Excelsior College – Transition to the Registered Professional Nurse Role – Unit I

American Assembly for Men in Nursing
A special interest group who’s purpose is to provide a framework for nurses, as a group, to meet, to discuss and influence factors, which affect men as nurses.
Army School of Nursing
American military school of nursing established during World War I.
Black Deathl ho
An epidemic thought to be bubonic plague that swept across Asia, Africa, and Europe in the 1300s, decimating approximately 1/4th of the known world’s population.
Bolton Act
A law (also known as the Nurse Training Act) passed in 1943 that created the US Cadet Nursing Corp in response to a widespread nursing shortage.
Comstock Act of 1873
Law that forbids the distribution of obscene material via the US Mail. It had also banned the distribution of educational information about contraception. The definition of “obscene” has changed over the years and the law has since overturned in regards to it’s application in regards to contraception. (See Margaret Sanger)
Dark Ages of Nursing
The Reformation; so called because nurses left the profession, leaving nursing to many without training, including thieves and prostitutes sentenced to the task.
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Woman chosen by church leadership to care for the poor and the sick in her own congregation and community.
Ebers papyrus
Discovered in Egypt in 1870s, dates to 1550BC and contains prescriptions for over 700 remedies written in hieratic script; considered the oldest preserved medical document in the world.
Frontier Nursing Service
Private charitable organization founded in the rural Appalachian Mountain region of eastern Kentucky in 1925; assisted with deliveries for women of the region.
The Frontier School of Midwifery and Family Nursing (FSMFN)
An extant school in Kentucky offering education for the development of nurse-midwives, family nurse practitioners, and women’s health care nurse practitioners.
Geneva Convention Treaty
Signed by 12 nations in 1864 which among other things, established military hospitals as safe havens where physicians and nurses could care for the wounded of any nation; led to the formalization of the International Red Cross.
Translates to “home for the aged”. (See Helena)
Gulf War Syndrome
Mysterious complex of symptoms experienced by veterans of the Persian Gulf War; some feel is attributable to chemical weapons.
Hammurabi’s Code
Written circa 1900BC – called an early example of managed health care; included uniform fees for service, objective outcome measurement standards for quality of care, consumer and patient rights, and legal regulation of physicians.
Health Amendments Act
1956 law that provided funds for nurses to pursue advanced
preparation for administrative, supervisory, and teaching positions; expanded practical, or vocational, nurse programs; and mandated several influential postwar nursing studies.
Henry Street Settlement
First visiting nurse service started in 1893 by Lillian D. Wald and staffed by both nurses and social workers.
Hippocratic oath
Pledge taken by medical school graduates centered around the concept “do no harm”.
Translates to “God’s houses”; an early kind of hospital maintained by monks.
Greek precursors to modern outpatient clinics.
International Red Cross
An international organization founded under the terms of the first Geneva Convention. Its original duty was to care for those who were wounded, sick, or homeless in wartime. Today, it also attends to the victims of natural disasters.
Kaiserwerth Deaconess Institute
Hospital and medical school with a 3 year course of study for Protestant deaconesses, including training in nursing, pharmacy, and teaching; considered the most significant early Protestant nursing organization.
A way of life in which men and women withdraw from the rest of the world in order to devote themselves to their faith.
Mosaic Law
The laws (beginning with the Ten Commandments) that God gave to the Israelites through Moses
National Association of Colored Graduate Nurses (NACGN)
Began with a group of 52 black nurses in NYC in 1908; eventually merged with the ANA. (See Mary Eliza Mahoney)
National Organization of Public Health Nursing (NOPHN)
Formed in 1912 – originally focused on the need for preventive health measures like improved sanitation and attention to personal hygiene. (See Lillian Wald)
New England Hospital for Women and Children
Founded the first school of nursing in America.
Nightingale Training School for Nurses
An independent, secular school of nursing unaffiliated with any
religious body; established in London in 1860.
Hospital established in 390AD by a very wealthy Roman matron. It was the first free Christian public hospital for the sick poor in her own palace in Rome. Literally means “place for the sick”. (See Fabiola)
Nurse Training Act of 1964
Vietnam-era bill that funded nursing programs that were either
accredited by the National League for Nursing (NLN) or expected to be accredited in the near future.
