Experience Sociology-CH11

1. Social psychology is the study of ______.
A. social thinking
B. social influence
C. social relations
D. All of these
2. Barbie is a “perfect 10.” She has gorgeous flowing blonde hair, crystal blue eyes, olive tanned skin, and a smile to die for. According to social psychological research, when Ken meets Barbie for the first time, what other traits might he infer about Barbie’s personality?
A. She is friendly, likeable, popular, and successful.
B. She is mean, grumpy, and lazy.
C. She is conceited, selfish, and self-centered.
D. She is unreliable and unpopular.
3. Which of the following statements about research on the “beautiful is good” stereotype is FALSE?
A. Infants as young as 3 to 6 months of age prefer attractive faces over unattractive faces.
B. Attractive people are assumed to have a variety of positive characteristics, including being better adjusted, socially skilled, friendly, likeable, extraverted, and likely to achieve superior job performance.
C. There is little truth to the “beautiful is good stereotype.” Attractive people do not really possess the positive characteristics of the stereotype.
D. The “beautiful is good stereotype” can influence how we treat others, as in the concept of the self-fulfilling prophecy.
4. Parents warn a new babysitter that their son, Dennis, is very aggressive and mischievous. As a result of this initial expectation, the babysitter starts calling Dennis “Dennis the Menace,” and he behaves in ways that elicit aggressive and mischievous behaviors from Dennis. This example best demonstrates the phenomenon called ______.
A. the self-fulfilling prophecy
B. the self-serving bias
C. the fundamental attribution error
D. social conditioning
5. A study by Robert Rosenthal and Lenore Jacobson (1968) found that children who were labeled as “late bloomers” at the start of the school year showed larger IQ gains than other, non-labeled students, even though these particular children were chosen randomly. The children’s teachers were informed about these labels but the students themselves were not. The results from this study demonstrate which of the following concepts?
A. Cognitive dissonance theory
B. The mere exposure effect
C. The self-fulfilling prophecy
D. The self-serving bias
6. Research suggests that which of the following faces would be rated as most attractive?
A. A face in which the distinctive features of the face have been digitally enhanced.
B. A face with an unusually small forehead and unusually large lips.
C. A face with unusually small ears and unusually large eyes.
D. A composite face of multiple faces that have been digitally blended to produce an “average” face.
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7. According to research on the “average face is the attractive face,” which of the following faces would be likely to receive the highest attractiveness ratings?
A. Face A: morphed from 2 faces
B. Face B: morphed from 4 faces
C. Face C morphed from 8 faces
D. Face D morphed from 16 faces
8. Babyface Nelson, so named because of his youthful appearance, was one of the most ruthless and dangerous gangsters in United States history. Based on person perception research findings, what kind of person do most people expect when they encounter someone with a babyish face?
A. We expect baby-faced individuals to be naïve, weak, honest, and less competent than individuals with more mature faces.
B. We expect baby-faced individuals to be smarter and more trusting than individuals with more mature faces.
C. We expect baby-faced individuals to be more open to new ideas than individuals with more mature faces.
D. We expect baby-faced individuals to be more prone to acting out of control than individuals with more mature faces.
9. According to attribution theory, attributions vary along which of the following dimensions?
A. Internal/external causes
B. Stable/unstable causes
C. Controllable/uncontrollable causes
D. All of these
10. Jack and John were recently dumped by their girlfriends. Jack believes that his girlfriend broke up with him because she is a selfish and unhappy person, whereas John believes that his girlfriend broke up with him because she had to attend to a family emergency and could not make commitment right now. Jack is making a(n) ______ about his girlfriend’s behavior, whereas John is making a(n) ______.
A. internal attribution / external attribution
B. external attribution / internal attribution
C. downward social comparison / upward social comparison
D. upward social comparison / downward social comparison
11. When many people first learn of the classic conformity and obedience studies, they often believe that the participants in these studies are weak-minded people and they tend to underestimate the power of the social situation. This is an example of ______.
