Exam 4

Which of the following are true?
One of the reasons for the fall of Rome was an overextension of resources.
By the time the Roman Empire fell it was officially Christian.
Rome was a village that was first settled in a swampy area between seven hills in central Italy.
Romans themselves felt that Rome’s greatness was built on Roman virtues, particularly the virtue of loyalty to the Roman gods, the Roman state, and the Roman family.
True/False
The correct chronological order for Roman history is Monarchy, Empire, Republic.
False
True/False
The traditional date for the founding of Rome is 509 B.C.
False
Which of the following are true concerning Aeneas?
He was the son of Venus.
He was the son of Anchises.
He was the ancestor of Romulus.
He was a Trojan hero.
According to Roman legend, all of the following occurred to Romulus except
He fell from a high wall but was protected by the gods.
True/False
The Roman forum was situated between the Capitoline and the Caelian hills.
False
True/False
The Romulus story encouraged the Romans for generations to see themselves as a nation that welcomed immigrants and different ethnic groups.
True
True/False
Romulus tried to prevent the carrying off of the Sabine women
False
True/False
The Romulus myth was for the ancient Romans the story of how the gods founded, blessed, and prospered the Roman state.
True
True/False
The war between the Romans and the Sabines took place on the Palatine Hill.
False
Which of the following are true?
After Romulus was taken to heaven the Romans worshipped him as the god, Quirinus.
The common meeting place in the low area between the Capitoline and the Palatine eventually became the place of the Roman Forum.
The following groups of Indo-European peoples spoke an Italic language:
Latins
Sabines
True/False
Senate families were forbidden to engage in business practices
Plebians were originally the poorer classes of Rome.
True
True/False
Plebeians, could become equestrians by acquiring enough property or through some types of military service.
Originally, the presiding paters collectively made up a presiding council that developed into the Senate.
True
The Etruscans gave to the Romans the alphabet that they got from the Greeks.
The last three of the seven kings of Rome were Etruscan.
The Romans adopted some of the Etruscan gods and goddesses. .
True
True/False
Tarquinius Superbus became one of the first consuls of the Roman republic.
False
True/False
With the help of Lucius Junius Brutus, Lucretia was able to have Sextus Tarquinius executed.
False
Which of the following are true concerning the republic?
Senators were appointed for life.
In order to run for office, a candidate had to have served in at least ten military campaigns.
Consuls were elected annually by the patrician class.
Consuls administered the government on alternate months.
True/False
The combination of professional armies and politicians who gained prominence through military careers had disastrous consequences for the Roman Republic.
True
Which of the following are true concerning the struggle for equal rights?
Plebians earned the right to elect their own officials, the tribunes, by going on strike during a battle.
The development of the Concilium Plebis gave Rome a government system that had checks and balances.
True/False
Roman law was passed on orally until 217 B.C.
False
True/False
By 367 BC, one consulship was reserved for the plebian class.
True
True/False
In 287, the laws of the Concilium Plebis became binding on the entire republic.
True
Which of the following is not one of the virtues admired or deferred to by the Romans?
Humilitas
True/False
Livy declares that the Roman Society of his day was declining because of wealth and avarice.
True
True/False
The reason that the Alban general proposed another method besides clashing armies to settle their differences, in the story of the Horatii, is because he knew his side was outnumbered and lacked enough weapons for victory.
False
Which of the following are true concerning the story of the Horatii?
At one point in the battle, the Curiatii outnumbered the Horatii three to one.
Horatius killed his sister.
True/False
The father of the Horatii made an atonement for his son by offering sacrifices.
True
Which of the following statements are true concerning the story of the Rape of Lucretia?
The Tarquins, father and son, vowed and completed the temple to Jupiter on the Capitoline Hill.
Tarquin, the Roman king started a war with the Rutulians so that he could repair his own fortune and distribute war spoils to the people.
Which of the following statements are true concerning the story of the Rape of Lucretia?
When the men bragged about the virtues of their wives they were all in camp surrounding the city of Ardea.
Lucius Brutus Junius became one of the first two consuls after the overthrow of the monarchy.
True/False
The threat of war with Porsena, king of Clusium, led to an exemption for the plebs from paying the war-tax, as well as from harbor-dues in the story of Horatius.
True
True/False
From the beginning of his defense of the bridge to Rome, Horatius was entirely deserted by the Roman soldiers who fled to safety.
False
True/False
The gifts collected for Horatius for his bravery were awarded to his family after he drowned trying to escape.
False
True/False
In the story of Mucias Scaevola, the attempt by Valerius to surround large numbers of Etruscan soldiers ended in complete defeat for the Romans.
False
Which of the following are true concerning the story of Mucius Scaevola?
Mucius told the Etruscans that he was the first of 300 Romans that had sworn to attack the Etruscan king.
True/False
The Romans erected an equestrian statue of Cloelia at the highest part of the Sacred Way.
True
Note: the full name of Cincinnatus is Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatus.