Literally means “to nourish”; the work of caring for the sick or injured or infirm.
parish nurse movement
A movement in the 20th and 21st century based on the early church deaconess movement; uses nurses who are hired by churches or who volunteer to serve churches by coordinating care for those in the congregation, especially the frail elderly.
Planned Parenthood Federation
Group of clinics that focuses on family planning. (See Margaret Sanger)
unification model
Stresses the need for clinically prepared faculty and for clinical competence among students pursuing advanced degrees. (See Luther Christmas)
US Army Nurse Corps
Established to treat Union troops during the Civil War. (See Dorothea Lynde Dix)
US Cadet Nurse Corps
Created under the Bolton Act to address nursing shortages during World War II.
wet nurses
A woman who breast feeds and cares for another’s child.
Early Christian hospitals firmly established in the third century AD and staffed by members of orders of widows and deaconesses as well as priests and bishops, many of whom were also physicians.
“Houses for strangers” established by the Hebrews to care for the sick – precursors of the modern inn and hospital.
Clara Barton
Nurse during the Civil War; started the American Red Cross.
Frances Payne Bolton
Philanthropist, Ohio congresswoman, and health care reformer whose influence led to the creation and passage of the Bolton Act.
Mary Breckinridge
Founder of the Frontier Nursing Service, in Hyden, KY; 1st midwifery education program in U.S.
Mary Brewster
Established Henry St. Settlement in home she shared with Lillian Wald.
Catherine of Siena
Woman who cared for the sick in hospitals and organized an early form of ambulance service that consisted of male stretcher bearers to transport the sick to hospitals in the 1300s.
Luther Christman
Founded the American Assembly for Men in Nursing and the National Student Nurses’ Association. An advocate for advanced education of nurses and science-based nursing education.
Dorothea Lynde Dix
Teacher by profession.Tasked with organizing a corps of female nurses during civil war. She was major catalyst for change in the care of the mentally ill.
Lavinia Dock
Prominent nurse suffragette who greatly influenced the current movement of independent nursing practice that now includes the expanded role of the nurse as clinical specialist and as nurse practitioner.
Jean Henri Dunant
Founded the International Red Cross.
Spent her wealth and time nursing the sick and poor. Credited with providing the first free hospital in Rome in AD 390.
Friederike Fliedner
One of the founders of the Kaiserswerth Deaconess Institute.
Theodor Fliedner
German pastor in Kaiserwerth, Germany, the Lutheran Order of Deaconesses established the first school of nursing.
Greek physician and surgeon who served the Romans; left considerable body of written knowledge about the physiology of the human body.
Sairey Gamp
Nurse character from Charles Dickens’ 1849 novel “Martin Chuzzlewit” who came to work inebriated. Provides negative portrayal of nurses and nursing care during the Industrial revolution.
Annie W. Goodrich
First dean of the Army School of Nursing.
The mother of Constantine the Great, and a Christian convert who used her wealth to care for the poor. She established a hospital for the elderly [See geroncomion] (AD250-330)
Hildegarde of Bingen
A Benedictine nun from Germany, trained noblewomen to care for the sick in her abbey and wrote extensively about the causes of, symptoms of, and cures for various diseases at a time when many physicians were basing their practice on horoscope reading. (1098-1179)
Son of a Greek priest-physician and is considered the father of modern scientific medicine. Stressed observation of of patients, a key step in today’s nursing process. [See Hippocratic Oath] (460-370BC)
One of the first recorded physicians in history; actually a priest-physician who, after his death, was worshipped as the Egyptian god of medicine.
Jesus Christ
Basis for Christianity. Devoted much of his life to healing the sick, especially those with chronic illnesses and communicable diseases, through the area of Palestine. He taught and commanded his followers to do the same.
Knights Hospitallers of St. John of Jerusalem
A male nursing military order that cared for crusaders who fell ill during the middle ages. Built and staffed a hospital in the city of Jerusalem. Provided nursing care to Muslims and Jews as well as Christians.
