Exam #4

The set of criteria for deciding what is newsworthy has evolved over time.
An inverted-pyramid lead, carefully attributed sources, and limited use of adverbs and adjectives are the hallmarks of a neutral news story.
Herbert Gans found that beliefs like ethnocentrism and small-town pastoralism consistently affect American journalists’ judgment.
Newspaper editors feel that the public’s right to know always outweighs other issues, including national security
Journalists routinely straddle a line between the public’s right to know and a person’s right to privacy.
The case of Richard Jewell and the Olympic Park bombing in 1996 demonstrates the danger of journalists’ not independently verifying what they report.
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According to modern reporting rituals, journalists must rely on outside expert sources for information, even if they are experts on a subject themselves.
By presenting both sides of a controversy, reporters always ensure that the news story is fair and balanced.
Many journalists take great pride in asking tough questions and acting as an adversary to the prominent political leaders and major institutions they cover.
The public journalism movement asks reporters to remain detached from their communities and avoid involvement that could reveal a point of view.
Satirical news shows like The Daily Show and The Colbert Report only seek to entertain, not inform, viewers.
Which of the following is not one of the techniques outlined by NBC news president Reuven Frank in 1963 as an effective way to tell a news story?
A story should include colorful descriptions that may or may not be factual.
Which of the following is not one of the basic criteria of newsworthiness?
Based on the criteria a local broadcaster would use to determine newsworthiness, which of the following stories would most likely be covered?
People in a small foreign nation elect a new president.
One of the main reasons newspaper organizations started wanting their reporters to write in a neutral, detached style was that ______.
it would help reporters determine what is newsworthy
Historically, “objectivity” became valuable for newspapers and journalists because ______.
the general public loved the partisan press
Critics of CNN say it too often engages in ethnocentrism because ______.
it tells international stories from a largely American point of view
Herbert Gans studied the newsroom cultures of CBS, NBC, Newsweek, and Time during the 1970s. Which of the following is not one of the enduring values he identified within these newsroom cultures?
A focus on the power of individuals to overcome obstacles and personal adversity
According to the textbook, which of the following ideas developed into an underlying, subjective value in the culture of American journalism?
All of the options are correct.
One problem with journalists assuming the underlying value of responsible capitalism is that ______.
it can lead to a naïve belief that businesses compete to increase the prosperity of all instead of maximizing their own profits
The value of favoring the small over the large and the rural over the urban is called ______.
small-town pastoralism
Which of the following would be okay for a journalist to accept from a news source and still avoid a conflict of interest?
None of the options is correct.
Which of the following could help a journalist resolve a moral or ethical dilemma?
All of the options are correct.
The textbook suggests that the best way for journalists to reach ethical decisions might be ______.
taking the time to work through several critical thinking steps
The textbook uses the news coverage of urban illegal drug problems as an example of ______.
how news coverage can fail to offer strong continuing coverage of long-term social problems
According to the textbook, which of the following is not characteristic of modern journalism?
It provides little historical context in most front-page stories.
For most journalists, the bottom line is ______.
“Get the story”
Scoop behavior, in which reporters stake out a house or chase celebrities, is called______.
herd journalism
Journalism critics say the quest for balance presents some problems, including ______.
leading to stories that misrepresent complex issues as two-sided dramas
______ refers to the moment when the reporter nabs the wrongdoer.
A gotcha story
Why have local TV newscasts developed a similar look since the 1970s?
Stations hired news consultants, who advised them to buy national prepackaged formats.
Which of the following did not result from hiring television news consultants?
Standards of appearance for news anchors became even more rigid.
Ad-libbed or scripted banter that goes on among local news anchors, reporters, meteorologists, and sports reporters before and after news reports is called ______.
happy talk
The sound bite in a TV news report is the equivalent of a ______ in a newspaper story.
Which of the following is true about sound bites?
They are usually quite brief and can come from an expert, a celebrity, a victim, or a person on the street.
The growing trend of twenty-four-hour cable news stations filling time with “talking head” pundits ______.
None of the above options is correct.
Which of the following is true about the growing use of “talking head” pundits on cable news networks?
The use of pundits is a less expensive strategy for filling the twenty-four-hour news cycle.
Which of the following is not a change the Internet has wrought upon traditional journalism?
E-mail interviews allow journalists to get more spontaneity out of interview subjects.
Tweeting and blogging are ______.
becoming more and more required duties for journalists
While the Internet has provided many new tools for journalists, what is a potential Internet pitfall for reporters?
None of the above options is correct.
A journalist who practices an informational or modern model approach to journalism would most likely be inclined to focus a story about a crime spree around ______.
presenting official comments and statistics in a neutral manner
Which of the following is a characteristic of public journalism?
