Fashion Media Part 2 (Chapters 17,18,19)

Eastern Europe (1947-1960)
pro-soviet, soviet occupation, vulnerable to occupation because of need for repair (physically and economically)
Western Europe (1947-1960)
pro-western, parliamentary government, capitalist economies
*Western Germany’s democratic government was a success
Marshall Plan of 1948
aid provided by USA that eventually caused industrial production in Western Europe to surpass that of pre-war levels
Northern Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
Western Europe, USA, Canada population explosion, a lot of people move to the cities
Middle East & Asia (1947-1960)
religious conflict between Jews and Arabs lead to Palestine and Israel independence from European imperialism in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Indonesia, China is under communist rule
Soviet Union (1947-1960)
maintained control over Eastern Europe (namely Hungary)
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United States (1947-1960)
Cold War, McCarthyism, Silent Generation, Beginning of Social Protest, Civil Rights
Cold War (1947-1960)
Truman’s atomic bomb, fear of Soviet Union’s atomic bomb, develop hydrogen bomb in response and Soviet Union has it 3 years later (arms race), 1950-1953 defending South Korea against communist North Korea (+China)
McCarthyism (1947-1960)
fear that communist agents were undermining the US government from the inside spread by Senator Joseph McCarthy
Silent Generation (1947-1960)
the postwar generation that were young veterans of WWII and the Korean War known to be studious, earnest, and humorless
Beginning of Social Protest (1947-1960)
beatniks: originally a literary movement, a group eventually adopted eccentric habits of wearing beards, pony tails, dirty sneakers, and peasant blouses; experimenting with drugs and far off religions
Civil Rights (1947-1960)
overturned: “separate but equal”, only a limited amount of progress by 1960, segregation became illegal, but was slow to be put into practice
Influences on Fashion From the Silent Generation (1947-1960)
baby boom: the generation that resulted when women of the silent generation returned to home-making instead of paid jobs, many families move to the suburbs which results in commercial centers or “malls”
Influences on Fashion From the Young (1947-1960)
more emphasis on family so teens were at home longer which allowed for an expansion of the teen market and adolescent influence on the garment industry
Teddy Boys (1947-1960)
working-class British teens who wore longer shaped jackets, high lapels, cuffed sleeves, waistcoats, and narrow trousers (zoot suit-esque) with brightly colored socks and narrow neckties

significance:
1. first outfit to be promoted by young for young
2. first fashion to be among lower class
3. first fashion to be outward evidence of a lifestyle cult

winkle pickers
shoes with very pointed toes
DA
duck-tailed shape of hair at back of head
Feminine Version of Teddy boys
grey jackets, black sweaters, black skirts, dark stockings, high heels with a pointed toe
Impact of Television (1947-1960)
spread of many trends to young people, white bucks (Pat Boone), slicked back hair (Kookie), pompadours (Elvis Presley), coon hats (Davy Crocket), Lucille Ball’s maternity clothes, gowns and cocktail dresses worn by singers
white bucks
white buckskin shoes (Pat Boone)
Internationalism (1947-1960)
quick transportation made traveling easier and cheaper >> brought back fashions from other countries and were more receptive to imported goods
Fabric Revolution (1947-1960)
Pre-WWII: silk, wool, cotton, linen, rayon, acetate, nylon
Post-WWII: modacrylics, acrylics, polyesters, triacetate, spandex
*easier to care for because of more casual lifestyle

drip dry fabrics, wash-and-wear fabrics (eventually replaced by permanent press)>> cotton-polyester blend

Changing Couture (1947-1960): originals
garments shown and sold by couture houses
Christian Dior
revived couture in 1947 with show of “New Look”, Piquet >> Lelong
Cristobal Balenciaga
Spanish born, opened in 1937, master of sculptural forms and shapes, a major force until he closed his house suddenly in 1968
Coco Chanel
reopened in 1954 and died in 1971
American Mass Market (1947-1960)
created custom-made clothes but worked for department stores: Mainbocher, Charles James, Sophie and Castillo

high-priced ready-to-wear: Claire McCardell, Norman Norell, Pauline Trigere, Arnold Scaasi, and James Galanos

*originate>manufacture>distribute

knock-offs
garments created by designers who designed low-priced clothing that were copies of high-priced items, because importing garments was so expensive (Chanel suit =$3500), department stores would be licensed to create line-for-line copies that were sold at lower prices
New Centers of Design (1947-1960)
Pre-War: Paris, New York
1950s: Florence, Rome, London
Costume for Women (1947-1960): Styles
Styles:
1. lengthened skirts
2. rounded, soft curve for shoulder line
3. very full skirts
4. very slim skirts
5. small waistline for skirts and dresses, stressed curves
Costume for Women (1947-1960): Garments
Garments:
-bras were meant for “uplifting,” came in strapless varieties (both short and extended “Merry Widow” with boning)
-girdles/foundation garments: waist cinches
-full and permanently stiffened petticoats (nylon plain-weave)
-necklines were plain, round, or square; some had peter-pan style collars
-sleeves were close-fitting; cap sleeves gained popularity
-suits had narrow skirts and close fitting jackets (at waistline) where they had a peplum or rounded, padded hip
-bridal gowns were usually floor length
-wide skirts were preferred for evening but sometimes narrow-skirted styles had puffs of fabric at the hips or fish tails
-most bodices were strapless with boning
-coats: fitted bodice areas and full skirts (usually belted) or full from shoulders; kimono or raglan sleeves
-sweaters and cardigans gained popularity
-narrow pants fit the leg closely and ended at the ankle
-many types of shoes with varying heel heights
Summer Jacket Dresses (1947-1960)
sleeveless with small straps or halter top
bolero (1947-1960)
cropped jacket
coat dresses (1947-1960)
full skirts and buttoned down the front
shirtwaist dresses (1947-1960)
full skirts
maternity dresses (1947-1960)
two pieces – loose tops and narrow skirt with stretchy panel
ballerina length (1947-1960)
evening dresses that were the same length as daytime dresses; popular among high school and college students
shorties/toppers (1947-1960)
jackets that ended above the waist to accommodate wide skirts
shrugs (1947-1960)
were bolero-like cardigans
houseboy pants (1947-1960)
pants that ended at the calf
pedal pushers (1947-1960)
pants that ended mid-calf
bikini (1947-1960)
two-piece bathing suit (Jacques Heim)
nylons (1947-1960)
sheer stockings
sneakers (1947-1960)
canvas tennis shoes
Signs of Silhouette Changes: 1954-1960
a-line/chemise styles: Balenciaga(’54), Dior(’55); unfitted look

trapeze dress: Yves St. Laurent for Dior(’58)