Knights of St. Lazarus
Nursing order of monks during the middle ages that cared specifically for people with leprosy.
Martin Luther
A former monk who sparked a movement now commonly known as the Reformation, which ushered in the formation of the Lutheran church and many other churches characterized as Protestant. Indirectly effected nursing care which underwent radical changes because many monastic orders that provided heath care ceased to exist in countries that became predominantly Protestant.
Mary Eliza Mahoney
Graduated from the New England Hospital for Women and Children in 1879; she was the first black nurse to graduate from a school of nursing in the United States; influential in the establishment of the NACGN in 1908.
Catherine McAuley
Founded the Sisters of Mercy.
Florence Nightingale
Nursing leader associated with the Crimean War and is also considered the founder of modern professional nursing. (1820-1910)
Woman of Greek origin who converted to Christianity and was one of the first deaconesses; also called the first visiting nurse.
Melinda Ann (Linda) Richards
One of the first graduates of the first school of nursing in America; considered by most historians to be America’s first trained nurse.
Isabel Hampton Robb
A leader in nursing and nursing education; organized the nursing school at John Hopkins Hospital; initiated policies that included limiting the number of hours in a days work and wrote a textbook to help student learning; the first president of the Nurses Associated Alumnae of the US and Canada (which later became the American Nurses Association)
Lina L. Rogers
A nurses sent out from the Henry Street Settlement as the first public school nurse in New York City.
Margaret Sanger
United States nurse who campaigned for birth control and planned parenthood.
Elizabeth Seton
Established the Sisters of Charity.
Sisters of Charity
First American religious order, whose members staffed the Baltimore Infirmary, giving basic nursing care and medications.
Sisters of Mercy
Members of this order first came to the United States in 1843 and started hospitals that cared for the wounded during the American Civil War.
Sojourner Truth
African American whose birth name was Isabella Baumfree; born into slavery in 1797; best known for her role as an abolitionist during the Civil War and her role in the women’s suffrage movement, and her care for Union soldiers.
Harriet Tubman
Black abolitionist who is best known for her work on the underground railroad movement during which she helped ~300 slaves gain their freedom.
St. Vincent de Paul
French Catholic priest who founded the Sisters of Charity to serve the sick and poor. (1576-1660)
Lillian D. Wald
An 1891 graduate of the New York Hospital Training School for Nurses; founded what was to become the Henry Street Settlement.
Granger Westberg
A Lutheran minister who began the current parish nurse movement in the 1980s.
Nursing students served in hospitals where they gained valuable clinical experience while staffing the inpatient wards.
assisting functions
Consisted of simple functions that were based on common knowledge and could be learned through on-the-job training.
A skill or behavior that is measurable and can be evaluated.
A letter or certificate that is given to a person to indicate to others that the person has the right to a certain position or authority.
A gift or bequest that provides an income for an institution.
National Nursing Council for War Service
A coordinating council made up of 14 national organizations concerned about the future of nursing.
nursing informatics
A type of health care informatics focusing on information systems in the delivery, administration, documentation, and evaluation of patient care and disease prevention.
Pew Charitable Trusts
Supports various nonprofit activities, including those related to health and human services and public policy.
professional functions
Complex functions requiring expert skill and judgement.
(S)tandardized where appropriate, (A)ccountable to the public, (F)lexible to support a safe and competent workforce, (E)ffective and efficient to promote the public’s safety and welfare.
technical functions
Intermediate functions requiring skill, some judgement, and technical training.
Katherine Bauer
Led the National Institute of Medicine study.
Esther Lucile Brown
Social anthropologist and director of the Department of Studies in the Professions of the Russell Sage Foundation; also the author of the Brown report.
Eli Ginzberg
Professor of economics at Columbia University; conducted a study with colleagues from nursing, medicine, and the social sciences that resulted in the publication of the Ginzberg report.
Josephine Goldmark
Chief investigator in the Goldmark report.
Inez Hinsvark
Primary researcher for The Study of Credentialing in Nursing: A New Approach.
Jerome P. Lysaught
Nurse researcher who worked with the National Commission for the Study of Nursing and Nursing Education to conduct the study that would be the basis for the Lysaught report.
