In an experiment, the variable that is manipulated by the researcher is what?

Independent variable.

In an experiment, the variable that is measured is what?

Dependent variable.

Empiricism refers to the practice of relying on what to draw conclusions?

Observations.

A specific proposition that logically follows from a theory is what?

Hypothesis.

An a priori hypothesis is made when?

Before data collection

Research that is conducted to enhance our understanding of behavior without regard for the immediate application of this knowledge is what?

Basic Research.

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The individual who is usually credited with starting the scientific study of behavior and mental processes was who?

Wilhelm Wundt

When researchers are interested in studying the effects of a variable that they cannot control, they use what kind of design

Quasi-Experimental.

A researcher measured the public’s attitudes toward nuclear power after a nuclear accident. This is an example of what kind of research?

Descriptive.

A researcher was interested in the effects of caffeine on memory. After administering various doses of caffeine to participants, she gave participants a test of memory. This is an example of what kind of research?

Experimental.

Statistics that are used to draw conclusions about the reliability and generalizability of one’s findings are called what?

Inferential statistics.

How do you calculate the range?

Subtract the lowest score from the highest score.

How do you calculate the mean?

Add the scores together and divide by the number of scores.

An index of the strength of the relationship between variables is often called what?

Effect size.

What is variance?

The degree to which participants’ score differ from the mean

Variance in a behavior that is related to variables that an investigator is investigating is what?

Systematic variance.

Variance in a behavior that is not related to the variables that an investigator is investigating is what?

Error variance

In an experiment that examined the effects of room temperature on aggression, systematic variance would be caused by what?

Differences in temperature

If we calculate the deviation scores for all observations in a set of data and add them, what will the sum be?

Zero.

The sum of squared deviations of participants’ scores from the mean is called what?

Total sum of squares.

A researcher counting the number of times a rat presses a bar is using what type of measure?

Observational.

The measurement of weight is what type of scale?

Ratio.

Religious preference is what type of scale?

Nominal.

High school graduation rank is what type of scale

Ordinal.

The proportion of total variance that is true score variance reflects a measure’s what?

Reliability.

A statistic that expresses the strength of relationship between two variables is what?

Correlation coefficient.

Which is the least important type of validity?

Face.

The SAT is used when admitting students into college because it has what type of validity?

Predicitive.

If scores on a test are consistent over time, the test has what?

Test-retest relaibilty.

Researchers generally want two administrations of the same test to correlate to what value?

.70

How does pseudoscience differ from true science (1)?

Violates the central criteria of true science.

Concluding that aliens have visited Earth on the basis of one person’s report fails to support which criterion of science (1)?

Public verifiability

When measuring behavior, researchers want the variability in the numbers they assign to participants’ responses to correspond with what (2)?

The variability in participants’ responses.

What does not contribute to error variance in an experiment (2)?

The independent variable

What type of variance occurs when the relationship between two variables is perfect (2)?

Systematic variance.

Error variance obscures what (2)?

The effects of the variables in which the researcher is primarily interested in.

Which scale of measurement do researchers prefer to use when possible (3)?

Ratio.

What kind of reliability would be relevant in a study in which two observers recorded children’s aggressive behaviors on the playground (3)?

Interrater.

Using shoe size as a measure of intelligence is what in terms of reliability and validity (3)?

Reliable and invalid.

A participant’s observed score consists of what (3)?

Measurement error and true score

We gather knowledge through

tenacity,intuition,authority, rationalism, imperialism, empiricalism

tenacity

believe it to be true because it has always been this way

intuition

gut feeling, its true because it feels true

authority

believe it to be true because someone of a higher status says it is

rationalism

believe it to be true because it makes logical sense

imperialism

research, observe it to be true

empirical research

experimenting

science =

rationalism (theory) + empiricalism (testing the theory)

public verification

make it replicable

issues with public verification

people have different interpretations so people disagree

for something to be solvable

the question must be answerable

hypothesis

prediction/educated guess/theory

–must be falsifiable

–must be falsifiable

you can NEVER ______

prove anything

basic research

to expand basic knowledge of something

applied research

help/fix/or improve something

a pori

post hoc

post hoc

before

after

after

Inductive reasoning

specific —>general

deductive reasoning

general—> specific

operational definition

specifically how you are going to measure something

variability

variation in behavior, how much something varies

variance

degree that each score differentiate from the mean (descriptive stats that describe the amount of variance in scores from the mean)

systematic variance

variance in the variable of interest

error variance

variance due to the unrelated variables of interest

observed score=

true score + measure error

reliability

how reliable something is over time, same results over multiple studies

validity

what you are claiming to measure is actually what you are measuring

Are valid measures reliable?

YES

Are reliable measures valid?

NO

face validity

by looking at it—it looks valid

construct validity

does your measure relate to other measures

criterion related validity

does measure predict relative outcome

test/ retest reliability

degree of consistency over time

inter item reliability

degree of consistency among items on a scale (broad measures–CBCL)

inter rater reliability

people who are observing

nominal

categories (male/female)

ordinal

rank order (1st, 2nd, 3rd)

interval

equal intervals (Temperature)

ratio

true zero ( time, distance)

descriptive statistics

summarize/describe your data (mean,median,mode)

sample

sample

inferential statistics

make inferences about data ( ANOVA, t-test, regression)

population

population

3 ways to measure

observational-watching them

physiological- HR/ hormone balance

self-report- Liker-at scale/ Beck depression invetory

physiological- HR/ hormone balance

self-report- Liker-at scale/ Beck depression invetory

problems with self-report

nasaying- F all the way down

social desirability- doing what you think is desirable

aquesents- T all the way down

double barrel questions- asking 2 questions in one

social desirability- doing what you think is desirable

aquesents- T all the way down

double barrel questions- asking 2 questions in one

naturalistic experiment

contrived experiment

contrived experiment

in the field

in a lab

in a lab

disguised observation

when the participant doesn’t know the real variable being tested (doesn’t know they are being observed)

non disguised observation

flat out questions (know they are being observed)

obtrusive measures

directly asking/ aware..invasive

unobtrusive measures

unaware…another way to find out information