Exercise Physiology Study Guide Ch. 2

What are the four major components of physical fitness?
Muscular strength, muscular endurance, cardiovascular or cardiorespiratory and body composition
What is muscular strength?
Maximal force a muscle or muscle group can exert during contraction
What is muscular endurance?
The ability of a muscle or muscle group to exert force against a resistance over a sustained period of time.
What is the major difference between Tidal volume and stroke volume?
Tidal volume is the amount of air moved with each breath and represents the depth of ventilation.
Stroke volume is the quantity of blood pumped per heartbeat.
What is the major difference between aerobic glycolysis and anaerobic glycolysis?
Aerobic glycolysis is the metabolic pathway the produces ATP in the presence of oxygen and anaerobic glycolysis is the metabolic pathway the produces ATP in the absence of oxygen.
Major difference between heat exhaustion and heat stroke?
Heat exhaustion is a moderate form of heat stress due to inadequate circulatory adjustments to exercise in the heat and humidity coupled with fluid loss, while heat stroke is a severe form of heat stress resulting from a complete failure of the body’s heat-regulating mechanisms, with the core body temp exceeding 104℉ (40℃).
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Major difference between first ventilatory threshold and second ventilatory threshold?
First ventilatory threshold (VT1) occurs at approximately the first time lactate begins to accumulate, represents hyperventilation relative to VO2, and is caused by the need to blow off the extra CO2 produced by the buffering of acid metabolites. VT1 is approximately the highest intensity that a trained individual can sustain for on to two hours of exercise. Second ventilatory threshold (VT2) occurs at the point where lactate is rapidly increasing with intensity, and represents hyperventilation even relative to the extra CO2 that is being produced. VT2 is approximately the highest intensity that a trained individual cans sustain for 30 to 60 minutes.
Complicated chemical structure that when broken down releases energy for cellular work.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
The process that results in preparing the body for exercise; “fight or flight” mechanism.
Sympathetic stimulation
The relative amount and availability of an atmospheric gas at a given altitude.
Partial pressure
A metabolic by-product that causes changes in muscle pH and eventual muscle fatigue.
Lactate
The process of breaking down fatty acids for the production of ATP.
Beta oxidation
The amount of carbon dioxide produced relative to the amount of oxygen consumed.
Respiratory exchange ratio
The site for aerobic production of ATP.
Mitochondria
The greatest amount of oxygen an individual can take in, transport, and use for physical work.
Maximal aerobic capacity
A category of hormones that stimulate the body to adjust to the increased metabolic demands of exercise
Catecholamines
A high-energy compound found within muscle cells used to supply energy for intense, short-duration activities.
Creatine Phosphate
The highest intensity that can be sustained for 30-60 minutes in well trained individuals.
Second ventilatory threshold (VT2)
The highest intensity that can be sustained for one to two hours in well-trained individuals.
First ventilatory threshold (VT1)
What are the three basic processes of the cardiorespiratory system that must be functioning properly to provide adequate blood and nutrients to the tissues?
1. Getting oxygen into the blood via pulmonary ventilation and the hemoglobin content of the blood.
2. Delivering oxygen to the active tissues through increased cardia output.
3. Extracting oxygen from the blood to complete the metabolic production of ATP
Is increased respiratory capacity an acute response or chronic adaptation to regular aerobic exercise?
Chronic adaptation (CA)
Is decreased blood pressure in moderately hypertensive individuals an acute response or chronic adaptation to regular aerobic exercise?
Chronic adaptation (CA)
Is increased cardiac output an acute response or chronic adaptation to regular aerobic exercise?
Acute response (AR)
Is lowered resting heart rate an acute response or chronic adaptation to regular aerobic exercise?
Chronic adaptation (CA)
Is Increased aerobic capacity an acute response or chronic adaptation to regular aerobic exercise?
Chronic adaptation (CA)
Is Increased systolic blood pressure an acute response or chronic adaptation to regular aerobic exercise?
Acute response (AR)
Is Increased pulmonary ventilation an acute response or chronic adaptation to regular aerobic exercise?
Acute response (AR)
Is improved body composition an acute response or chronic adaptation to regular aerobic exercise?
Chronic adaptation (AR)
Is depletion of phosphagens and accumulation of lactate an acute response or chronic adaptation to regular aerobic exercise?