A. self-perception theory
B. the fundamental attribution error
C. the false-consensus effect
D. a positive illusion
12. Whenever Claudia gets an A on her psychology exam, she believes it was due to the fact that she is an intelligent, hard-working student. However, when she receives a C on an exam, she attributes her behavior to the situation and thus blames the grade on her instructor’s ineffective teaching style and poor choice of test questions. Claudia’s behavior is an example of ____.
A. learned helplessness
B. the self-serving bias
C. the false uniqueness effect
D. the false consensus effect
13. The tendency for observers to underestimate the impact of the situation and overestimate the impact of inner dispositions upon another’s behavior is called ______.
A. the self-serving bias
B. the fundamental attribution error
C. the false consensus bias
D. cognitive dissonance
14. You are watching golf and see Tiger Woods scowl. You would be making the fundamental attribution error if you assumed that _____.
A. he has an angry and volatile personality
B. he just missed a putt
C. he was thrown off by the flash of a camera
D. he was in a tough situation
15. Your new roommate leaves dirty laundry all over her room and you assume she must be a slob. You ignore the fact that she is currently taking finals and working 40 hours per week. You are demonstrating the ______.
A. fundamental attribution error
B. universality mistake
C. self-serving bias
D. availability heuristic
16. You watch as another student stumbles and drops her books in the hall. According to the fundamental attribution error, how would you explain the student’s behavior?
A. She must have tripped over something.
B. She is a clumsy person.
C. She couldn’t help it; there were too many books to carry.
D. She was trying to get out of someone else’s way.
17. _____ is the tension that arises when people realize that their behavior is inconsistent with their attitudes.
A. Consensual validation
B. Cognitive dissonance
C. Risky shift
D. Deindividuation
18. Although Jeff frequently exceeds the speed limit by at least 10 mph, he justifies his behavior by erroneously thinking that most other drivers do the same. This belief best illustrates _____.
A. the false consensus effect
B. the self-serving bias
C. deindividuation
D. social loafing
19. Lily does not approve of abortion. She is shocked when she finds out how many people in her state hold pro-choice attitudes. This is an example of ______.
A. the false consensus effect
B. cognitive dissonance
C. the self-fulfilling prophecy
D. groupthink
20. Despite evidence to the contrary, Denise thinks she is smarter than most of the people in her class. Denise’s unfounded attitude about herself is an example of a(n) _____.
A. positive illusion
B. hallucination
C. reactive illusion
D. an ideal self
21. Individuals who have positive illusions about the self _____.
A. are judged less positively by others
B. are psychologically less healthy
C. tend to show high levels of psychological well-being
D. display self views that are rooted in reality
22. Cindy recently played in a softball game in which she misplayed a ground ball for an error. Later in the same game, she made a great catch on a very difficult play. According to the self-serving bias, she would attribute her error to _____ and her good catch to _____.
A. bad fielding skills / luck
B. bad fielding skills / good fielding skills
C. a bad bounce / luck
D. a bad bounce / good fielding skills
23. Based on Steele’s (1997) research on stereotype threat, we should be especially concerned about instructions for standardized tests if they _______.
A. ask for race/ethnic information BEFORE the test starts.
B. ask for names BEFORE the test starts.
C. are administered by men and women from different racial/ethnic backgrounds.
D. are culturally/racially sensitive.
24. “Am I as popular as Cathy?” This question is an example of gaining self-knowledge through the process of ______.
A. peer-review
B. peripheral attribute
C. peer recognition
D. social comparison
25. When people try to confront Alfred about drinking too much alcohol, he replies, “Drinking may be harmful to my health, but I’ll die having a good time.” This statement, which is an example of self-justification, illustrates Alan’s attempt to reduce _____.
A. the mere exposure effect
B. cognitive dissonance
C. the self-serving bias
D. the fundamental attribution error
26. Hugh bought a new calculator at Staples for $125. One week later, he saw an ad from Wal-Mart showing the same calculator on sale for $65. Hugh said to himself, “I’m glad I got my calculator at Staples; the ones at Wal-Mart are probably defective. I don’t mind having paid more for mine.” Hugh’s statement reflects _____.
A. cognitive dissonance reduction
B. self-perception bias
C. informational influence
D. peripheral-route processing
27. Marty has always strongly believed that it is wrong to cheat. However, after he cheated on his chemistry quiz, his attitude toward cheating significantly softened. Which theory best accounts for this attitude shift?
