Exam review

John Calvin’s institute of the christian religion
Delineated the doctrines, organization, history, and practices of christianity in a system and logical manner
The Protestant reformers Martin Luther and John Calvin shared a belief in the importance of education and
A willingness to use violence to enforce their beliefs
What legislation passed by parliament in 1534 made Henry VIII head of the church of England?
The Act of supremacy
How did Martin Luther respond to the Germans peasant war?
He condemned the peasants, because he believed that even tyrannical rulers should be obeyed
What precedent was set by Luther’s position during the Peasants war of 1525, as well as by his subsequent teachings
The Lutheran church would depend on the state- that is, on established political authority- for its protection and would in turn support the state
The anabaptists were Christians communities that
Urged adult believers to undergo rebaptism
The Münster Anabaptists believed the end of the world was near and therefore
Abolished traditional marriages and allowed men to have multiple wives
How did Luther fundamentally change medieval church practices toward the scripture?
He produced a German translation of the Old Testament and New that allowed the laity to read scripture for itself
In the sixteenth century, attitudes towards marriage within the church changed and Protestant reformers denounced
Sexual immortality and common-law marriage
What council is most closely associated with the movement for Catholic renewal in the sixteenth century?
The council of Trent
Who founded the society of Jesus or Jesuits?
Ignatius of Loyola
What helped European missionaries like Francis Xavier win large numbers of converts in Asia?
Their admiration of Asian civilization and willingness to use the sermon rather than the sword to win converts
Which Italian writer wrote The Prince, a primer for those seeking to hold on to political power?
Niccolò Machiavelli
Why did a number of French Protestants increase in France until 1560?
A significant number of noble French families on the upper rungs of society had converted to Protestantism
In 1555, the peace of Augsburg forced emperor Charles V to recognize the Lutheran Church in the Holy Roman Empire
And gave princes the sole right to determine the religion practiced in their lands
What was the significance of the Peace of Augsburg?
It made Lutheranism a legal religion in the predominantly Catholic Holy Roman Empire, but it did not extend recognition to Calvinism
How did the Edict of Nantes, issued by Henry IV in 1598, end the French wars of religion?
It granted Protestantism and granted Protestants the same toleration, such as freedom to worship specified towns and the right to retain their own troops, corps, and fortresses
What caused the mass exodus of Moriscos fromSpanish territory to North Africa between 1609 and 1614?
King Phillip III expelled them in retaliation for their revolt forty years earlier in which some fifteen hundred Christians were killed
What divided the northern and southern provinces of the Netherlands even after they drove out the Spaniards in 1576?
The southern provinces remained largely Catholic, while the northern Protestants were predominantly Protestant
Why did the Dutch Republic develop a policy of religious toleration?
With its decentralized government and diverse population of Protestants,Catholics, and Jews, religious toleration was the most practical options
What was the significance of the church of England’s thirty-nine articles of religion, which were the issues in 1563 under the authority of Queen Elizabeth I?
They combined elements of catholic ritual with Calvinist doctrines
What prompted Philip II to send his Spanish Armada against England and Elizabeth I in 1588?
Elizabeth’s execution of her catholic cousin Mary, queen of scots
What was one of the chief goals of Ivan the terrible and his successor?
To expand and make Muscovy the heart of a mighty Russian empire
By the end of the thirty years war, the balance of power in Europe
Had shifted away from the Hubsburg powers toward France, England, and the Dutch Republic
Which of the following best describes the origins of the thirty years war?
A combination of religious disputes, ethnic competition, and political weakness in central Europe
The thirty years war ended in 1648 after the signing of which of the following documents?
The peace of Westphalia
How did the thirty years war affect European civilians?
It resulted in widespread suffering and devastation and led to peasant revolts and even outbreaks of plague
Which European ruling family had lost a significant amount of political and economic power by the end of the seventeenth century?
The Hubsburgs
Which of the following was the only European state to emerge unscathed from the economic downturn of the early seventeenth century, thanks to its growing population and a tradition of agricultural innovation?
The Dutch republic
Why did the balance of economic power shift to Northern Europe in the seventeenth century?
Northern Europeans invested in new agricultural techniques and the robust Atlantic trade, eclipsing Southern Europe’s Mediterranean trade and population decline
Why was Galileo Galilei put on trial before the Inquisition in 1633?
He was accused of disobeying the Catholic church’s order that he not teach that the earth revolves around the sun
Which of the following astronomers provided mathematical backing for heliocentrism and was the first to assert the planetary orbits are elliptical?
Johannes Kepler
Which of the following was revolutionary breakthroughs I the seventeenth century medicine?