Acute response (AR)
Is decreased flow of blood to visceral organs an acute response or chronic adaptation to regular aerobic exercise?
Acute response (AR)
Reduces the urinary excretion of water
Vasopressin
Promotes protein and triglyceride breakdown during prolonged exercise
Cortisol
Facilitates protein synthesis in the body
Growth hormone
Increases cardia output and causes glycogenolysis during exercise
Epinephrine
Plays a major role in bone formation and maintenance
Estrogen
Causes the release of free fatty acids into the bloodstream
Glucagon
Limits sodium excretion in the urine to maintain electrolyte balance during exercise
Aldosterone
facilitates glucose removal from the blood
Insulin
At rest, respiratory exchange ratio values average aproximately 0.75, which indicates the body is burning ___% fat and ____% carbs.
85% fat and 15% carbs
In the study of body composition, _________ consists of muscles, bones, nervous tissue, skin, blood and organs.
Lean body mass
Cardiac output is the product of ______ and _______.
Heart rate and stroke volume
On average, _______ of energy are burned for every liter of oxygen consumed.
5 kilocalories
During exercise, _________ stays the same or decrease due to vasodilation of blood vessels.
Diastolic blood pressure
The increased use of oxygen after an intense workout to restore the body’s homeostatic conditions is called ________.
Excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC)
______ are the nervous-system structures that conduct impulses from the central nervous system (CNS) to the periphery nervous system (PNS)
Motor neurons
Individuals who excel in activities characterized by sudden bursts of activity, but who tire relatively quickly, most likely have a larger percentage of ____________.
Fast twitch muscle fibers (type II muscle fibers)
A condition associated with low body weight and excessively high levels of chronic exercise training that can increase one’s risk of osteoporosis is called _________.
Amenorrhea
_____ is the best time of day to exercise to minimize the effects of air pollutants associated with vehicular traffic.
Early morning
what is the formula for respiratory exchange ratio?
Carbon dioxide produced/oxygen consumed
What is the formula for cardiac output?
Q= HR X SV
What are the units of measurement for relative V02 max?
mL/kg/min
What are the units of measurement for absolute V02 max?
L/min
What are the signs and symptoms of heat exhaustion?
Weak, rapid pulse; low blood pressure; headache; nausea; dizziness; general weakness; paleness; cold clammy skin; profuse sweating; elevated core temp ≤ 104℉ – 40℃
What are the signs and symptoms of heat stroke?
Hot dry skin; bright red skin color; rapid strong pulse; labored breathing; elevated core temp ≤ 105℉ – 41℃
Why is it important to record daily body weights when exercising in hot weather?
Recording daily body weights is important for preventing accumulative dehydration; the amount of water lost (in pounds) after aerobic exercise should be replaced before exercising again the next day.
Why is cotton a good choice for garments worn while exercising?
Because it readily soaks up sweat and allows evaporation.
Why is wearing layers of clothing recommended for exercising in the cold?
Wearing several layers allows garments to be removed and replaced as needed. It also helps prevent excessive cooling during low intensity exercise periods.
why is it important to allow adequate ventilation for sweat during exercise in a cold environment?
Without adequate ventilation, sweating during exercise can soak inner garments; wet garments can drain the body of heat during periods of low-intensity exercise or rest.
What is the least important factor in determining cardiorespiratory endurance?
Stored fat available for fuel
What is the primary energy system utilized during events lasting aprox. 2 to 3 minutes, such as the 800-meter dash or or 200-meter freestyle swim?
Anaerobic glycolysis
What is occurring physiologically when an individual reaches the first ventilatory threshold (VT1) during cardiorespiratory exercise?
Breathing changes as lactate begins to accumulate in the blood.
What changes to systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) are expected as intensity increases during sub-maximal cardiorespiratory exercise?
Systolic BP increases while diastolic BP remains unchanged or decreases slightly.
What type of training program would be most effective for improving the capabilities of slow-twitch muscle fibers?
Long-duration moderate-intensity cardiorespiratory exercise.
Why does resistance training result in greater hypertrophy gains for men than for women?
Because women have less testosterone than men.
How are fatty acids broken down for the production of ATP?
Through beta oxidation in the mitochondria