Journalists not only criticizing communities but trying to improve them
In which way does the current trend toward public journalism differ from modern journalism?
It moves away from just telling the news to becoming involved in community life.
Which of the following is not true about “fake” news programs such as The Daily Show with Jon Stewart and The Colbert Report?
They are simply about telling jokes and never try to express any larger truth.
Which of the following is a basic tenet, or belief, of conventional journalism?
A free press should question the government and get both sides of a story.
Walter Lippmann’s Public Opinion is considered by many academics to be “the founding book in American media studies.”
Social psychology studies measure public attitudes.
Media effects research first emerged because of concerns about television violence.
Between 1930 and 1970, “Who says what to whom with what effect?” became the key question in American communications research.
Researchers associated with the minimal-effects model argue that people engage in selective exposure and selective retention with regard to the media.
The minimal-effects model of mass media research holds that the media reinforce existing behaviors and attitudes rather than change them.
Survey research is better than experimental research at establishing cause-effect linkages, but experimental research gets closer to real-world conditions.
Content analysis is the primary method researchers use to measure the amount of violence on network television.
One of the main problems in studying the effects of media is that whatever real effects the media cause, they also often serve as a scapegoat for larger social problems.
The agenda-setting theory refers to the media’s ability to change public opinion on controversial issues.
The cultivation effect theory suggests that heavy viewing of television leads individuals to perceive the world in ways that are more consistent with television’s portrayals of the world.
Textual analysis is able to demonstrate the effects of the media on audiences.
One key difference between content analysis and textual analysis is the greater emphasis on counting, measurement, and reliability in content analysis.
The idea of the public sphere, defined as a space for critical public debate, was first advanced by American media critic Walter Lippmann.
Philosophers such as Jürgen Habermas believed that critical public debate beyond the control of aristocrats, royalty, and religious elites led to support for causes like free speech.
Jürgen Habermas’s theory of the public sphere was about the need for global cooperation with public projects.
Researchers’ negative definition of the kind of propaganda used by various governments during World War I was ______.
“partisan appeal based on half-truths and devious manipulation of communication channels”
Call-in, online, or person-in-the-street polls that the news media use to address a “question of the day” are known as ______.
The scientific study of mass media got started because of interest in ______.
how media messages were used to inspire public support for World War I
The 1938 radio broadcast of War of the Worlds made millions of listeners believe that Martians were invading Earth; however, most listeners didn’t believe that the story was real. This outcome ultimately helped to support which research model?
The hypodermic-needle model
The hypodermic-needle research model might be considered the opposite of which research model?
The minimal-effects model
People often choose to expose themselves only to media outlets that express their views. What is this called?
Selective exposure and retention
The question “Why do we use the media?” is often asked under the ______ model.
uses and gratifications
Which of the following is not a common characteristic of private or proprietary mass media research?
It is generally conducted for a business, a corporation, or even a political campaign.
Which kind of research method employs a control group for comparison?
Focus group interviews
In experiments, subjects are picked for each group through ______, which simply means that each subject has an equal chance of being placed in either group.
random assignment
A mass media effects researcher might choose an experiment approach if he or she has ______.
a desire to try to show a cause-effect relationship between two variables
Which of the following is not a legitimate technique for gathering quality research data?
Laboratory experiments
Which of the following is not one of the steps in the scientific method listed in your textbook?
Presenting the proposed research problem to companies for funding
A mass media effects researcher might choose a survey approach if he or she has a desire to ______.
collect information that applies to a large population
What type of study looks at changes in a population over time?
Longitudinal study
Which kind of research method reveals correlations between two variables?
If data showed that heavy consumers of violent videos engage in more violent behavior than do light consumers, a social scientist would likely conclude that ______.
violent personality traits cause people to choose violent videos
Which kind of research involves systematically coding and measuring media content?
Content analysis
What method is a researcher using if he or she watches a season of a television program and counts each time an act of violence is shown?
Textual analysis
Which of the following is not one of the four steps identified as part of the social learning theory process?
Which line of research has generally demonstrated that the mass media don’t tell people what to think as much as they tell people what to think about?
Spiral of silence
Which line of research helps to explain why Midwesterners started to rank shark attacks as a problem after the 1975 release of the movie Jaws and its subsequent press coverage?
Cultivation effect
f someone has never been the victim of a violent crime and lives in an area that has very low rates of violent crime, yet still feels he or she is at a high level or risk for such crimes after watching a lot of Law & Order, this might be an example of ______.
the cultivation effect
The major research in the area of cultivation effect grew from the attempts of ______ to make generalizations about the impact of televised violence.
