Exercise Physiology Terms (Whole List)

force
That which changes or tends to change the state of rest or motion in matter (SI unit: Newton). A muscle generates force in a muscle action.
free weight
an object of known mass, not attached to a supporting or guiding structure, which is used for physical conditioning and competitive lifting
glucose
a sugar
glycogen–loading (supercompensation)
a diet or exercise-diet procedure that elevates muscle glycogen stores to concentrations two to three times normal
glycolysis
the incomplete chemical breakdwon of glycogen. In aerobic glycolysis, the end product is pyruvic acid; in anaerobic glycolysis (lactic acid system), the end produce is lactic acid.
halo effect
1) the effect (usually beneficial) that the manner, attention, and caring of a provider have on a patient during a medical encounter regardless of what medical procedures or services the encounter involves 2) the influence upon an observation of the observer’s perception of the characteristics of the individual observed (other than the characteristic under study) of the influence of the observer’s recollection or knowledge of finding on a previous occasion
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Hawthorn effect
the effect (usually beneficial) of being under study upon the persons being studied; their knowledge of the study often influences their behavior
heart rate reserve
the difference between the resting heart rate and the maximal heart rate
heat exhaustion
a condition of fatigue caused by prolonged exposure to environmental heat. May be associated with headache, nausea, and vomiting.
hemoglobin (HgB)
a complex molecule found in red blood cells, which contains iron (heme) and protein (globin) and is capable of combining with oxygen
hypercapnia
presence of an abnormally large amount of CO2 in the circulating blood: increased partial pressure of CO2 resulting in extra stimulation of respiratory area
hyperlipidemia
a general term for elevated concentrations of any or all of the lipids in plasma, such as cholesterol, triglycerides and lipoproteins
hypertension
high blood pressure
hypertrophy
an increase in the size or cell of an organ
hypoglycemia
lower than normal blood sugar level due to inadequate supply or regulation; may be the result of excessive blood insulin
hypoxia
lack of adequate oxygen due to a reduced oxygen partial pressure
incidence rate
the rate at which new events occur in a population. The numerator is the number of new events that occur in a defined period; the denominator is the population at risk of experiencing the event during this period.
inotropic
force of myocardial contraction; a shift in the Frank-Starling curve to the right or to the left
insulin
a hormone secreted by the beta cells of the pancreas that causes increased cellular uptake of glucose
internal validity
the index and comparison of groups are selected and compared in such a manner that the observed differences between them on the dependent variables under study may, apart from sampling error, be attributed only to the hypothesized effect under investigation
interval training
a system of physical conditioning in which the body is subjected to short but regularly repeated periods of work stress interspersed with adequate periods of relief
intramuscular glycogen
complex carbohydrate stored within muscle cells; the glucose subunits are used as a ready source of energy for muscle metabolism
ischemic
a local and temporary deficiency of blood and oxygen, chiefly caused by narrowing of a blood vessel
kilocalorie (kcal)
a unit of work or energy equal to the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one kilogram of water one degree Celsius
kilogram–meters (kg-m)
a unit of work
kilojoules (kJ)
a unit of energy
kinesiology
scientific study of human movement. includes such aspects of study as ex phys, motor learning/control, and biomechanics
Krebs Cycle
a series of chemical reactions occurring in mitochondria, in which carbon dioxide is produce and hydrogen ions and electrons are removed from carbon atoms (oxidation). Also referred to as the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA), or citric acid cycle
lactate threshold
the point during exercise where a nonlinear increase in blood lactate occurs.
lactic acid (lactate)
a fatiguing metabolite produced during anaerobic glycolysis: resulting from the incomplete breakdown of sugar or (glucose)
lactic acid system (LA system)
an anaerobic energy system in which ATP is manufactured when glucose (sugar) is broken down to lactic acid. High-intensity efforts requiring 1 to 3 minutes before energy (ATP) is primarily drawn from this system. More commonly referred to as anaerobic glycolysis.