Survival of New Look Styles (1947-1960)
“Merry Widow”>> bustier
Costume for Men (1947-1960)
-Esquire introduced the Bold Look (October 1948)
-broad shoulders, wide lapel, double-breasted, longer than pre-war years
-less padding in shoulders by the 50s with single breasted
-era of the gray flannel suit
-continental suit
-evening wear: tuxedos or dinner jackets
-coats had more natural shoulders and slender cuts
-“Ivy League Style”
-chinos
-flat top
The Bold Look
Esquire introduced the Bold Look (October 1948) >> a continuation of the English drape cut with more emphasis on shirt, suit, coordination
Era of the gray flannel suit (1950s)
novel and then film (Gregory Peck)
Continental suit (1950s)
closer fit, rounded, cut away fronts
“Ivy League Style” (1947-1960)
crew neck sweater, button down shirt, belt with buckle at the back, and chinos
chinos (1947-1960)
khaki-colored, twill-weave, cotton fabric
flat top (1947-1960)
when the hair was cut flat on top
Costume for Children (1947-1960)
-“look-alike” outfits were common: miniature flannel suits for boys and similar patterns as mothers for daughters
-Infants: pants with gripper-snap fasteners (some with reinforced knees), girls wore loose yoked dresses and boys in rompers of short pants
-Girls: styles echoed those of women’s in all aspects(princess-lines, full skirts, etc.) with short hair
-Boys: suits with button-down shirts or polos with hair in a crew cut
fad
a style of intense popularity worn by a large number of people for a very short time
poodle skirts
full-circle felt skirts with a poodle appliqué; worn with saddle shoes, socks, a white shirt and scarf, was a fad
Themes (1947-1960)
-relationship between costume and the work of individual designers
-production and acquisition of textiles and apparel
-social group memberships
-changes in patterns of social behavior
-economics
-communication
-technology
-fashion
Man: 1947-1950
the prewar, full shoulder line, double-breasted suits with somewhat longer jackets and cuffed pants return
Man: 1950-1960
lines slimmer, based on Edwardian styles of the Teddy Boys. Suits are often made in gray wool flannel. Some colored shirts begin to appear
Woman: 1947-1955
As war restrictions end, the New Look appears with rounded shoulders, narrow waist, and longer skirts, either very full or very narrow and straight
Woman: 1955-1960
first move toward different silhouettes as less-fitted garments, chemise, trapeze, and A-line garments appear in Paris
1960s
-FDA approval of the pill
-first lady wears a line for line copy of Chanel suit>> made in USA
-Balenciaga= less fitted >>Dior jumped on board
-A-line that is less fitted (transitional look = empire waistline; New Look until 60s) takes hold for the style of the time
-French couture is really struggling>>have to create ready-to-wear lines
mods (1960s)
vespa scooters, tailor made suits, METH
pop art (1960s)
against the establishment, color
Jean Shrimpton
worlds first super model
hippie (1970s)
centered around music scene: revolting against lifestyles of their parents(members of silent generation)/constraints of society, Woodstock changes rock-n-roll
punks (1970s)
micro-minis, fishnets, altered clothing (staining, pinning, tearing), black eye make-up
Silhouette changes (1970s)
more fluid look, casual fit, easier lines, mold to body rather than stand away(60s) >> show shape of woman’s curves
Emanuel Ungaro
French, trained as a tailor, Balenciaga> partner (pereg) then became independent (first collection: 1965); sculpted clothes, heavy fabrics
Zandra Rhodes
London based; inspired by punk subculture; caftan with her original designs printed on it
Sonia Rykiel
started by commissioning an italian designer to make the sweater of her dreams; eventually goes out on her own and is named “queen of knit”
Halston
darling of jet-set crowd of NY; elegant, traditional, simple, wearable; matte-jersey; simple silhouettes
Oscar de la Renta
Dominican > USA; apprentice at Balenciaga > Lanvin > Arden NY(’63); launches own ready-to-wear(’65); married editor-in-chief of French Vogue >> blew up; dressed many of the first ladies and other female celebrities; attention to detail; makes lots of fabric appear light
Diane Von Furstenberg
no formal fashion training; understood the needs of the modern, liberated woman; credited with jersey wrap-dress
Europe (1960-1980)
European Economic Community(EEC) was formed in the mid 1960s >> abolished tariffs affecting trade among themselves
The Soviet Union (1960-1980)
launches first satellite in 1957, maintained control over satellite counties in Eastern Europe >> 1968 invade Czechoslovakia to prevent freedom of press and expression(to promote Czechoslovak Communist Party)
The Middle East (1960-1980)
Egyptian and Syrian troops invade Israel (1973-1974), Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries(OPEC) puts brief embargo on nations supportive of Israel(USA), Camp-David Accords = treaty between Israel and Egypt (with help from USA)
Africa and the end of Colonialism (1960-1980)
1957: Gold Coast is first African state to be given independence(=Ghana)

mid 1960s: Belgium and France free their colonies(Algeria)

Japan (1960-1980)
industrial expansionism >> brand new production plants, US gives technological information to help, low wages, high savings, weak trade unions, demanding schools, and lifetime employment, high technological advances and manufacturing standards lead to satellite car plans in USA in 90s, Kenzo goes to Paris in 1965
The United States (1960-1980)
-Kennedy is president
-civil rights
-Vietnam
-China
-energy
-environment
-change in Family Life and Role of Women
-Social Protest
Impact of Social Change on Fashion (1960-1980)
-haute couture behan to expand by adding lines for men and pret-a-porter(ready-to-wear)
-1962: pop art symposium at MOMA, designer John Weitz opens a boutique for men
-style tribe
-street styles
Kenzo
came to Paris as a couture designer in the 60s; opened his first ready-to-wear shop in 1970
Street Styles (1960-1980)
styles that originated among the young who often congregated in groups on the street
Style Tribe (1960-1980)
groups that favored styles that diverged from mainstream fashion (i.e. hippies, punks, mods)
The Mods (1960-1980)
rockers: rough and tough, rode motorcycles and wore black leather jackets

mods: getting stoned, self-expression, poetry; elegance, long hair, granny glasses, Edwardian finery (young britons)