Mildred Montag
Proposed a continuum of nursing functions that consisted of assisting functions, technical functions, and professional functions. Believed that nurses could be educated and trained at different functional levels and by different education institutions and community-based agencies.
To bring into credit or favor and to authorize or give credentials to.
American Journal of Nursing (AJN)
Official nursing journal of the American Nursing Association.
American Nurse
Newspaper that’s free for its members and contains current news relevant to all aspects of nursing; also a forum for nurses to share opinions.
ANA position paper of 1965
Controversial publication of the ANA’s Committee on Nursing Education. It recommended that the minimal preparation for beginning professional practice should be a baccalaureate degree education and that the minimum preparation for beginning technical nursing practice should be an associates degree nursing education.
ANA social policy statement
Focuses on the definition of nursing and the scope of nursing practice.
Capitol Update
A monthly ANA newsletter that includes information about current issues addressed in Congress.
Means of recognition for nurses that have documented clinical expertise and advanced knowledge in a specific area of nursing.
collective bargaining
Involves negotiations between organized workers and their employers for the purpose of reaching an agreement on issues such as wages, hours of service, working conditions, and fringe benefits.
A significant peer-reviewed journal published by Sigma Theta Tau.
Official journal of the National Student Nurses Association.
International Nursing Review
The official publication of the International Council of Nurses and considered the world’s first international nursing journal; established in 1927.
NLN Update
Biweekly official newsletter of the National League of Nursing.
Nursing Education Perspectives
A journal of the National League of Nursing.
Nursing Outlook
The official journal of the American Academy of Nursing that focuses on current issues and trends in nursing practice, education, and research.
A database of all licensed nurses in the United States.
state nurses associations (SNAs)
State-level nurses associations that may or may not be affiliated with the American Nurses Association
American Academy of Nursing (AAN)
Independent honorary organization with the purpose of anticipating national and international trends in health care and addressing resulting issues of health care knowledge and policy; initially formed by the ANA.
American Association of colleges of Nursing (AACN)
Organization whose members consist of deans and directors of four-year baccalaureate degree-granting schools of nursing that are affiliated with colleges or universities.
American Nurses Association (ANA)
Organization of professional nurses in the United States that focuses on standards of health care, nurses’ professional development, and economic and general welfare of nurses.
American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC)
An independent agency of the American Nurses Association that conducts certification examinations and certifies advanced practice nurses.
American Nurses Foundation (ANF)
National philanthropic organization established by the ANA that supports, coordinates, and funds nursing research, disseminates pertinent research findings, and manages related grants.
American Organization of Nurse Executives (AONE)
Subsidiary of the American Hospital Association founded in 1967 for nurses in leadership roles who plan, facilitate, and manage care.
American Society of Superintendents of Training Schools for Nurses
The first organization for nursing in the United States; formed in 1893.
Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education (CCNE)
An autonomous agency founded by the AACN to serve as an accrediting body for baccalaureate and graduate degree nursing programs.
International Council of Nurses
Federation of national nurses associations that represent nurses in approximately 120 countries including the United States.
National Council of State Boards of Nursing (NCSBN)
An organization that works with all state nursing organizations and other legal regulatory bodies that are responsible for testing and licensing nurses and regulating nursing practice.
National League of Nursing (NLN)
Originally focused on establishing and maintaining a universal standard of training for nursing. Now focuses on evaluating and reforming all aspects of nursing education and improving educational standards.
National League for Nursing Accrediting Commission (NLNAC)
A separate but related organization formed by the NLN that accredits post-secondary and higher degree nursing schools.
National League for Nursing Education (NLNE)
Previously the American Society of Superintendents of Training Schools for Nurses in 1912.
National Organization for Associate Degree Nursing (N-OADN)
Organization that advocates for associate degree nursing education and for practicing nurses with associate degrees.
National Student Nurses Association (NSNA)
Student-run and student-funded organization for student nurses.
Nurses Associated Alumnae of the United States and Canada
Professional nursing organization founded in 1896; its American components became the ANA in 1911, while Canadian nurses went on to form their own organization.