lean body mass (weight)
the body weight minus the weight of the body fat
mass
the quantity of matter of an object that is reflected in its inertia (kilogram)
maximal aerobic consumption or power (max VO2)
the maximal rate at which oxygen can be consumed per minute; the power or capacity of the aerobic or oxygen system
maximum voluntary contraction (MVC)
the greatest force output that an individual can generate from a muscle group through only volitional control
MET (metabolic equivalent)
the amount of oxygen required per minute under resting, sitting conditions. it is approximately 3.5 mL of oxygen consumed per kg of body weight per minute
metabolic system
a system of biochemical reactions that cause the formation of waste products (metabolites) and the manufacture of ATP; for example, the ATP-PC, anaerobic glycolysis, and oxygen system
metabolism
the substance produced by metabolic action
minute ventilation
the amount of air inspired (V1) or expired (VE) in one minute, usually it refers to the expired amount
mitochondrion(a)
a subcellular structure found in all cells in which the reactions of the Krebs Cycle and electron transport system take place
motor neuron (Motorneuron)
a nerve cell, which when stimulated affects muscular contraction. Most motoneurons innervate skeletal muscle
motor unit
an individual alpha motor nerve and all the muscle fibers it innervates (to communicate nervous energy to)
muscular endurance
the ability of a muscle or muscle group to perform repeated contractions against a light load for an extended period of time
muscular strength
the force or tension that a muscle or group of muscles can exert against a resistance in one maximal effort
myoglobin
an oxygen-binding pigment similar to hemoglobin that gives the red muscle fiber its color. it acts as an oxygen store and aids in the diffusion of oxygen.
myosin-ATPase (m-ATPase)
myfibrillar adenosine triphosphate: an enzyme found in myosin that catalyzes ATP degradation to ADP and Pi; a marker for muscle fiber contraction speed
negative energy balance
a condition in which less energy (food) is taken in that is given off; body weight decreases as a result
negative work
force times distance applied in the same direction as the pull of gravity; assisted by gravity
net oxygen cost
the amount of oxygen above resting values, require to perform a given amount of work. Also referred to as net cost of exercise
neuron
a nerve cell consisting of a body (soma), with its nucleus and cytoplasm, dendrites and axon
overload principle
progressively increasing the volume of exercise during workouts over the course of the training program as fitness capacity improves
overtraining
imbalance between high volume and/or high intensity training and adequate recovery, resulting in disturbances in physical performance, biological function, and mood state
oxygen consumption
the amount or rate at which oxygen can be consumed per minute
oxygen debt
the amount of oxygen consumed during recovery from exercise, above that ordinarily consumed at rest in the same time period. there is a rapid component (alactacid) and a slow component (lactacid)
oxygen deficit
the time period during exercise in which the level of oxygen consumption is below that necessary to supply all the ATP required for the exercise; the time period during which an oxygen debt is contracted
oxygen transport system (VO2)
composed of the stroke volume (SV), the heart rate (HR), and the arterial-mixed venous oxygen difference (a-vO2 diff). mathematically, it is defined as Vo2 = SV x HR x a-vO2 diff
placebo effect
an inert medication or procedure. the placebo affect is attributable to the expectation that the regimen will have an effect, i.e., the effect is due to the power of suggestion
phosphocreatine (PC)
a chemical compound stored in muscle, which when broken down aids in manufacturing ATP
positive energy balance
a condition in which more energy (food) is taken in than is given off; body weight increases as a result
positive work
force times distance applied in opposition to the pull of gravity
power
the rate of performing work; the product of force and velocity. the rate of transformation of metabolic potential energy to work or heat (measured in watts)
prevalence rate
the total number of all individuals who have an attribute or disease at a particular time (or during a particular period) divided by the population at risk of having the attribute or disease at this point in time or midway through the period
progressive-resistance exercise (PRE)
comprehensive term to cover a wide variety of muscular strength or endurance training practices when progressive overload is emphasized
rate-pressure product
the product of heart rate and systolic blood pressure which provides a noninvasive estimate of myocardial oxygen consumption
