Experiemental Psych

In an experiment, the variable that is manipulated by the researcher is what?
Independent variable.
In an experiment, the variable that is measured is what?
Dependent variable.
Empiricism refers to the practice of relying on what to draw conclusions?
Observations.
A specific proposition that logically follows from a theory is what?
Hypothesis.
An a priori hypothesis is made when?
Before data collection
Research that is conducted to enhance our understanding of behavior without regard for the immediate application of this knowledge is what?
Basic Research.
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The individual who is usually credited with starting the scientific study of behavior and mental processes was who?
Wilhelm Wundt
When researchers are interested in studying the effects of a variable that they cannot control, they use what kind of design
Quasi-Experimental.
A researcher measured the public’s attitudes toward nuclear power after a nuclear accident. This is an example of what kind of research?
Descriptive.
A researcher was interested in the effects of caffeine on memory. After administering various doses of caffeine to participants, she gave participants a test of memory. This is an example of what kind of research?
Experimental.
Statistics that are used to draw conclusions about the reliability and generalizability of one’s findings are called what?
Inferential statistics.
How do you calculate the range?
Subtract the lowest score from the highest score.
How do you calculate the mean?
Add the scores together and divide by the number of scores.
An index of the strength of the relationship between variables is often called what?
Effect size.
What is variance?
The degree to which participants’ score differ from the mean
Variance in a behavior that is related to variables that an investigator is investigating is what?
Systematic variance.
Variance in a behavior that is not related to the variables that an investigator is investigating is what?
Error variance
In an experiment that examined the effects of room temperature on aggression, systematic variance would be caused by what?
Differences in temperature
If we calculate the deviation scores for all observations in a set of data and add them, what will the sum be?
Zero.
The sum of squared deviations of participants’ scores from the mean is called what?
Total sum of squares.
A researcher counting the number of times a rat presses a bar is using what type of measure?
Observational.
The measurement of weight is what type of scale?
Ratio.
Religious preference is what type of scale?
Nominal.
High school graduation rank is what type of scale
Ordinal.
The proportion of total variance that is true score variance reflects a measure’s what?
Reliability.
A statistic that expresses the strength of relationship between two variables is what?
Correlation coefficient.
Which is the least important type of validity?
Face.
The SAT is used when admitting students into college because it has what type of validity?
Predicitive.
If scores on a test are consistent over time, the test has what?
Test-retest relaibilty.
Researchers generally want two administrations of the same test to correlate to what value?
.70
How does pseudoscience differ from true science (1)?
Violates the central criteria of true science.
Concluding that aliens have visited Earth on the basis of one person’s report fails to support which criterion of science (1)?
Public verifiability
When measuring behavior, researchers want the variability in the numbers they assign to participants’ responses to correspond with what (2)?
The variability in participants’ responses.
What does not contribute to error variance in an experiment (2)?
The independent variable
What type of variance occurs when the relationship between two variables is perfect (2)?
Systematic variance.
Error variance obscures what (2)?
The effects of the variables in which the researcher is primarily interested in.
Which scale of measurement do researchers prefer to use when possible (3)?
Ratio.
What kind of reliability would be relevant in a study in which two observers recorded children’s aggressive behaviors on the playground (3)?
Interrater.
Using shoe size as a measure of intelligence is what in terms of reliability and validity (3)?
Reliable and invalid.
A participant’s observed score consists of what (3)?
Measurement error and true score
We gather knowledge through
tenacity,intuition,authority, rationalism, imperialism, empiricalism
tenacity
believe it to be true because it has always been this way
intuition
gut feeling, its true because it feels true
authority
believe it to be true because someone of a higher status says it is
rationalism
believe it to be true because it makes logical sense
imperialism
research, observe it to be true
empirical research
experimenting
science =
rationalism (theory) + empiricalism (testing the theory)
public verification
make it replicable
issues with public verification
people have different interpretations so people disagree
for something to be solvable
the question must be answerable
hypothesis
prediction/educated guess/theory
–must be falsifiable
you can NEVER ______
prove anything
basic research
to expand basic knowledge of something
applied research
help/fix/or improve something
a pori
post hoc
before
after
Inductive reasoning
specific —>general
deductive reasoning
general—> specific
operational definition
specifically how you are going to measure something
variability
variation in behavior, how much something varies
variance
degree that each score differentiate from the mean (descriptive stats that describe the amount of variance in scores from the mean)
systematic variance
variance in the variable of interest
error variance
variance due to the unrelated variables of interest
observed score=
true score + measure error
reliability
how reliable something is over time, same results over multiple studies
validity
what you are claiming to measure is actually what you are measuring
Are valid measures reliable?
YES
Are reliable measures valid?
NO
face validity
by looking at it—it looks valid
construct validity
does your measure relate to other measures
criterion related validity
does measure predict relative outcome
test/ retest reliability
degree of consistency over time
inter item reliability
degree of consistency among items on a scale (broad measures–CBCL)
inter rater reliability
people who are observing
nominal
categories (male/female)
ordinal
rank order (1st, 2nd, 3rd)
interval
equal intervals (Temperature)
ratio
true zero ( time, distance)
descriptive statistics
summarize/describe your data (mean,median,mode)
sample
inferential statistics
make inferences about data ( ANOVA, t-test, regression)
population
3 ways to measure
observational-watching them
physiological- HR/ hormone balance
self-report- Liker-at scale/ Beck depression invetory
problems with self-report
nasaying- F all the way down
social desirability- doing what you think is desirable
aquesents- T all the way down
double barrel questions- asking 2 questions in one
naturalistic experiment
contrived experiment
in the field
in a lab
disguised observation
when the participant doesn’t know the real variable being tested (doesn’t know they are being observed)
non disguised observation
flat out questions (know they are being observed)
obtrusive measures
directly asking/ aware..invasive
unobtrusive measures
unaware…another way to find out information