot of details of your private life.
D. disclosing a lot of details of your private life.
Which of the following questions is most likely to be answered by a personality psychologist?
A. How much of people’s characters is reflected in their Facebook profiles?
B. At what age does usage of Internet social networks peak?
C. Will people above the age of sixty use the Internet?
D. Does gender affect interest and participation in social networking sites?
A. How much of people’s characters is reflected in their Facebook profiles?
Anna is conducting research to find out if people who interact extensively with other people via Facebook are more or less outgoing than those who do not. Anna is most likely a ______________ psychologist.
A. health
B. personality
C. social
D. clinical
B. personality
______ can diagnose disorders of technology use but also use the same technologies to help treat people with various kinds of disorders.

A. Personality psychologists
B. Cognitive psychologists
C. Developmental psychologists
D. Clinical psychologists

D. Clinical psychologists
Which of the following questions is most likely to be answered by a clinical psychologist?

A. When do social networking sites and other electronic interactions become a problem?
B. Are people who interact extensively with other people via Facebook more or less outgoing than those who do not?
C. At what age is a person too young to form electronic social networks?
D. Will people above the age of sixty use the Internet?

A. When do social networking sites and other electronic interactions become a problem?
Jason is a psychologist. He is actively researching the interactions of people on social networking sites. Jason is most interested in finding out whether a person can get addicted to social networking sites and if such interactions can become dangerous to those involved. Jason is most likely to be a ______ psychologist.

A. personality
B. cognitive
C. developmental
D. clinical

D. clinical