recovery oxygen
net amount of oxygen consumed during recovery from exercise; oxygen consumed in excess of the amount consumed at rest over the same time period (reported in liters)
respiration
a cellular process where food substances are broken down to CO2 and H2 in the presence of O2 to liberate chemical energy
respiratory exchange ratio (R)
the ratio of the amount of carbon dioxide produced by the body to the amount of oxygen consumed (Vco2/Vo2)
Sliding Filament Theory
a proposed mechanism for muscle action where shortening and elongation are the result of actin protein filaments sliding inward and outward over myosin protein filaments
Slow-twitch (ST) fiber
a muscle fiber characterized by slow contraction time, low anaerobic capacity, and high aerobic capacity, all making the fiber suited for low-power output activities. AKA Type I fiber
specificity of training
principle underlying constructioin of a training program for a specific activity or skill and the primary energy system(s) involved during performance. For example, a training program for sprinters would consist of repeated bouts of sprints in order to develop both sprinting performance and the ATP-PC system
sports medicine
umbrella term that refers to all aspects of sport and exercise science, especially as used in the U.S.; examples are kinesiology, cardiac rehab, adult fitness, and athletic medicine
sprint training
a type of training system employing repeated sprints at maximal speed
steady state
pertaining to the time period during which a physiological function (such as VO2) remains at a constant (steady) value
strength
the maximal force or torque a muscle or muscle group can generate at a specific or determined velocity
stretch reflex
contraction of muscles to produce movement or tension due to muscle spindle stretch via a sharp tap on tendon or pull of gravity on skeleton
target heart rate (THR)
a predetermined heart rate to be obtained during exercise
tension
force applied to a structure that does not move; in muscle, the static or isometric tension developed with the recycling of ATP at cross-bridge sites
torque
the effectiveness of a force to overcome the rotational inertia of an object. The produce of force and the perpendicular distance from the line of action of the force to the axis of rotation (newton-meter)
total lung capacity (TLC)
volume of air in lungs at the end of maximal respiration
training
an exercise program to develop an individual for a particular event. increasing skill of performance and energy capacities are of equal consideration.
Type IA muscle fiber
commonly used classification for muscle fibers that display characteristics of slow twitch, nonfatigue, and combined oxidative and glycolytic metabolism
Type IIB muscle fiber
commonly used classification for muscle fibers that display characteristics of fast twitch, medium fatigue, and combined oxidative and glycolytic metabolism
ventilatory efficiency
the amount of ventilation required per liter of oxygen consumed (i.e. Ve/Vo2)
vital capacity (VC)
maimal volume of air forcefully expired after maximal inspiration
watt
a unit of power
weight
the force exerted by gravity on an object (SI unit: newton, traditional unit: kg) (mass=weight x acceleration due to gravity)
work
force xpressed through a displacement but with no limitation on time (joule) (Note: 1 newton x 1 meter = 1 joule)
accommodating resistance
a feature unique to isokinetic testing or training apparatus where a counter force is provided so that the speed of contraction is controlled
adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
a complex chemical compound formed with the energy released from food and stored in all cells, particularly muscles. only from the energy released by the breakdown of this compound can the cell perform work
aerobic
in the presence of oxygen
aerobic power
maximal rate at which an individual can consume oxygen during the performance of all-out, exhaustive exercise (best index of cardiorespiratory fitness)
aerobic system
term used to denote the entire series of biochemical reactions and pathways whereby ATP can be synthesized from food-fuels but only in the presence of oxygen. Includes aerobic glycolysis, Krebs Cycle, and ETS
anabolic
protein building
anaerobic
in the absence of oxygen
anaerobic glycolysis
the incomplete breakdown of carbohydrate. the anaerobic reactions in this breakdown release energy for the manufacture of ATP as they produce lactic acid (aka the lactic acid system)
anaerobic power
the development of maximal or peak power during exertion; measure as work (force in kg x distance in meters) expressed per unit of time (min)
anaerobic threshold
that intensity of work load or oxygen consumption at which anaerobic metabolism is accelerated