Sigma Theta Tau International (STTI)
National honor society for nursing; goal of this organization is to foster nursing scholarship, leadership and research.
United American Nurses (UAN)
A labor union established by the ANA.
Ethel Gordon Fenwick
British nurse who founded the International Council of Nurses and the Royal British Nurses Association.
Isabel Hampton
Prominent founding member of the American Society of Superintendents of Training Schools for Nurses.
Adelaide Nutting
Prominent founding member of the American Society of Superintendents of Training Schools for Nurses.
National Institute of Medicine study
Led by Katherine Bauer; mandated by the Nurse Training Act of 1979; resulted in 21 recommendations.
An Abstract for Action (Lysaught Report) (1970)
Set forth recommendations for more research in nursing education and practice.
Community College Education for Nursing (1959)
Reported the finding of a five year study of eight pilot nursing programs which included state board results – all graduates of two year programs passed their examinations.
The Education of Nursing Technicians (Montag Study) (1951)
Proposed a continuum of nursing functions that consisted of assisting functions, technical functions, and professional functions.
Educational Preparation for Nurse Practitioners and Assistants to Nurses (1965)
Position paper of the ANA that noted that master’s degrees should be required for clinical nurse specialists and a bachelor’s degree for practice as a professional nurse.
Goldmark report: Nursing and Nursing Education in the United States (1923)
The first significant nursing study of the labor market in the 20th century; recommended basic hospital training as well as postgraduate classes and fieldwork in public health nursing education.
Health Professions Education for the Future: Schools in Service to the Nation (1993)
A study who’s primary recommendation was for a greater emphasis on teamwork and interdisciplinary collaboration; interdisciplinary education was also encouraged for schools of nursing.
Healthy People 2010: The Cornerstone for Prevention
A joint initiative by the US DHHS and PHS who’s goal was to establish some national objectives for both health promotion and disease prevention.
National Commission on Nursing Study (1981)
Prompted in part by the shortage of nurses in the 1960’s and 1970’s; focused on issues of the work environment, including job satisfaction, recruitment and retention, and interdisciplinary relationships among nurses, physicians, and hospital administrative personnel.
National Commission on Nursing Implementation Project (1985)
Project who’s focus was on nursing service delivery systems, education, and information, including nursing research and nursing informatics.
Nursing for the Future (Brown Report) (1948)
Report that contained 28 recommendations, many of which focuses on the need to improve educational preparation for nurses by basing education on a sound body of scientific nursing knowledge.
Pew Health Professions Commission Report (1995, 1998)
Identified primary concerns related to a change in professional education, professional licensure, and workforce policy in health care. Controversial with respect to it’s recommendation to eliminate or reduce the size of associates and diploma nursing programs.
A Program for the Nursing Profession (Ginzberg report) (1948)
Study who’s focus was on the nursing shortage – concluded that the primary reasons for the shortage was inadequate economic incentives, a need for more adequate health care, and inefficient use of nursing resources and nursing potential.
Study of Credentialing in Nursing: A New Approach (1979)
A review of credentialing in nursing that supported the development of a credentialing center for nurses.
characteristics of a profession
Requires basic foundation and education, has a theoretical body of knowledge, provides a specific service, autonomy, profession has a code of ethics.
classification systems
Systems that organize related terms into categories for easy retrieval.
Committee for Nursing Practice Information Infrastructure (CNPII)
Committee established by the ANA to review material submitted for consideration to determine that it meets established criteria.
Folk image of the nurse
Responsibilities focused on nourishing and nurturing children, caring for elderly, and caring for aging family members. Skills were learned through trial and error and passed from one generation to another. Present the nursing as a caring individual who uses common sense to help the sick.
International Classification for Nursing Practice Project (ICNPP)
An effort of the ICN to establish a unified nursing language system.
Military influence
The influence of the military on the formation of nursing as a profession. (Army Nurse Corps – 1901, Navy Nurse Corps – 1908, Red Cross, Army School of Nursing, US Cadet Nursing Corp – Bolton Act, Flight nursing – WWII, MASH Units – Vietnam/Korea, USNS Comfort).