A. cognitive dissonance theory
B. self-perception theory
C. social identity theory
D. social exchange theory
28. Cognitive dissonance theory states that in order to reduce dissonance, individuals _____.
A. change attitudes in order to be more popular
B. change behavior in order to be more popular
C. do not perceive a discrepancy between attitudes and behavior
D. try to align their attitudes and behavior
29. _____________ theory contends that behaviors can cause attitudes.
A. Self-perception
B. Social identity
C. Self-serving
D. Social comparison
30. According to self-perception theory, if you’re not sure how you feel about something, how can you find out?
A. Compare yourself to others
B. Look to your emotions
C. Ask a friend
D. Look at your behavior
31. Juanita returned home after being away for several years. When she saw her father, whom she thought she disliked, she hugged him and cried. Based on her crying when she saw him, she determined that she must like him more than she thought. This is most consistent with the _____ of attitudes.
A. evolutionary theory
B. social learning theory
C. self-perception theory
D. social identity theory
32. Which of the following statements about research on persuasion is TRUE?
A. Older people are more likely than younger people to change their attitude.
B. Television is a more powerful medium for persuasion than a printed newspaper.
C. People who have initially strong attitudes on an issue are more likely to be persuaded than those with initially weak attitudes.
D. Emotional appeals are usually not very powerful means of persuasion.
33. When people pay close attention to the facts, the _____ is (are) the most persuasive, but when subjects are not paying full attention, such as during a television commercial, the _____ may work better.
A. peripheral route / attractiveness of the source
B. emotional factors / attractiveness of the source
C. source’s credibility / emotional factors
D. emotional factors / credibility of the source
34. Allison is at a workshop where a presenter is attempting to persuade people to make a rather risky but potentially profitable financial investment. The arguments for investing appeal to logic and rationality. After slowly and carefully considering the presenter’s arguments, Alison finds this person’s idea sounds compelling and decides to invest. This example best demonstrates the _____.
A. peripheral route to persuasion
B. norm of reciprocity
C. central route to persuasion
D. foot-in-the-door technique
35. Central route persuasion _____.
A. involves the use of non-message factors, such as the source’s credibility and attractiveness
B. involves engaging someone thoughtfully with a sound, logical argument
C. involves emotional appeals
D. All of these
36. According to _____, people who have first agreed to a small request tend to comply later with a larger request.
A. the foot-in-the-door technique
B. the door-in-the-face-technique
C. the bystander effect
D. the social facilitation effect
37. John is selling magazine subscriptions and chocolates. He asks you whether you are interested in buying some chocolates for $1 and you say yes. When you go to get the money to pay for the chocolates and return to the door, John asks you if you would also like to buy a $25 subscription to a variety of magazines. You feel obligated and agree to buy a magazine subscription. This is an example of _____.
A. social loafing
B. the door-in-the-face technique
C. the foot-in-the-door technique
D. the bystander effect
38. The advertising committee for a politician is going door to door and asking people to put a big ugly election sign on their lawn. If the people refuse, they ask them if they would consider putting a smaller sign on the lawn. The staff is using _____.
A. the foot-in-the-door technique
B. the door-in-the-face technique
C. the elaboration likelihood model
D. a negative appeal
39. A person on campus walks up to you and asks if you would be willing to wear a ribbon to show support for her cause. Though the ribbon is a bit unattractive, it is small so you agree to wear it. After agreeing to this request, the solicitor then asks you if you would be willing to make a donation of $15. This example best demonstrates the persuasion technique called _____.
A. the foot-in-the-door technique
B. the door-in-the-face technique
C. the norm of reciprocity
D. central route persuasion
40. What is the key social emotion involved with altruism?
A. Sympathy
B. Empathy
C. Generosity
D. Love
41. Alex regularly gives donations of blood to the Red Cross because he received a life-saving transfusion when he was in a car accident two years ago. Robert’s helping behavior is best explained by _____.