1965: American sportswear manufacturer for men – McGregor- introduces “mod” clothes to US market

1967: some type of anti-mod backlash

The Hippies (1960-1980)
hippies: long hair, beards, love beads, long skirts, gypsy-like costumes; clothing from thrift shops

1968: American designer Ken Scott shows hippie/gypsy look

August 1969: Woodstock Music and Art Fair

Peacock Revolution: fancifully colored and styled garments aimed at men that ranged from evening wear to underwear

Peacock Revolution (1960-1980)
fancifully colored and styled garments aimed at men that ranged from evening wear to underwear
Anti-War Protestors (1960-1980)
importance of blue jeans: solidarity with working people, became a mode of self-expression: added patches, embroidery, and painted messages
Punk Styles (1960-1980)
punk: messy, baggy, ripped-up clothes; girls: micro-minis, fishnet stockings; holes, tears, stains, piercings, heavy/dark eye make-up, hair-dye

1977: punk fashions introduced and british designer Zhanda Rhodes incorporates king tut punk styles into her clothes

The Women’s Movement (1960-1980)
feminist believes women’s clothes were a means of limiting their freedoms>> burned bras outside Miss America Pageant
Civil Rights Movement (1960-1980)
many African-americans adopt styles that reflect their interest in their heritage, appearance of black models(60s)
dashikis (1960-1980)
collarless, wide shirts with kimono type sleeves and caftans
kente cloth (1960-1980)
complex, elaborate, multicolored, woven designs made on narrow strip-looms by Ashanti men in Ghana; textiles made in traditional designs for dashikis and other garments
afro (1960-1980)
full, fluffy hairstyle that took advantage of the nature curl of many African-americans hair; widely adopted by both men and women
corn-row braids (1960-1980)
traditional African way of arranging the hair in myriad of small braids
The White house Influences Styles (1960-1980)
media coverage allows political figures to become styles icons, JFK didn’t wear a hat to inauguration >> hat purchasing declined

Jackie O: bouffant hairstyles, pillbox hats, a-line skirts, low-slung pumps, empire-style evening dresses, wrap around sunglasses

Political Events (1960-1980)
Vietname war >> jeans, military inspired dress, Nixon plans to go to China(’72) >> Chinese-influenced styles begin appearing (clothing, textiles, accessories, design motifs, and adaptations)
The Space Age
1964: Andre Courreges shows his “Space Age collection;” models wore helmets and lines were precise and non-ornamental with many geometric shapes, Velcro appears, plastic (jewelry), vinyl
op art (1960-1980)
“optical art”, visual illusions through geometric patterns; translated readily to fabric
pop art (1960-1980)
“popular art”; glorified representations of ordinary objects, Saint Laurent puts pop-art influences designs on the plain black dresses

1965: Saint Laurent’s Mondrian Dress: dress covered in geometric shapes, lines, and primary colors; inspired by the paintings of abstract dutch painter Piet Mondrian

1970: discovery of King Tut leads to an increase in Egyptian-inspired designs

wearable art (1960-1980)
the origin of a combination of clothing and fiber art; antecedents in decoration of textiles used for clothing by hippies; these artists would use techniques such as: crocheting, knitting, embroidery, dying techniques, and painting; each garment was unique
Ethnic Looks (1960-1980)
inspirations included: Native American dress, Easter European folk, African styles
Changes in the Fashion Industry (1960-1980)
-increasing variety in fashion segments
-clothing for both men and women was becoming increasingly diversified(styles, uses)
-prior to the 60s it was possible to identify one common and strong silhouette for each era of fashion >> no longer as obvious

60s: loose, unfitted; short hemlines; miniskirts
70s: midi-skirt(longuette), which was projected to replace mini-skirts, was rejected

trickle-down theory
the idea that the upper-class individuals initiate styles which are then imitated by the next lower class within society
bottom-up theory
the fact that popular styles seemed to originate with the less affluent individuals(60s) and with style tribes/subcultures
Attempts to Curve Fashion Changes (1960-1980)
offices set dress codes (usually against pantsuits on women), restaurants would not accept women in pantsuits, schools were expelling kids based on hair length or skirt length, those who adopted African-style of dress were made fun of/humiliated
Changes in Fashion Design (1960-1980)
after couture designers became established they would expand towards ready-to-wear

mid 1960s: Courreges and Saint Laurent design lines of ready-to-wear

1957: Cardin opens menswear boutique

late ’60s: franchised boutiques (had rights to sell merchandise or was owned by designer)