Harvey’s discovery that the heart worked as a pump
Which of the following was argued by the French scholar René Descartes?
A scientific approach to knowledge could lead to secure understanding of nature and human behavior
Principia Mathematica, which synthesized the laws of movement and universal gravitation, was the work of what great scholar?
Issac Newton
The French catholic lawyer jean bodin is perhaps best known for his defense of what doctrine?
Monarchical absolutism
How did the Dutch scholar Hugo Grotius define natural rights?
As life, body, freedom, and honor
Why did seventeenth century Protestants and Catholics condemn Dutch scholar Hugo Grotius’s conception of “natural law”
They disapproved of his beliefs that natural law was beyond divine authority and that natural law, as opposed to scripture or religious authority, should govern politics
Although William Shakespeare did not set plays like hamlet in his own era; they nevertheless reflect what primary concern of his age?
The nature of power and the crisis of authority
Why did witchcraft trials begin to decline in the mid seventeenth century?
Scientists, physicians, lawyers, and clergy came to believe that the accusations were based on superstition
Who first brought coffee into Europe in large quantities?
Dutch traders
What was one result of Louis XIV’s 1685 revocation of the edict of Nantes?
The creation of a highly educated and influential opposition group willing to express its criticism of monarchical absolutism in writing
What was the Atlantic system?
A web of trade routes that bound together Western Europe, Africa, and the Americas and became the hub of European expansions throughout the world
Plantations in the new world can best be described as
Large tracts of land owned by by colonial settlers from Western Europe that were farmed by slave labor and produced staple crops
Why did plantation slavery replace indentured servitude as the major economic anchor of the Atlantic system?
African slave labor was cheaper than indentured servants, allowing plantations to produce mass quantities of commodities at low prices
Which of the following goods played an essential role in the Atlantic economy and the expansion of European consumer society?
Sugar
How many Africans were transported across the Atlantic in the slave trade before it began to wind down after 1850?
More than ten million
What determined the balance of white and black populations in each of the New world colonies?
The staple products that a particular colony produced
What lasting impact did the slave trade and the plantation system have on Europe?
They permanently altered consumption patterns for ordinary people
After some 2 hundred years of tolerating and even supporting piracy, why did the English and Dutch governments suddenly try to stamp it out around 1700?
English,Dutch,and French bands of sailors began to form associations of pirates, especially in the Caribbean, that preyed indiscriminately on shipping lines of every national origin
What factors contributed to Britain’s agricultural revolution in the 1700s?
The selective breeding on animals, the planting of fodder crops, and an increase in the amount of land under cultivation
What controversial agricultural practice in England that eliminated community grazing rights normally required an act of parliament?
Enclosure
What was the most populous city in Europe in 1750?
London
Why did clothing develop special importance in the eighteenth century cities?
Clothing became a reliable indicator of people’s social status and occupation, further distinguishing the social classes
Which of the following was characteristic of the Rocco style of painting that developed in the eighteenth century?
The depiction of scenes of intimate sensuality and a decorative quality
For what purpose did George Frederic Handel infuse operatic drama with a religious theme in his 1741 oratorio Messiah?
To combine musical materials into a dramatic form that would touch the emotions of the new concert-going public
Although in Britain’s constitutional system the monarch ruled with parliament, power was still contained within a very small elite in the eighteenth century. What was the reason for this?
Only a few hundred thousand properties men could vote,and most members of parliament came from the landed gentry
What was one of the most significant steps in Peter the Great’s project to Westernize Russia?
Founding new technical and scientific schools for elites that were run by Western officials
What state had the best trained and most up to date military force in Europe, despite being smaller than those of its rivals?
Prussia
In the seventeenth and eighteenth century Europe, doctors viewed insanity not as an emotional ailment but as a physical one caused by
An imbalance of bodily humors
Enlightenment writers saw the solution for all social problems in which of the following systems of thought?
The scientific method
In his campaign for greater toleration, French Huguenot refugee Pierre Bayle published his Historical and critical Dictionary, which
Listed the errors and delusions of an entire host of writers on religion in an effort to show that religions must be held accountable to reason
Who was the most influential writer of the early Enlightenment?
Voltaire
How did French government respond to Voltaire’s Letters Concerning the English Nation, published in the early 1730s?
The state ordered his arrest
In his 1721 book Persian Letters, the baron of Montesquieu used what genre of writing to satirically explore good government and mortality?
Travel literature
What did the writers of the Enlightenment call themselves?
Philosophes
What was the opinion of Enlightenment writers on the role of religion in society?