A. the concept of reciprocity
B. reciprocal determinism
C. social exchange theory
D. self-perception theory
42. The bystander effect is most likely to occur ______.
A. when someone is witnessing an emergency and there are several other bystanders present
B. when someone is witnessing an emergency and no one else is present
C. in emergencies involving racial minorities where there are a large number of bystanders present
D. in memory studies in which bystanders did not remember as much about an emergency as the individual who was the victim
43. Diffusion of responsibility is most likely to influence _____.
A. the attributions we make about others
B. cognitive dissonance
C. helping behavior
D. prejudice
44. In 1964 Kitty Genovese was brutally stabbed to death in front of her apartment building. It took the assailant approximately 30 minutes to kill Genovese. Police reports showed that although 38 neighbors witnessed the event, no one helped or called the police. According to your knowledge of social psychology, this incident can be best explained by _____.
A. the social facilitation effect
B. cognitive dissonance theory
C. the bystander effect
D. social identity theory
45. According to the _______ of helping, we are especially likely to help and to care for our close relatives over strangers.
A. social exchange theory
B. evolutionary perspective
C. cost/reward theory of helping
D. bystander effect
46. Aggression is associated with low levels of which neurotransmitter?
A. Dopamine
B. Serotonin
C. Norepinephrine
47. Aggressive behavior has been linked with low levels of _____.
A. dopamine
C. serotonin
D. acetycholine
48. Deficits in the functioning of the ______ are associated with aggression.
A. hippocampus
B. hypothalamus
C. parietal lobes
D. frontal lobes
49. The hormone that is typically implicated in aggressive behavior is _____.
A. estrogen
B. testosterone
C. epineprhine
D. norepinephrine
50. Which of the following factors INCREASES the likelihood of an aggressive response?
A. Physical pain
B. Heat
C. Being personally attacked or insulted
D. All of these
51. Robert, a 9-year-old boy, loves watching wrestling on TV. Last night he imitated several of the aggressive moves he saw on TV by acting them out with his little brother. Which of the following theories best explains William’s behavior?
A. Observational learning theory
B. Frustration aggression theory
C. Social identity theory
D. Cognitive dissonance theory
52. Based on the information presented in your textbook, what is the most likely outcome experienced by children who frequently play violent video games?
A. They are more likely to engage in aggressive and delinquent behaviors.
B. They are no different from children and adolescents who don’t play violent video games.
C. They are less likely to engage in aggressive and delinquent behaviors.
D. They are more likely to be empathetic to the feelings of others.
53. Approximately what percentage of participants in Solomon Asch’s study conformed to the group’s pressure to select the incorrect line?
A. All of the participants
B. None of the participants
C. About 35 percent of the participants
D. About 90 percent of the participants
54. Joyce has the potential to be an honor student but frustrates her teachers because of her actions. Rather than work to succeed, she tends to “dummy down” to act more like the students that she hangs out with. She has at times answered questions incorrectly in class on purpose to be more like her friends. Joyce’s behavior is an example of _____.
A. informational social influence
B. ethnocentrism
C. groupthink
D. normative social influence
55. _____ is based on a person’s desire to be accepted by the group.
A. Informational social influence
B. Normative social influence
C. Social loafing
D. Social facilitation
56. Rosalie was invited to a black-tie dinner at the Ritz Carlton. She’s never been served a 10-course meal before so she’s unfamiliar with the social etiquette regarding silverware selection. Since Rosalie is in a foreign environment, she gets through the night by watching others who appear to know what they are doing. For each course, she follows their selection of silverware. Rosalie is displaying ______.
A. normative social influence
B. informational social influence
C. group polarization
D. the bystander effect
57. Approximately _____ of the participants in Milgram’s obedience experiment administered the maximum 450-volt shock to the victim.
A. one-fourth
B. one-third
C. two-thirds
D. three-fourths
58. Prior to conducting his experiment, Stanley Milgram asked a group of psychiatrists to predict how many individuals would obey his commands to shock another person. The psychiatrists predicted that ______ of the participants would deliver the full 450 volts of shock to the victim. Results of Milgram’s experiment showed that, in fact, _____ participants delivered the full 450 volts.