pret-a-porter
French term for “ready-to-wear”
designer jeans (1960-1980)
denim jeans that were produced by “well-known” designers; they would prominently display the name of the designer or a logo on the outside
licensing (1960-1980)
the practice of using a designers name on a variety of products while protecting it legally
Designers of Men’s Clothing (1960-1980)
1957: Cardin begins to design for men
1965: John Weitz opens a boutique for men
Costume for Women (1960-1980)
-shortened skirts, straight/unfitted or princess style with a-line waist, revival of empire waist
-pants were more widely acceptable for all occasions
-jeans gained popularity
-pantsuits were common and increased in popularity as fashion industry continued to redesign them
skimmer (1960-1980)
sleeveless, princess-line style
miniskirt (1960-1980)
skirt that was as short as two inches above the knee
micro mini (1960-1980)
any skirt shorter than a miniskirt
maxi (1960-1980)
full-length, unfitted skirt
midi (1960-1980)
skirt that ended at mid-calf
Costume for Women (1960-1974)
-underwear: bra, underpants, slips, girdles
-pantyhose, body stockings, body suits, leotard
-hippies and radical feminists often rejects the use of bra, use of girdles slowed
pantyhose (1960-1974)
alternative to nylon stockings; part hosiery part underwear
bodystockings (1960-1974)
body-length, knitted, stretch underwear
body suits (1960-1974)
similar garments to body stockings but ended at the top of the leg; some were shoulder to toe; worn with upper-section visible to replace blouse
leotard (1960-1974)
two-piece, knitted, body-hugging garment (Jules Leotard)
Women’s Garments (1960-1974)
-suits redesigned to be more loosely fitted >> exemplified by Chanel: collarless, cardigan style jacks and A-line skirt
-chemises of late 50s (rather soft, draped appearance) were replaced by dresses with harder lines (mid 60s)
-(mid 1960s): matching pants and jacked were introduced for daytime, business and evening wear >> double knit polyester fabrics (inexpensive) or wool double knits (expensive)
-(late 1960s): pantsuits become more popular than skirted suits, short dresses were preferred, long evening dresses made a comeback
-blouses became less fitted, turtlenecks gained popularity
-matching cardigan and pullover sweater sets were fashionable
Notable Dress Silhouettes (1960-1974)
-empire waistline
-A-line shapes
-dresses cut straight and loose from shoulder to hem
-dresses falling straight from yoke at shoulder to hem
-dresses unfitted through torso and with a flounce joined to hem at knee
granny dresses (1960-1974)
long, daytime dresses
paper dresses
(1966-1968) Scott Paper Company produced some paper dresses as a promotion and it caught on for a brief period of time; A-line, unfitted style
palazzo pajamas (1960-1974)
pantsuits of decorative fabrics with full-legged trousers, made in soft fabrics
Women’s Sportswear (1960-1974)
-skirts of all lengths and shapes were available; most common were waistbandless A-line styles that were mini in length
-(early 1960s): knitted stretch pants with narrow legs and blouson tops
hip huggers (1960-1974)
wide, flared or bell-bottom legs, fitted smoothly across the hip, and was made with facing rather than a waistband
hot-pants
very short pants (early 70s)
poorboy sweaters (1960-1974)
tightly-fitting, rib-knit sweaters that looked as if they had shrunk
Women’s Outdoor Garments (1960-1974)
coats were straight and loose with an easy fit and rounded shoulders, available in all lengths, capes and ponchos were available too
Women’s Clothing For Active Sports (1960-1974)
leotards were used for dancers and aerobic exercises, leg warmers, bathing suits were two and one piece, unitard
leg-warmers (1960-1974)
loose-fitting footless stockings used by dancers to keep their legs warm during warm-up sessions; worn on street as well (fad)
monokini
Rudi Fernreich (1964) topless bathing suits
unitard (1960-1974)
ski suits that were one piece jumpsuits (1968 olympics)
Women’s Sleepwear (1960-1974)
short-legged pajamas and short nightshirts, nightgowns and “shorties” (nightgowns that were short with matching underwear)
Women’s Accessories (1960-1974)
bouffant hairstyles (early 60s) >> long and straight (mid 60s and 70s), geometric haircuts (Vidal Sassoon), hats had large crowns and barely any brim (Jackie O. increased popularity of the pillbox hat), seam-less stockings, pantyhose gained popularity, shoes began to more closely resemble styles of today, pierced ears gained popularity
Introduction of the Midi: 1970-1974
-fashion industry fails to impose radical change (like chemise in 50s)
-1971: New York Times declares that women can wear any length skirt they want
-1973: fashion reporter for New York Times says midi is getting a warm reception
-1974: Paris couture houses start showing midis
-1978: all lengths were being shows
Costume for Women (1974-1980)
-bras were created with synthetic fabrics to remove seam lines and proved a more natural looks
-pantyhose control tops took place of girdles
-1973: “classical revival”; dresses were belted (to provide a clear defined waistline) with soft lines
-1975: skirts were long and flared gradually, fabrics were soft, drape-able, and knitted, DVF invents cotton-knit wrap dress, pantsuits became more widespread
-1977: John Malloy warns against pantsuits in his book Dress For Success
-menswear inspired suits: tailored jacket and skirt with soft tie at neck of blouse
-discos replaced elaborate formal dances >> clothing was much more casual
-most coats ended below the knee, late 1970s down or fiber-filled coats gained popularity for winter
Women’s Sportswear (1974-1980)
-1976: jeans moved away from bell-bottom and had narrower legs
-1978: pleated/gathered at waistband, tapered toward ankle and then cuffed or rolled
-1975: skirts were fuller and covered the knee
-skirts that wrapped around the body and tied into place and swirl skirts
-blouses were soft, often knit; shoulder lines were natural; somewhere between blouse and sweater (ribbed knits)
-Vogue declared sweater as a wardrobe staple: round-necks over blouses, thigh-length with belt
-1977: Issey Miyake combines oversized sweater and leggings
swirl skirt (1974-1980)
bias cut strips of multicolored fabrics that were from India (part of the ethnic period)
Women’s Outdoor Garments (1974-1980)
as the tie-belt trend grew, they were incorporated into trench-coats and raincoats
Women’s Clothing for Active Sports (1974-1980)
1975: Rudi Fernreich designs the thong
1976: fitted jumpsuit is very popular on the ski slopes
1977: suit that appeared to be one-piece but could be zipped apart
Women’s Sleepwear (1974-1980)
robes in kimono styles were popular
Women’s Accessories (1974-1980)
hair had a more natural look, ends of 70s frizzy curls were popular, wedge, Farrah Fawcett-Majors in Charlie’s Angels, slender more graceful shoes, quilted handbags of Chanel, diamonds by the yard, make-up was still aimed at a natural look

1973: narrow rectangular handbags
1976: large tote bags
1979: large, soft satchels