Minimum Data Set for Nursing Home Resident Assessment and Care Screening (MDS)
Used as the basis for determining payment to long-term care facilities. Includes complete documentation of the patient situation, including nature of the problem, complications, risk factors, referrals, and rationale for action.
National Information and Data Set Evaluation Center (NIDSEC)
A committee that evaluates the implementation of nursing language terminology by a vendor.
North American Nursing Diagnosis Association – International (NANDA-I)
Provides taxonomy of nursing diagnoses. Defines a nursing diagnosis as a clinical judgement about and individual, family, or community responses to actual or potential health conditions/life processes.
Nursing Intervention Classification (NIC)
Provides a comprehensive standardized language, describing treatments that nurses perform in all settings and in all specialties.
Nursing nomenclatures
Systems of names or terms that relate specifically to nursing interventions and outcomes.
Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC)
Defines a nursing outcome as a variable concept that represents a patient or family caregiver state, behavior, or perception that is measurable along a continuum and responsive to nursing interventions.
Omaha system
A system of client problems, interventions, and client outcomes referred to as the Problem Classification Scheme, the Intervention Scheme, and the Problem Rating Scale for Outcomes.
A profession has been further defined as: “a special type of occupation…(possessing) corporate solidarity…prolonged specialized training in a body of abstract knowledge, and a collectivity or service orientation…a vocational sub-culture which comprises implicit codes of behaviour, generates an esprit de corps among members of the same profession, and ensures them certain occupational advantages…(also) bureaucratic structures and monopolistic privileges to perform certain types of work…professional literature, legislation, etc.” [From Wikipedia]
A professional is a person who is engaged in a certain activity, or occupation, for gain or compensation as means of livelihood; such as a permanent career, not as an amateur or pastime. [From Wikipedia]
Religious image of the nurse
Groups that cared for the sick, poor, orphans, widows, elderly, slaves and prisoners formed in conjunction with churches; Included deaconesses, Order of Widows, Order of Virgins, monastic orders (incl Benedictines). The Crusades saw the founding of military nursing orders such as the Knights Hospitallers, Knights Templar, and Knights of Teutonic Order. Nurses expected to devote lives to caring and to exhibit selfless commitment based upon religious faith.
Servant image of the nurse
The Reformation (Germany – 1517) brought change in the role of women, limiting it to the confines of the home. Duties were those of bearing children and caring for the home. Hospital care relegated to uncommon women – prisoners, prostitutes, drunks. “Dark Ages” of nursing. Negative image for nursing – may have influenced the development of nursing as a profession as many were unwilling to work as nurses while nursing was cast under this image.
(Biology) The study of the general principles of scientific classification.
The act of granting credit or recognition (especially with respect to educational institutions that maintain suitable standards).
advanced nursing practice
The performance of advanced-level nursing acts approved by the board which, by virtue of post-basic specialized education, training, and experience, are appropriately performed by an advanced registered nurse practitioner. (FNP, CNM, CRNA)
Two programs at different levels of education that have well defined links enabling the student to move from one educational level to the next. (HS to College, AS to BS, etc).
associate degree education
College level programs of study which resulted in the conferral of an associates degree.
baccalaureate degree nursing education
College level nursing programs that take place at a 4-year college or university and results in the conferral of a bachelors degree.
career ladder
Upward movement from an entry-level job to the job that is a final goal.
Set of behaviors encompassing skills, knowledge, abilities, and personal attributes that are critical to successful work accomplishment.
continuing education unit (CEU)
Earned for on going training or education, sometimes required to maintain certifications.
differentiated nursing practice
Practice based on the belief that nursing roles and responsibilities should be structured according to the level of education, clinical experience, and competencies of the nurse.
diploma programs
The earliest form of formal nursing education in the U.S.; usually based in hospitals, requires 3 years of study, and leads to a diploma in nursing.
educational mobility
Progressive movement from one type or level of education to another; this movement is often based on flexible, self-directed, or advanced placement options. An example would be the progression from diploma preparation to an academic degree, such as RN to BSN or MSN; BSN to doctoral degree; or non-nursing degree to BSN, MSN, or doctoral degree.