A. none / nearly 10 percent
B. 1 in 10 (10 percent) / nearly 25 percent
C. 1 in 100 (1 percent) / nearly 33 percent
D. 1 in 1000 (0.10 percent) / nearly 65 percent
59. Results of Milgram’s experiment showed that participants were more likely to fail to comply with the authority figure’s requests when _____.
A. participants could see everyone else being obedient to authority
B. the authority figure was perceived to be legitimate
C. the authority figure was far away as opposed to nearby
D. the victim was made to seem more human
60. The reduction in personal identity and erosion of the sense of personal responsibility when one is part of a group is known as _____.
A. social contagion
B. the self-serving bias
C. the false consensus effect
D. deindividuation
61. The effects of others on our behavior can take the form of _____, imitative behavior involving the spread of behavior, emotions, and ideas.
A. egoism
B. altruism
C. social contagion
D. social loafing
62. You are studying in a quiet but crowded library when you suddenly start coughing. You soon notice others doing the same thing. This is an example of _____.
A. social loafing
B. group polarization
C. social facilitation
D. social contagion
63. ______ refers to the loss of self-awareness and evaluation apprehension. It occurs in group situations that foster responsiveness to group norms, good or bad.
A. Social loafing
B. Groupthink
C. Deindividuation
D. Group polarization
64. According to the social facilitation effect, the presence of others _____.
A. enhances performance on all types of tasks
B. diminishes performance on easy or well-learned tasks
C. diminishes performance on difficult or new tasks
D. has little to no effect on performance
65. Ralph just started taking guitar lessons last week. Jimi has been playing guitar for almost 20 years. According to the concept of social faciliation, performing in front of an audience of strangers and friends tonight will likely ______ Ralph’s performance and ______ Jimi’s performance.
A. decrease / decrease
B. increase / increase
C. decrease / increase
D. increase / decrease
66. Psychologists believe that the social facilitation effect occurs because _____.
A. the presence of others arouses us
B. we are more relaxed in group situations than when we are alone
C. we feel more deindividuated when we are alone than when we are in a group
D. of a genetic predisposition toward heightened performance in group settings
67. Social loafing refers to the _____.
A. tendency for people to exert less effort when working in groups than when working alone.
B. tendency for people to exert more effort when working in groups than when working alone.
C. tendency to spend more time being nonproductive when in the company of one’s peers
D. social norm that obligates the general public to help those who may not be completely able to help themselves (e.g., children and the elderly).
68. Dr. McCall found that class projects were of poorer quality when students worked in groups compared to when each student did an individual project. This difference can be explained by the phenomenon of _____.
A. cognitive dissonance
B. social loafing
C. the sleeper effect
D. polarization
69. The tendency for a group decision to be riskier than the average decision made by the individual group members is known as ______.
A. the social facilitation effect
B. social loafing
C. risky shift
D. group polarization
70. Katie, who is moderately liberal, attends a very liberal college. After four years at this college, Katie is likely to become _____ as a result of _____.
A. more politically conservative / the fundamental attribution error
B. more politically conservative / self-perception theory
C. more liberal / group polarization
D. more liberal / social loafing
71. The assumption that ethnic outgroups are not only different, but that other groups are inferior to your group, is called _____.
A. social identity
B. ethnocentrism
C. deindividuation
D. groupthink
72. ______ is an unjustified negative attitude toward an individual based on the individual’s membership in a group. ______ is an unjustified negative or harmful action toward a member of a group simply because the person belongs to that group.
A. Ethnocentrism / Stereotype threat
B. Prejudice / Discrimination
C. Discrimination / Ethnocentrism
D. Stereotype threat / Prejudice
73. In a recent study (M. Bertrand & S. Mullainathan, 2003), researchers sent 5,000 fictitious resumes to companies advertising in Chicago and Boston. Applicants with “black-sounding” names were 50 percent LESS likely to be called for an interview than those with “white-sounding” names. This unfair treatment based on the group to which someone belongs (or seems to belong) is called _____.
A. prejudice
B. discrimination
C. the mere exposure effect
D. the false-consensus effect
74. ______ is reflected in a person’s conscious and openly shared attitude, which might be measured using a questionnaire. _____ refers to attitudes that exist on a deeper, hidden level, thus they must be measured with a method that does not require awareness.