Diamond by the Yard (1974-1980)
Elsa Peretti’s string of gold chain with diamonds
Costume For Men (1960-1980)
-boxers (now in printed fabrics), briefs, t-shirts
-wide lapels and three piece suits make a comeback
-men had more interest in fashion: evidenced by esquire and other magazines
-Nehru jackets
Nehru jackets (1960-1980)
a jacket based on a traditional Indian jacket that buttoned all the way to the neck and has a small, stand-up collar (named for Indian PM Jawaharlal Nehru)
Men’s Sportswear (1960-1980)
-sweaters grew larger and looser over time
-body shirts: shirts cut and seamed to follow body lines
-leisure shirts were out of style by the end of the decade
-tuxedos can now be found in burgundy, green, and brown
Men’s Outdoor Garments (1960-1980)
-coats came in a variety of lengths but as women’s skirts grew shorter so did men’s coats
-men commonly wore shorter coats
-tapered slacks were replaced with bell-bottoms
-jeans were fashionable dress instead of work clothes
-safari jackets made a comeback
Men’s Sleepwear (1960-1980)
pajamas in either short or long pants with colors; velour robes
Men’s Accessories (1960-1980)
young men had very long hair, moderately long hair with facial hair for most everyone else, wide ties were popular (Ralph Lauren)
Costume for Children (1960-1980)
-dressed in the “classic” fashions of the times but some adult trends were addressed and transformed
-Girls: A-line dresses, ponchos, leisure suits with bell-bottoms, parkas, and jeans
-“go-go” boots: calf length, thick-heeled, white boots
-Boys: wore mini versions of their fathers: three piece suits, sport jackets with pants or shorts
Important Dates (1980-2013)
1980: Reagan elected president
1981: Lady Diana Spencer marries Prince Charles
1984: HIV is connected to AIDS by researchers; leading cause of death in NYC amend men 25-44 >> female designers found more investment for labels because investors were avoiding designers who they thought were at high risk for contracting the disease
1988: George H.W. Bush is elected president
1989: Berlin Wall falls
1990: East and West Germany reunite
1990: Iraq invades Kuwait
1991: Persian Gulf War; Operation Desert Storm
1991: government of Soviet Union collapses
1992: Clinton is elected, reelected in 1996
1993: WTC bombed by terrorists killing 5 and injuring 1000+
1995: OKC federal building bombed
2000: George W. Bush elected president; reelected in 2004
2001: terrorists attacks on WTC, war in Afghanistan
2002: European Union adopts EURO
2003: invasion of Iraq; capture of Hussein
2007: mortgage crisis; dollar weakens
2008: Obama is elected; reelected in 2012
The Goths (1980-2013)
importance of makeup: dark eyes, light skin
The Preppies (1980-2013)
originated in late 1970s and early 1980s, based on styles worn at prep schools(polos, deck shoes, D-ring belts), somewhat conservative but adopted by all ages, Ralph Lauren, J. Crew
Grunge (1980-2013)
late 1980s and early 1990s, Olsons, Johnny Depp, etc., ripped up jeans, cut-offs, oversize tops
Emo (1980-2013)
“deeply emotional”, tight jeans and t-shirts; make-up for both males and females

scene: emo but of the younger generation and more plugged into technology and social media