They did not necessarily oppose organized religion, but they strenuously objected to religion intolerance
How did the Encyclopedia contribute to Enlightenment goals of social reform?
It promoted the spread of knowledge that could be used to make informed decisions about social problems
In 1784, the German philosopher Immanuel Kant used which of the following phrases to represent what he felt the enlightenment stood for?
Sapere aude (“dare to know”)
What role did eighteenth century Parisian salons play in the spread of Enlightenment ideas?
They gave intellectual life an anchor outside the royal court and church-controlled universities by providing a forum for philosophes to discuss ideas
In his 1755 book The Natural History of Religion, the Scottish philosopher David Hume made what argument about religion?
That belief in God was rooted in fear and superstition
Which of the following refers to eighteenth century believers who believed in God but gave him no active role in earthly affairs?
Deists
What main critique if organized Christianity did Voltaire include in his influential Philosophical Dictionary?
That Christianity had been the prime source of fanaticism and brutality among humans
Why do many historians and philosophers consider the Enlightenment to be the origin of modernity?
It advanced the secularization of European society and the idea that human reason, rather than theological doctrine, should govern social and political life
The Scottish philosopher Adam Smith made what contention about individual self-interest?
That it contributed ultimately to the general welfare of society
Adam Smiths concept of laissez-faire economics argued that
In order to maximize the effect of market forces and the division of labor, the economy should be free of government intervention and control
How did Jean-Jacques Rousseau first become well known?
He wrote a prize winning essay about the corruption of public mortality
Of all the various positions espoused by Jean-Jaques Rousseau, why is his theory of the primacy of the “General will” the most difficult to comprehend and apply to society?
Rousseau’s theory advocated the subordination of individual conscience to the good of the community at large without providing any legal protection for the individual rights
Why did Jean-Jaques Rousseau’s theory of ” the social contract” pose a direct threat to the perceived legitimacy of eighteenth century government?
It implied that people would be most free and moral in republican or democratic societies
Why did the Enlightenment flourish in France?
The political atmosphere in France was ripe, as the French monarchy alternated between encouraging ideas for reform and harshly censuring criticisms
Immanuel Kant, the most influential German thinker of the Enlightenment, established the doctrine of idealism, which was based on
The belief that true understanding can only come from examining the ways in which ideas are formed in the mind
What new artistic movement developed in the eighteenth century in reaction to what some saw as the Enlightenment’s excessive reliance on the authority of human reason?
Romanticism
Why did Masonic lodges continue to multiply throughout the eighteenth century, despite the condemnation of Freemasonry by the papacy in 1738?
They offered a kind of secular religion and a way of declaring ones interests in the Enlightenment and reform
The artistic and architectural style known as neoclassicism gained popularity in the eighteenth century thanks to what cultural phenomenon?
The rise of “grand tours”, in which upper class youths traveled to Greek and Roman ruins
How were the spread of the Enlightenment ideals and the emergence of a more prosperous middle class in Europe reflected in music?
In the transition from commissioned works to larger professional orchestras playing more popular older music in concert halls
In the treaty of Paris of 1763, France officially acknowledged its defeat overseas, ceding which of its territories to Great Britain?
Canada
By the mid-eighteenth century, Prussia had vastly increased the size and efficiency of its army, vaulting itself to great power status by
Enrolling nearly all aristocrats in the army as officers
In 1772, the territory of Poland-Lithuania was divided among which three European states?
Prussia, Russia , and Austria
Which Enlightened absolutist, whose reforms and accomplishments included the abolition of torque and the support if religious toleration, boasted, “I am the first servant of the state”?
Fredrick the Great of Prussia
The Gordon riots that devastated much of London in 1780 demonstrated the fact that
Popular demonstrations did not always support reform or religious toleration
Why did several thousand Parisian women march to the palace at Versailles on October 5, 1789?
To request the kings help in getting more grain for Paris
How was the French Revolution distinct from other Atlantic revolutions?
It was more violent and lasted longer
Which of the following was an important catalyst for the Dutch republic revolt in 1787?
A rise in anti British sentiment during the American war of independence and opposition to the pro British stadholder
How was France seen internationally on the Eve of the French Revolution?
Most thought that France had restored her prestige by supporting the winning side in the American revolution
What was the cause of Frances fiscal crisis in the late 1780s?
A mounting deficit stemming from Frances support of the Americas in the American war of independence and compounded by its inadequate tax system
Why were Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette so unpopular, despite the kings seeming eagerness to promote reform?
They lived extravagantly and appeared indifferent to the misery of the people or the problems of the government