A. Implicit racism / Explicit racism
B. Explicit racism / Implicit racism
C. Sexual harassment / Ethnocentrism
D. Ethnocentrism / Sexual harassment
75. Sherif’s Robbers Cave study showed that perceptions of the outgroup are affected by _____.
A. a person’s level of intelligence
B. observational learning
C. competitive and cooperative activities
D. cognitive dissonance
76. In order to improve interactions among students from different ethnic backgrounds, a teacher would be best advised to use _____.
A. a reward structure based on race
B. competition among students
C. group polarization
D. the jigsaw classroom
77. The mere exposure effect provides one possible explanation for why _____ increases attraction.
A. proximity
B. similarity
C. physical attractiveness
D. reciprocity
78. Tom has left home and is attending college in a city far away from home where he doesn’t know anybody. According to the principle of proximity, Tom will be most likely to make friends with _____.
A. Bill, his roommate
B. John, who lives across campus
C. Michael, who lives in the same dorm but two floors below Tom
D. Stuart, who lives 10 miles away in an off-campus apartment
79. According to the evolutionary theory of attraction, men tend to seek mates who are ____ and women tend to seek mates who are ______.
A. young and beautiful / financially stable
B. financially stable / young and beautiful
C. similar to themselves / different from themselves
D. different from themselves / similar to themselves
80. Social psychologists believe that _______ is particularly strong during the early stages of a relationship, and that ________ increases as the relationship grows and matures.
A. affectionate love / romantic love
B. romantic love / affectionate love
C. consensual validation / romantic love
D. consensual validation / affectionate love
81. ______ involves strong components of sexuality and infatuation, and is often predominant in the early part of a love relationship.
A. Romantic love
B. Affectionate love
C. The mere exposure effect
D. Companionate love
82. According to Ellen Berscheid’s research, ______ is the most important ingredient of romantic love.
A. caring
B. affection
C. sexual attraction
D. companionship
83. When individuals desire to have another person near and have a deep, caring affection for the person, they are displaying _____.
A. romantic love
B. affectionate love
C. the mere exposure effect
D. passionate love
84. Research on gender and love shows that men ______.
A. conceptualize love in terms of friendship, whereas women conceptualize love in terms of passion
B. fall in love more quickly and easily than women
C. are less likely than women to break up premarital relationships
D. All of these
85. According to ________________, your feelings about a relationship are a function of how fair you feel the relationship is or how much you feel you get out as much as you put in.
A. social identity theory
B. social exchange theory
C. the investment model
D. the evolutionary approach
86. According to ______, social relationships involve an exchange of goods, the objective of which is to minimize costs and maximize benefits.
A. psychological exchange theory
B. social exchange theory
C. the concept of social contagion
D. the elaboration likelihood model
87. According to social exchange theory, the most important predictor of relationship success is _____.
A. equity
B. physical attractiveness
C. the availability of other alternative partners
D. passionate love
88. Which theory of attraction suggests that long-term relationships are likely to continue when both partners are committed and invested in the relationship and when there are few attractive tempting alternatives around?
A. The investment model
B. Evolutionary theory
C. The mere exposure effect
D. Social exchange theory
89. Equity is a strong predictor of relationship satisfaction _____.
A. among men, but not among women
B. among women, but not among men
C. during both the early and later stages of a relationship
D. during the early but not later stages of a relationship
90. Dave is a handsome and famous celebrity. He has been in a dating relationship with Gabriela, a beautiful and popular actress, for the past two months but he doesn’t feel that strongly committed to their relationship. Recently, Dave has been working on a new movie and several women have expressed their interest in getting to know him better. Dave is now contemplating whether he should stay with Gabriela or explore other tempting alternative relationships. According to the investment model, what will Dave probably do next?
A. He will probably ask Gabriela to marry him.
B. He will probably ask Gabriela to move in with him.
C. He will probably stay with Gabriela for at least another year so that he can cultivate their relationship.
D. He will probably break up with Gabriela and give in to the temptation of dating other women.