Hip-Hop (1980-2013)
became popularized
Power Dressing (1980s)
-John T. Malloy’s Dress for Success: tips for dressing for your profession,”dress for the job you want, not the one you already have”, inspired more adaptation of menswear for women >>pantsuits
Fashion Scenes (1980s)
-London and Italy emerge as fashion scenes
-Italy: Valentino, Dolce & Gabana, Versace
-France: Gaultier, Lacrois, Lagerfeld, Azzedine Alaia, Ghesquiere, Mugler, Rykiel
-GB: Westwood, McCartney, McQueen, Zandra Rhodes, Galiano, Hussein Chalayan
-Belgium/Germany: Martin Margiela, Jil Sander, Dries Van Noten, Ann Demeulmeester, Walter Van Bierdonck
-Japan: Kawakubo, Miyake, Kenzo, Hanse Mori, Yamamoto
-USA: Tom Ford, Marc Jacobs, Zac Posen, Donna Karan, Isaac Mizrahi, Michael Kors
Who owns fashion?
-LVMH
-Kering
-Chanel SA
-Prada Group
-Richemont
-Limited Brands
-Aeffe Group
-Fifth & Pacific
-Gap Inc.
-Puig Group
fashionistas (1980-2013)
fashionable, affluent adult followers of certain fashion designers
Postmodernism (1980-2013)
-rejection of authority
-cultural or ethnic groups with irreconcilable differences
-the appropriation or juxtaposition of elements from different styles
-the use of symbols without reference to their traditional meanings
The Elements of the Fashion System (1980-2013)
-Luxury Fashion: haute-couture and innovative/expensive ready-to-wear; Paris, NY, Milan, London, Tokyo
-Industrial Fashion: fashion created by manufacturers which sell similar products to similar social groups in many different countries as well as by smaller companies that confine themselves to a particular country or continent
-Street Styles: styles originated by urban subcultures or style tribes; spread by media attention
Role of Haute Couture (80s & 90s)
couture made a slight comeback with the oil-industry boom and the good economic times of the Reagan administration, designers were either classicists or saw fashion as something to have fun with, acquisition of houses by conglomerates
Ready-to-Wear (1980-2013)
-US: department stores organized sales floors according to designers and wearing ready-to-wear items was common
-France: franchised boutiques; housed the pret-a-porter firms and fashion week
-Italy: many companies with international reputations
-London: diversified and innovative styles
-Japan: center of very innovative styles; garnered a lot of attention for mens and women’s styles
Changes in Manufacturing (1980-2013)
-use of compute technology; assembly of clothes in third-world countries
-GATT
-NAFTA
-US manufacturers tried to keep up by using sweatshops filled with immigrants
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)
regulated imports and mandated a gradual termination of all quotes for imports
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
1994:the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) came into effect, creating one of the world’s largest free trade zones and laying the foundations for strong economic growth and rising prosperity for Canada, the United States, and Mexico.
Changes in Merchandising (1980-2013)
-small boutiques open to sell craft/creative fashions or specialized style orientations
-vintage clothing
-501 jeans
-hidden rivets jeans
-trend of “new vintage jeans”
-new methods of selling: TV, internet, outlet stores
-growing teen market: tweens
-prominence of labels: more of a selling point (especially for men)
vintage clothing (1980-2013)
valued for quality, workmanship, trend, condition
501 jeans (1980-2013)
trade of used Levis jeans in overseas market
hidden rivets jeans
jeans with rivets hidden in pockets (1937-1960)
Tweens
ages 7-14, had more “direct spending power”, strongly depended on celebrities and have a tendency to change minds about trends very quickly
retro
“retrospective”, designers of the 80s looked back >> revival of bustles, crinolines, camisoles, petticoats, hobble skirts, drop-waist chemises, bustiers, toreador pants, sheath dresses
Political and Social Elite (1980-2013)
important families influence fashion >> Diana’s wedding dress was imitated often; Sara Fergouson inspired the revival of “back-fullness”, Jackie Kennedy and Nancy Reagan were criticized for how much money they spent on clothes
yuppies (1980-2013)
young, upwardly mobile professionals who worked in fields such as business or law and stove to acquire high-status possessions
preppies (1980-2013)
affluent students at Ivy League colleges who would become “yuppies” after graduation >> classic tweed blazers, conservative skirts/trousers, tailored blouses or shirts, high-quality leather shoes
African American Style (1980-2013)
-fade: hair style where hair was very short on sides and long on top
-kente cloth: traditional/colorful African fabric
-dreadlocks: long-hair arranged in long hanging twists
Body-Piercing and Tattooing (1980-2013)
clothing would simulate tattooing into dress>> participating in style temporarily (removable imitation tattoos), body jewelry: jewelry worn on tongue, nose, lips, eyebrows, navel, nipples, etc.
Persistence of Blue Jeans and Importance of Denim (1980-2013)
continued to be a staple, new techniques for dying and finish (faded or streaked or textured), “pre-washed, stone-washing, acid-washed”, cut offs: old jeans that were cut above the knee and worn as shorts
The Media as Fashion Influences (1980-2013)
-music groups: rock bands, hip-hop, musicians started designing
-arts: costume exhibitions (MET)
-demographic changes: baby boomers + jeans >> more casual attitude towards clothes
-“casual Friday”
-high tech fabrics: meant for active sports >> microfibers: nylon + polyester = water – resistant, soft fabrics; chameleon fabrics
-Fashionable Fabrics: pashmina (cashmere)
-Sports and Activewear: boundaries between non-sports clothing and sports clothing blurred; high tech footwear (sneakers) >> common ready-to-wear/couture designers designed lines for important sports-clothing companies
Costume for Women (1980-1995)
-shoulders were padded and sleeves were larger
-skirts were short, dresses were tight, midriffs were shown
-underwear: frilly, feminine, colorful, lace, ribbon-trimmed
-garments: bright floral patterns, printed rayon (empire waists and buttoned down fronts), classic shirt-waist dresses, tight/short dresses made with spandex, delicate/sheer dresses over other garments and paired with harsh accessories, coordinated ensembles of dresses and jackets
deconstructionists (1980-1995)
designers who made clothes with seams on the outside, linings that were part of the exterior, un-hemmed fabric edges
Women’s Outdoor Garments (1980-1995)
long-down coats were replaced by short-down, causal jackets, coats were neat and slim, wrap and trench coats
Women’s Sportswear (1980-1995)
-pants and skirts: culottes (divided skirts) were worn through 80s, spandex used for stretch tights and leggings, pants were slender and then became wider with large cuffs
-blouses, sweaters and other tops: sweatshirts were a big fashion item >> fabric was transformed into skirts, dresses, and evening wear
-90s: most popular style was frilly white blouse with large sleeves that was often worn with slim, black pants
Women’s Clothing for Active Sports (1980-1995)
-swimming: high inverted V at sides of suit with a deep-v in the front or back
-skiing: skin-tight, hooded suits and revival of styles of the 60s and 70s
-tennis: knitted tops with white skirts or shorts
Women’s Sleepwear (1980-1995)
same as modern sleepwear
Women’s Accessories (1980-1995)
hairstyles reflected diversity of fashion of the time; increased sales of hats due to warning against UV rays, lower heeled shoes as skirts were shortened, Doc Martens were popular (especially with skinheads and punks)
Costume for Women (1995-2008)
-two types of people: those who followed the trends of the time and those who wore the same classic styles year after year