George Gerbner and his colleagues
The cultivation effect (also known as “mean world” syndrome) argues that ______.
people who consider television watching an “uncultured” activity are more likely to believe most people are violent
Which of the following is a theory that contends that people who believe they hold minority opinions on controversial issues tend to keep silent for fear of social isolation?
Spiral of silence
______ is the theory that people believe others are more affected by media messages than they are themselves.
Third-person effect
Which of the following is characteristic of a cultural studies approach to mass media research?
An interest in measuring and coding the content of particular media texts
The close reading and interpretation of the meaning of cultural forms is called ______.
textual analysis
While social science research can be characterized as trying to establish a cause-and- effect relationship, cultural studies ______.
Which of the following is a focus of cultural studies approaches to media studies?
All of the options are correct.
When mass media researchers say they are studying political economy, that means they are most likely be looking at which of the following?
None of the above options is correct.
Habermas formed his ideas about the public sphere while examining which aspect of seventeenth- and eighteenth-century English and French societies?
How the middle class began to gather in places like coffeehouses to critically discuss public life
In what way did Habermas think mass media could be an enemy of democracy?
All of the options are correct.
Media historian James Carey defined communication as ______.
“a symbolic process whereby reality is produced, maintained, repaired, and transformed”
An example of Carey’s description of communication as culture might be seen in ______.
All of the options are correct.
If you are trying to understand human behavior rather than explaining and predicting it, which approach to mass communication research would you take?
None of the above options is correct.
Most of the world’s population now lives in countries where the press is free.
The United States follows a libertarian model of free expression and free press.
The Sedition Act strengthened First Amendment protections for citizens.
Only after the Sedition Act expired in 1801 did Americans broadly support the idea of a free press.
The Supreme Court has defined censorship as prior restraint of speech.
If a soon-to-be-released article seems to violate libel or obscenity laws, most U.S. courts would act to stop publication.
Appropriating a writer’s or artist’s words or music without consent or payment is a form of expression that is not protected as speech.
Students who quote and cite a copyrighted source in a term paper for class are technically violating the law.
Libel is a right guaranteed by the First Amendment.
Defamation that is broadcast is considered slander because it is spoken rather than written.
Public speech that causes someone damage or actual injury is libelous, even if the speech in question is true.
Reporters need to be careful about printing accusations made by attorneys in a court of law in case a suspect is later found “not guilty.”
Parodies and insults of public figures are protected from libel suits unless the statements cause undue emotional pain.
The Miller v. California case established a national standard for obscenity that is the same for all communities in the United States.
Ordinary citizens have more privacy protection under U.S. law than politicians or other public figures.
There is no federal shield law for journalists in the United States.
In 1912, federal law outlawed the transportation of boxing movies across state lines —not because they were violent but because there had been a black heavyweight boxing champion since 1908.
Motion pictures have been defined as free speech by the U.S. Supreme Court since 1915.
Movies released in the United States are required by federal law to be labeled with an MPAA movie rating.
When the movie rating system began in the late 1960s, the G, PG, PG-13, R, X, and NC-17 ratings were all developed at that time and put immediately into place.
Since its debut in 1990, the NC-17 movie rating has been a commercially successful rating for films with adult content.
Print and broadcast media are not treated equally under the First Amendment.
In twentieth-century Supreme Court decisions, the print media and broadcast media received the same First Amendment protections.
Newspapers are not required by law to give individuals an opportunity to reply to an editorial attack.
The FCC can fine broadcast stations any amount it sees fit for indecent incidents.
According to the 1934 Communications Act, broadcast stations must provide equal opportunities and response time for qualified political candidates
Broadcasters are no longer legally required to provide competing points of view when airing programs about controversial issues.
Compared with most other nations, the United States has ______ freedom of speech, religious tolerance, and press freedom.
a lot more
Which model of the press is most often associated with today’s mainstream U.S. news media?
State leaders believe the press should serve the goals of the state in the ______ model.
social responsibility
The notion of the press working as the Fourth Estate, or as watchdog over the government, is contained in which model of speech and expression?
Social responsibility
Which of the following is not characteristic of the libertarian model for expression and speech?
Arguing that the mass media have grown too powerful and need to become more socially responsible or face some sort of government regulation
Which model of expression tolerates all forms of speech, including pornography?
According to the text, one of the first widely circulated arguments for a free, unlicensed press can be traced to ______.
English poet John Milton’s essay Areopagitica
Prior restraint means ______.
that courts and governments cannot block any publication or speech before it occurs
Which of the following statements about the Sedition Act of 1798 is not true?
It was supported and reinforced by President Thomas Jefferson when he later took office.
Which statement about the Sedition Act of 1798 is true?
