Exploring Psychology 9th Edition Chapter 1

early school of thought promoted by Wundt and Titchener; used introspection to reveal the structure of the human mind. It proved unreliable, as it required smart, verbal people and results varied.
early school of thought promoted by James and influenced by Darwin; explored how mental and behavioral processes function- how they enable the organism to adapt, survive, and flourish.
Introduced by John B. Watson and B.F. Skinner, the view that psychology should be 1) an objective science and 2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes
humanistic psychology
led by Carl Rogers and and Abraham Maslow, emphasized the growth potential of healthy people
cognitive neuroscience
the study of brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language)
the science of behavior and mental processes
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nature-nurture issue
longstanding controversy over whether genetics or experience play a more crucial role in the development of psychological behaviors. The current trend is to see behaviors as an interaction between the two.
natural selection
the principle that traits contributing to reproduction and survival will be most likely passed on
levels of analysis
differing complementary views for analyzing any phenomenon
biopsychosocial approach
an integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis
basic research
pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base
applied research
scientific study that aims to solve practical problems
counseling psychology
a branch of psychology that assist people with problems in living and in achieving greater well being
clinical psychology
a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders
a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical treatments as well as psychological therapy
positive psychology
the scientific study of human functioning, with the goal of discovering and promoting strengths and virtues that help individuals and communities to thrive
hindsight bias
the tendency to believe, after learning the outcome, that one would have foreseen it
critical thinking
thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions, but examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions
an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events
a testable prediction
operational definition
a statement of the procedures used to define research variables
repeating the essence of a research study to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances
case study
an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in hope of revealing universal principals
naturalistic observation
observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation
a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of the group
all those in a group being studied, from which samples may be drawn
random sample
a sample that fairly represents the population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion
a measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus how well either factor predicts the other
correlation coefficient
a statistical index of the relationship between two things
a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors to observe the effect on some behavior
experimental group
in an experiment, the group exposed to the treatment
control group
in an experiment, the group not exposed to the treatment
random assignment
assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance
double-blind procedure
an experimental procedure in which both the the research participants and the the research staff are ignorant about who has received the treatment or placebo
placebo effect
experimental effects caused by expectations alone
independent variable
the experimental factor that is manipulated
confounding variable
a factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect
dependent variable
the outcome factor
behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group and transmitted from one generation to the next
informed consent
giving participants enough information about a study to enable them to decide whether they wish to participate
postexperimental explanation of a study, including it’s purpose and any deceptions
testing effect
enhanced memory after retrieving, rather than simply rereading information
a study method incorporating five steps: Survey, Question, Read, Retrieve, Review