entry into practice
The level of education at which a nurse may begin practicing nursing. ANA is at the front of this debate helping nurses.
evidence-based practice
Clinical decision-making that integrates the best available research with clinical expertise and patient characteristics and preferences.
external degree
Independent study validated by exam; usually have prior experience in the nursing/healthcare field.
generic program
A baccalaureate nursing program that is a pre-licensure program that leads to eligibility to take the NCLEX-RN; Includes a base of liberal arts and science classes taken in the first two years.
grandfather clause
An exemption based on circumstances existing prior to the adoption of some policy.
home health aide
Unlicensed assistive personnel who are prepared to assist individuals in their home with care and light housework.
hospital-based programs
Nurse training programs based out of a hospital.
internships and residencies
Programs intended to ease the transition from the role of student to that of staff by providing the opportunity to increase clinical skills and knowledge as well as self-confidence.
interstate endorsement
Arrangements between states for nurses who choose to work in other states, making it possible to work in another state without repeating the NCLEX exam after you meet that state’s criteria for licensure by endorsement.
mandatory continuing education
Educational requirements imposed by individual states for renewal of a license.
nursing assistant
A person who has passed a nursing assistant training and competency evaluation program; performs delegated nursing tasks under the supervision of a licensed nurse.
position paper
A report prepared, on occasion, by organizations about an issue relating to the organization or the industry.
practical (vocational) nurse
9-12 month educational program. Focuses on “how” rather than “why”. Prepares to provide routine care for clients in hospitals, nursing homes, or home settings. Practice is under the supervision of an RN.
registered nurse baccalaureate (RNB) program
Baccalaureate degree programs designed for RNs who already have a associates degree.
scope of practice
Legal description of what a specific health professional may and may not do.
second-degree students
Students who have previously attained a college degree and are now returning for a second degree in a different track of study.
Someone who theorizes (especially in science or art).
A “scientifically acceptable general principle which governs practice or is proposed to explain observed facts”.
The use of titles – specifically RN, LPN, etc.
unlicensed assistive personnel (UAP)
Individual who is trained to function in an assistive role to the licensed registered nurse in the provision of patient care as delegated by and under the supervision of the registered professional nurse.
virtual university
An online university from which students take classes from home or other off-site locations usually via the internet.
voluntary continuing education
CEUs not related to re-licensure – optional educational topics.
appropriations act
Provides the actual funding of federal programs.
authorization act
Outlines actions to be taken that lead to funding of federal programs.
conditions of participation (COPs)
Rules and regulations for nursing homes that receive reimbursement from Medicare and Medicaid.
Hatch Act
Law that applies to federal government employees that restricts certain political activities.
The process of attempting to influence legislators to take a particular action.
Nurses Strategic Action Team (N-STAT)
Organized by the ANA to provide nurses with a means to mobilize quickly to influence legislative policy.
Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA)
Law that mandates actions and prescribes safety equipment to improve the health and safety of the working environment.
Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA)
Includes compromises the budget committee has worked out between the House and Senate versions of the budget; identified by the year in the title.
political action committees (PACs)
Organization formed by certain groups to take a more active role in seeking the passage of desired legislation, the defeat of undesired measures, and the election or particular candidates.
The way in which people in any society try to influence decision making and the allocation of resources (money, time, and personnel).
Tri-Council for Nursing
A collaborative effort of four organizations (ANA, NLN, AONE, & AACN) in support of nursing practice, education, and research.
State of optimal functioning or well-being.
To be given a license to practice [a profession such as] nursing in a state or province after successfully meeting requirements.
nurse practice act
Law established to regulate nursing practice.
Profession that focuses on the holistic person receiving healthcare services and provides a unique contribution to the prevention of illness and maintenance of health.
nursing process
Five-step systematic method for giving patient care; involves assessing, diagnosing, planning, implementing, and evaluating.
An occupation that meets specific criteria including a well-defined body of specific and unique knowledge, a code of ethics and standards, ongoing research, and autonomy.
Process allowing a nurse to apply for and be endorsed as a registered nurse by another state.
Rules or guidelines that allow nurses to carry out professional roles, serving as protection for the nurse, the patient, and the institution where healthcare is given.