keeping the audience foremost in mind at every step of speech preparation and presentation
the tendency of people to be concerned above all with their own values, beliefs, and well-being
demographic audience analysis
audience analysis that focuseson demographic factors such as age, gender, religion, sexual orientation, group membership, and racial, ethnic, or cultural background
creating an oversimplified image of a particular group of people, usually by assuming that all members of the group are alike
situational audience analysis
audience analysis that focuses on situational factors such as the size of the audience, the physical setting for the speech, and the disposition of the audience toward the topic, the speaker, and the occasion
a frame of mind in favor of or opposed to a person, policy, belief, or institution, etc
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questions that offer a fixed choice b/w 2 or more alternatives
questions that require responses at fixed intervals along a scale of answers
questions that allow respondents to answer however they want
why must a speaker be audience-centered?
to gain the desired response from the listeners
what does it mean to say that people are egocentric? what implications does the egocentrism of audiences hold for you as a public speaker?
they do not take into consideration other people’s beliefs, values, or well-being. they might not give the response expected because they have prejudgments and do not consider what the speaker is trying to convey
what are 6 demographic traits of audiences discussed in this chapter? why is each important to audience analysis?
1. age, 2. gender, 3. religion, 4.sexual orientation, 5. racial, ethnic, and cultural background, 6. group membership, they all affect the listeners frame of reference
what is situational audience analysis? what factors do you need to consider in situational audience analysis?
audience factors that focus on situational factors, size, physical setting, disposition towards the topic: interest, knowledge, attitude, disposition towards the speaker, disposition towards the occasion
what are the 3 kinds of questions used in questionnaires? why is a good idea to use all 3 in the audience analysis?
fixed-alternative, scale, open-ended. 2 things are done-1. elicited specific information about the audience, 2. probed more deeply into their attitudes toward the speech topic
what methods can you use to adapt your speech to your audience before the speech? during the speech?
before: 1. assessing how your audience is likely to respond to what you say in your speech 2. adjusting what you say to make it as clear, appropriate, and convincing and possible. during: modify