-almost any variation of any garment a consumer could want, they could find
-minimalists
-camo, animal fur, stripes, and leather were popular
-asian influences increased, retro styles continue to emerge
-baby-doll and trapeze dress had a revival (2008)
-undergarments: lingerie was more popular and bras came in more varieties
-daytime and evening garments: all necklines, often stain
-maternity clothes much more fitted and often empire-waisted
-tweed gained popularity and was used for daytime dresses, skirts, and suits
-evening dresses ornamented with sequins and beading
-skirts/pants came in any variety of styles and length
minimalists (1995-2008)
making styles in neutral or darker tones that had little ornamentation and good lines
boho (1995-2008)
a revival of the ideas that were part of the upscale hippie-influence clothes of the 1960s; vibrant colors, flawy fabrics, lots of patterns
wifebeaters (1995-2008)
tops cut like mens athletic shirts
hoodies (1995-2008)
fitted, waist-length cardigan sweaters with attached hoods
cargo pants and combat shorts (1995-2008)
gained popularity after the invasion of Iraq
capri (1995-2008)
capri-length pants were essential
Women’s Outerwear (1995-2008)
cloth coats cut slender, trench coats popular, fur coats and outerwear trimmed with fur (real or synthetic)
Women’s Accessories (1995-2008)
-bed hair: tousled hair, messy ponytails, sometimes curled, hats varied
-flats: shoes without heels (loafers, ballet slippers, moccasin), crocs: waterproof, no slip shoe with a perforated front and a sling-back
Costume for Men (1980-2008)
-peacock revolution inspired more choices for men
-separates became more important as did brand names
-1990: Time Magazine reports sack suit as staple
-1996: suits had more structured lines
-2000: dark, slim-cut, with a rumpled look
-dress shirts came in a variety of patterns and colors
Men’s Sportswear (1980-2008)
-sports jackets had the same lines as suit jackets; often worn over a sweater or vest
-made in linen for summer
-pants were casual; jeans and slacks
-sport shirts: t-shirts, polos, sweatshirts
-1996: pleats were disappearing; dress trousers were tighter, unless they were hip-hop style; cargo pants were popular
Men’s Evening Dress (1980-2008)
-tuxedos fit like suits; ruffled shirt gave way to sleeted shirt in 2000
-band collar: (madrian collar) a tuxedo shift collar that stood up
Men’s Outdoor Garments (1980-2008)
perfecto motorcycle jacket: black leather jacker made by Schott Brothers company; street fashion that became mainstream fashion
Men’s Clothing for Active Sports (1980-2008)
-swimming: thong, bikini, briefs, boxer trunks, (and later) surfer/board shorts
-skiing: tighter fabrics for unitards
-snowboards: loosely fitted, well-insulated clothing
Men’s Sleepwear (1980-2008)
robes grew in popularity
Men’s Accessories (1980-2008)
-shorter hair was popular, product existed to give hair tousled look
-hats reserved for cold weather with exception of baseball caps and trucker’s caps(hat that had a foam section at the grown and mesh around the rest)
-loafers, sporty oxfords, boots, driving shoes, foam soled/suede-laced oxfords
-unshaven look grew
-soul patch: a small patch of hair centered below the lip; worn with goatee
Costume for Children (1980-2008)
-silhouettes reflected those of adult styles; dressed like small adults
-schools started mandating uniforms and strict dress-codes
-Wheelys: (2000) shoes with wheels in soles that were comparable to a daily version of roller skates
1. In 1947 designer _______________________ created a style of dress that deviated sharply from the styles of the wartime period and came to be known as the New Look.
a. Hubert de Givenchy
b. Christian Dior
c. Cristobal Balenciaga
d. Pierre Balmain
b. Christian Dior
2. The ____________________ were significant because they were the first group to begin a fashion movement that started among the lower classes, at the street level, and worked its way up to the upper classes.
a. Teddy Boys
b. Beatniks
c. Silent Generation
a. Teddy Boys
3. The New Look led to the confining underclothing that had been seen since before 1920.
a. True
b. False
a. True
4. The garment originally called the atom eventually came to be known as
a. Pedal pushers
b. A topper
c. A girdle
d. The bikini
d. The bikini
5. The garments shown and sold by couture houses were classed originals. More than one original could be made of any style.
a. True
b. False
a. True
6. The major style elements of the New Look and the changes that it brought were all of the following except:
a. A dramatic drop in skirt lengths
b. A shoulder-line with a round, soft curve
c. A square, padded shoulder
d. A small, nipped in waistline
c. A square, padded shoulder
7. ____________________ is credited as the originator of the bikini.
a. Jacques Heim
b. Marc Bohan
c. Pierre Cardin
a. Jacques Heim
8. Spanish-born designer whose styles were often considered to be ahead of their time and was a favorite of Harper’s Bazaar editor Carmel Snow:
a. Hubert de Givenchy
b. Gustave Tassell
c. Cristobal Balenciaga
d. Marc Bohan
c. Cristobal Balenciaga
9. Most French couture houses made major profits on their haute couture operations.
a. True
b. False
b. False
10. The Textile Fiber Products Identification act of 1960 mandated that textile products sold in the American Ready-to Wear and the French Couture had to be sold with labels that identified the fiber content.
a. True
b. False
b. False, identified textile fiber
11. In order to make high-fashion design available to American women, department stores such as Ohrbach’s, Macy’s, and Alexander’s in New York City bought designer original garments and by arrangement with the designer made relatively faithful copies that they sold at much lower prices than the originals could command. These copies were called:
a. Knock-offs
b. Modifications
c. Line-for line copies
c. Line-for line copies
12. The unfitted styles that became popular in the later 1950s and the better part of the 1960s were introduced as early as 1954 by:
a. Cristobal Balenciaga
b. Norman Norell
c. James Galanos
d. Jacques Fath
a. Cristobal Balenciaga
13. The newly awakened young in the United States who appeared in the latter part of the 1950s were known as:
a. The Silent Generation
b. The Beatniks
c. The Teddy Boys
b. The Beatniks
14. The New Look was unique in that a dual silhouette for daytime garments consisting of both exceptionally full and narrow skirt coexisted.
a. True
b. False
a. True
15. All of the following were true about stockings except:
a. Long, sheer stockings were referred to as nylons
b. Unseamed styles were more popular than seamed styles
c. They were made of nylon
d. Heels were reinforced with dark yarn
b. Unseamed styles were more popular than seamed styles
16. Gabrielle “Coco” Chanel reopened her atelier promptly after the conclusion of World War II.
a. True
b. False
b. False
17. The Silent Generation is defined as:
a. The postwar generation of young veterans returning from World War II and the Korean War
b. The advanced guard of the newly awakened young in the United States who appeared in the latter part of the 1950s
c. The working class British adolescents who adopted styles in menswear that had a somewhat Edwardian flavor
d. The group of young American adults who revolted against the values of adult society
a. The postwar generation of young veterans returning from World War II and the Korean War
18. The baby boom of the 1940s and 1950s, together with Lucille Ball’s very public pregnancy on the I Love Lucy show, focused attention on maternity clothes. Even so, maternity clothes for advertisements were photographed on nonpregnant women.
a. True
b. False
a. True
1. Mods?
(1960-1980)
mods: getting stoned, self-expression, poetry; elegance, long hair, granny glasses, Edwardian finery (young britons)