ATP-PC system
an anaerobic energy system in which ATP is manufactured when phosphocreatine (PC) is broken down. this system represents the most rapidly available source of ATP for use by muscle. Activities performed at maximum intensity for a period of 10 seconds or less derive ATP or energy from this system
attributal risk
the rate of a disease or other outcome in exposed individuals that can be attributed to the exposure. this measure is derived by subtracting the rate of the outcome (usually incidence or mortality) among the unexposed from the rate among the exposed individuals
beta oxidation
the series of reactions by which fat is broken down from long carbon chains to two carbon units in preparation for entry into the Krebs Cycle
bioenergetics
the study of transformations of energy in living organisms
biopsy
the removal and examination of tissue from the living body
blood pressure
the force per unit area exerted by the blood against the inside walls of an artery; the driving force that moves blood through the circulatory system
body mass index (BMI)
a much used indication of the size of an individual in relationship to his or her height; ratio of weight to height squared using units of kilograms and meters
calorie (cal)
a unit of work or energy equal to the amount of heat require to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree Celsius
carbohydrate
any group of chemical compounds (sugars, starches, and cellulose) contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen only
cardiac output (Q)
the amount of blood pumped by the heart in one minute; the produce of the stroke volume and the heart rate
cardiorespiratory endurance
the ability of the lungs and heart to take in an transport adequate amounts of oxygen to the working muscles, allowing activities that involve large muscle masses to be performed over long periods of time
comorbidity
disease(s) that coexist(s) in a study participant in addition to the index condition that is the subject of study
concentric contraction
muscle action in which the ends of the muscle are drawn closer
conditioning
augmentation of the energy capacity of muscle through a physical exercise program. conditioning is not primarily concerned with the skill of performance, as would be the case in training
diastolic blood pressure (DBP)
the lowest pressure existing in the arteries
dislipidemia
a general term for an abnormal lipid profile
eccentric contraction
muscle action in which a force external to the muscle overcomes the muscle force and the ends of the muscle are drawn further apart
electrocardiogram (ECG)
a recording of the electrical activity of the heart
electrocardiography
the making of graphic records of the variations in electrical potential caused by electrical activity of the heart muscle and detected at the body surface, as a method for studying the action of the heart muscle
endurance
the time limit of a person’s ability to maintain either an isometric force or a power level involving combinations of concentric and or/eccentric muscle actions
energy
the capability of producing force, performing work, or generating heat (joule)
energy system
one of three metabolic systems involving a series of chemical reactions resulting in the formation of waste products and the manufacture of ATP
enzyme
a protein compound that speeds up a chemical reaction
epidemiology
the study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states or events in specified populations, and the application of this study to control of health problem
ergogenic acid
any factor that improves work performance
essential hypertension
abnormally high blood pressure in humans that has no known cause and therefore no known cure; most common type of high blood pressure
exercise
any and all activity involving the generation of force by the activated muscle(s). exercise can be quantified mechanically as force, torque, work, power, or velocity of progression
exercise intensity
a specific level of muscular activity that can be quantified in terms of power (energy expenditure or work performed per unit of time), the opposing force (e.g. by free weight stack), isometric force sustained, or velocity of progression
exercise physiology
scientific study of how the body, from a functional standpoint, responds, adjusts, and adapts to acute exercise and chronic training
external validity
a study is externally valid or generalizable if it can produce unbiased inferences regarding a target population (beyond the subjects of the study). this aspect of validity is only meaningful with regard to a specified external target population
fast-twitch (FT) fiber
a muscle fiber characterized by fast contraction time, high anaerobic capacity, all making the fiber suited for high-power output activities (AKA Type II fiber)