It was renewed over and over again by several presidents after Adams.
In 1971, President Richard Nixon’s administration tried to block publication of ______.
a study of U.S. involvement in the Vietnam war
The Pentagon Papers case involved which of the following legal concerns?
Whether or not the government has the right to censor a newspaper and prevent publication in the interest of national security
In the Progressive magazine case, a federal district court took a course of action based on concern that the magazine would publish ______.
information on how an H-bomb works
Which of the following constituted a “clear and present danger” to national security according to the federal courts?
Publishing a design for the H-bomb in Progressive magazine
Which laws, passed in 1917 and 1918, made it a federal crime to disrupt the nation’s war effort?
Espionage Acts
Some members of the U.S. Government wanted to charge the founder of WikiLeaks, Julian Assange, with ______.
espionage for releasing thousands of confidential U.S. embassy documents online
The creators of works such as books, music, lyrics, movies, and TV programs are protected if someone tries to make money off their work because of ______.
copyright law
At the end of the copyright period, a creative work such as a book or song becomes ______.
available for public use free of charge
Which statement about copyright law is true?
Copyright laws have remained virtually unchanged since they were written in the eighteenth century, being adapted without debate to new media.
In 1976, Congress extended the copyright period to ______.
the life of the author plus fifty years, or seventy-five years for a corporate copyright owner
A written or broadcast expression that defames someone’s character is ______.
Private individuals must prove falsehood, damages, and negligence to win which kind of case?
For public figures to successfully sue for libel, they must prove “actual malice,” which means the news medium ______.
knew the statement was false but published it anyway
Reporters who print or broadcast statements made in court are protected against libel by ______.
qualified privilege
The idea of absolute privilege refers to ______.
the ability of prosecutors to accuse defendants of crimes in court without risking libel
The Supreme Court sided with Larry Flynt in his case against Jerry Falwell because ______.
parody falls under the opinion and fair comment rule
Which of the following is not part of the legal definition of obscenity?
The work must depict or describe dirty words and brutal violence.
The U.S. Supreme Court’s standards for judging something as obscene include which of the following?
All of the options are correct.
Before it was found unconstitutional in 2007, the Child Online Protection Act ______.
made it illegal to post “material that is harmful to minors”
Which of the following actions by the media is not a violation of the usual rights of privacy for a private citizen?
Using a person’s image or quote in a news story without consent
It became obvious that old laws regarding obscenity and child pornography were not keeping up with Web technology when ______.
All of the options are correct.
In 2001, the ______ weakened privacy laws and gave the federal government more latitude in searching private citizens’ records and intercepting electronic communications without a court order.
In 1912, in the first type of national action limiting the film industry, the U.S. government banned the interstate commerce of which kinds of films?
Boxing films
In the Mutual v. Ohio (1915) decision, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that film was a ______.
“business pure and simple”
Adopted by 95 percent of the movie industry during most of the 1930s, 1940s, and 1950s, the Motion Picture Production Code would have allowed ______.
showing a minister of religion as the hero of a story
The ______ case in 1952 determined that film should be protected as a form of free speech.
Burstyn v. Wilson
The U.S. movie rating system is an example of ______.
industry self-regulation
In 1984, the PG-13 movie rating was added, in part, because which of the following two popular films were considered too violent and disturbing for children under thirteen?
Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom / Gremlins
Because of fears about the spread of communism in the 1950s and the tactics of lawmakers such as Senator Joseph McCarthy, TV networks started asking actors and other workers to ______.
sign loyalty oaths denouncing communism
Performers, writers, or producers who did not bow to pressure from people like Senator Joseph McCarthy and found themselves blacklisted as part of the communist “witch-hunts” of the 1950s ______.
lost their jobs and any chance of getting hired
The Communications Act of 1934 mandated that radio broadcasters operate in the “public interest, convenience, and necessity” based on which of the following arguments?
Limited broadcast signals constitute a scarce national resource.
Who came up with the “seven dirty words” comedy routine that landed a radio station in hot water with the FCC and resulted in rules about what times of the day a broadcaster can air “adult” material?
George Carlin
Section 315 of the 1934 Communications Act requires broadcast stations to ______.
give all qualified political candidates an equal opportunity to obtain airtime
The idea of net neutrality refers to ______.
the belief that all wired Internet providers should be required to provide the same access to all Internet services and content
One way to understand net neutrality is as a debate between which of the following groups?
All of the options are correct.
In the 1960s, radio programming that featured deejays and callers discussing intimate sexual topics was called ______.
topless radio
The U.S. government banned boxing films from being transported from state to state in 1912 because of ______.
concerns about images of the first black heavyweight being perceived as a threat by the white community