1965: American sportswear manufacturer for men – McGregor- introduces “mod” clothes to US market

1967: some type of anti-mod backlash

2. Rockers?
(1960-1980)
rockers: rough and tough, rode motorcycles and wore black leather jackets
3. Hippies?
(1960-1980)
hippies: long hair, beards, love beads, long skirts, gypsy-like costumes; clothing from thrift shops

1968: American designer Ken Scott shows hippie/gypsy look

August 1969: Woodstock Music and Art Fair

4. Punks?
(1960-1980)
punk: messy, baggy, ripped-up clothes; girls: micro-minis, fishnet stockings; holes, tears, stains, piercings, heavy/dark eye make-up, hair-dye

1977: punk fashions introduced and british designer Zhanda Rhodes incorporates king tut punk styles into her clothes

5. Peacock Revolution (1960-1980)
a. Wore messy, baggy, ripped up clothes with black eye makeup and hair painted green, yellow, and red.
b. Were up for love, self-expression, poetry and getting stoned. Dressed in elegant styles with long hair, granny glasses, and Edwardian finery.
c. Were rough and tough, rode motorcycles, and wore black leather jackets.
d. Described men who dressed in fancifully colored and styled garments.
e. Lifestyle stressed “love” and freedom from the constraints of “straight” society. Typical dress included long hair, beards, headbands, love beads, and gypsylike costume.
d. Described men who dressed in fancifully colored and styled garments.
6. hot pants?
very short pants (early 70s)
7. palazzo pajamas?
(1960-1974) pantsuits of decorative fabrics with full-legged trousers, made in soft fabrics
8. hip huggers?
(1960-1974) wide, flared or bell-bottom legs, fitted smoothly across the hip, and was made with facing rather than a waistband
9. Nehru suits?
(1960-1980) a jacket based on a traditional Indian jacket that buttoned all the way to the neck and has a small, stand-up collar (named for Indian PM Jawaharlal Nehru)
10. Leisure suits
a. Had wide, flaring or bell-bottom legs, fitted smoothly across the hip, and were often made with a facing rather than a waistband at the top.
b. Suits designed for casual wear that typically had a top and pants made of matching fabric. The tops had shirt-like collars or were collarless.
c. Pantsuits of decorative fabrics with full-legged trousers, made in soft fabrics. Popular for entertaining at home or formal occasions.
d. Very short pants.
b. Suits designed for casual wear that typically had a top and pants made of matching fabric. The tops had shirt-like collars or were collarless.
11. mini skirt?
(1960-1980) skirt that was as short as two inches above the knee
12. micro mini?
(1960-1980) any skirt shorter than a miniskirt
13. midi length skirt or dress?
(1960-1980) skirt that ended at mid-calf
14. maxi length skirt or dress?
(1960-1980) full-length, unfitted skirt
15. Granny dress
a. Long daytime dresses popular in the 1970s
b. Hem ending as much as two inches above the knee
c. Hem ending at mid-calf
d. The shortest of short skirts
e. Full-length style dress of skirt
a. Long daytime dresses popular in the 1970s
16. In the 1960s many of the French couture designers expanded their business to include prêt-à-porter lines.
a. True
b. False
a. True
17. All of the following are credited with the origination of bottom-up trends except _______.
a. The Mods
b. The Hippies
c. The Space Race
d. The Rockers
c. The Space Race
18. Pierre Cardin was among the first internationally known designers to create a men’s line.
a. True
b. False
a. True
19. British designer Zandra Rhodes incorporated _______________ styles into her 1977 collection.
a. Mod
b. Punk
c. Hippie
d. Rocker
b. Punk
20. Designer most notably credited with popularizing the miniskirt.
a. Mary Quant
b. Paco Rabanne
c. Zandra Rhodes
d. Emilio Pucci
a. Mary Quant
1. During the 1960s and 1970s the fashion industry began to diversify. By the 1980s we began to see movement away from a single predominant fashion ideal and a movement toward a variety of fashion segments. Some scholars believe this phenomenon can be explained by:
a. Modernism
b. Expansion into more international markets
c. Postmodernism
d. The decline of the Haute Couture
c. Postmodernism
2. By the early 1980s the Haute Couture had begun to make a comeback as wealthy women from oil-producing countries provided a new clientele able to afford couture clothing.
a. True
b. False
a. True
3. In the 1980s ___________________ emerged as a major fashion center
a. Germany
b. Japan
c. Belgium
d. Italy
b. Japan
4. By 2000 it was evident that a new segment of the market called the _______________ market was playing an increasingly important role in retailing. This segment atered to clients aged 7 to 14.
a. Teen
b. Tween
c. Kiddie Couture
b. Tween
5. Deconstructionist garments were pieces of apparel with seams located on the inside, interior linings, and hemmed edges.
a. True
b. False
b. False
6. Cosplay, a combination of the words costume and play, originated in ____________ but interest in the activity spread to other countries.
a. France
b. England
c. Germany
d. Japan
d. Japan
7. Which former first lady, like Jackie Kennedy, was criticized for the amount of money she spent on clothing?
a. Nancy Reagan
b. Barbara Bush
c. Hillary Clinton
d. Laura Bush
a. Nancy Reagan
8. The AIDS epidemic of the 1980s and 1990s cause financial investors to look more favorably upon investing in design businesses headed by female designers rather than male designers.
a. True
b. False
a. True
9. In May 1984 Gentleman’s Quarterly noted, ” __________ fashion is different. These are clothes that conform to no fashion standards. They seek to abolish form. They hang loosely on the body in oversized, unusual silhouettes. The colors are almost always monochromatic or black.”
a. German
b. Italian
c. Belgium
d. Japanese
d. Japanese
10. ______________________ was the nickname applied to young, upwardly mobile professionals who worked in fields such as law and business.
a. Preppies
b. Goths
c. Yuppies
d. New Romantics
c. Yuppies
11. Children’s clothing sales increased during the 1980s as a result of the baby boomers peak childbearing years falling during this time.
a. True
b. False
a. True
12. Around 1985 __________________ produced a wide, puffy skirt with a light airy appearance nicknamed Le Pouf that was widely copied.
a. Christian Lacroix
b. John Galliano
c. Sonia Rykiel
d. JD Sander
a. Christian Lacroix
13. In 1987 Thierry Mugler opened a new haute couture house
a. True
b. False
b. False, 1992
14. _____________________ is the name that cashmere is called in the Kashmir region.
a. Wool
b. Mohair
c. Pashmina
d. Angora
c. Pashmina
15. The black and white headscarf closely associated with the late Yassir Arafat and his Palestinian countrymen that was adopted as a fashion trend and worn as a neck scarf around 2007.
a. Hijab
b. Kente cloth
c. Pashmina
d. Kaffiyeh
d. Kaffiyeh
16. By the 1980s and 1990s the Schott Brothers Perfecto motorcycle jacket was appearing in the haute couture shows and had made the full transformation from anti-establishment rebel fashion statement to mainstream fashion acceptability.
a. True
b. False
a. True