Which of the following are true?

During times of crisis, Roman consuls could nominate a person to be dictator for a period of six months.
The Plebian Council became known as the Tribal Assembly.
Cincinnatus told his men to surround the enemy camp with their palisades (walls).
After the Roman victory, Cincinnatus was given a triumphal procession as he entered the city.
Cincinnatus resigned his dictatorship on the sixteenth day of his term.
True
Which of the following are true concerning the Roman conquest of Italy?
The Latin League was a defensive alliance of Latin-speaking peoples.
The Samnites lived south of Rome.
The war of the Latin League signaled the beginning of Rome’s expansion.
True/False
A pyrrhic victory is one in which the enemy is entirely wiped out.
False
True/False
Rome became master of all of Italy in 270 BC.
True
In return for Rome’s lenient policies toward the conquered Italian territories, these territories were required to sign a treaty of alliance with Rome.
Rome’s conquered territories were required to adhere to Rome’s foreign policies and to supply troops for the Roman army.
True
Disastrous naval engagements cost Rome 200,000 men in the first Punic War.
Sicily, Sardinia, and Corsica were the first provinces of Rome’s overseas empire.
A proconsul was usually a former consul who acted as governor of province.
True
The Roman general, Scipio, counterattacked Carthage in 204 BC and Hannibal was forced to leave Italy and return to Africa.
After the Second Punic War, Carthage ceded Spain to Rome.
True
True/False
Cato the Elder argued strenuously against the Third Punic War
False
True/False
Rome plowed Carthage under and sewed salt in the furrows after it defeated Carthage in the Third Punic War.
True
True/False
Rome gained territory in modern western Turkey when the king of Pergamum bequeathed his kingdom to Rome.
True
True/False
Rome collected taxes by farming them out to the highest bidder, a practice that often led to corruption.
True
Which of the following are reasons why the late republican period saw disruptions, social problems, and civil wars that culminated in the loss of representative government?
The loss of a middle class and growing poverty.
Corruption in government.
Corruption of purpose in the military.
Which of the following are reasons for inequitable distribution of land?
Improved farming methods encouraged rich aristocrats to buy more and more land for the production of olive oil and wine or of sheep and cattle that could be used to trade for grain.
Protracted military engagements.
Government practices in leasing conquered territories that favored the wealthy.
True/False
By the middle of the second century BC, the government was mostly controlled by the wealthy, self-seeking Senate, which was unable to cope with the problems of governing a world-state.
True
Which of the following are true concerning reform movements of the Gracchi?
Tiberius Gracchi was a tribune who sought to reform Roman society but he was willing to go beyond tradition to accomplish his reforms.
Tiberius shut down business in Rome by refusing to allow the required daily religious ceremonies that opened the buildings of business and production.
True/False
In the years of the Gracchi brothers, the Senate had shown that it had no intention of initiating needed reforms, and that it would resort to force if necessary to maintain its power and control.
True
The Roman legions had always required its recruits to own some property and be able to provide their own weapons and uniforms.
After Marius’s reorganization of the Roman military the Roman legions were made up mostly of the poor.
Marius and Sulla both desired to lead the Roman army in the Social War that was fought against Italian allies.
True
Marius and Sulla took measures that changed or broke Roman law and set dangerous precedents for the future. Which of the following are included in those measures?
Sulla marched on Rome with a full army.
Sulla appointed himself as dictator for an unspecified period of time.
Marius dropped the property and weapons qualifications for membership in the Roman army.
It was against Roman law for a military commander to bring a Roman legion past the boundary of the Rubicon River.
Julius Caesar trained an army that was loyal to him during nine years of fighting in Gaul.
Caesar declared himself dictator for life.
True
True/False
The charges made by Octavian against Marc Antony were not true.
False
True/False
Octavian defeated Antony at the Battle of Actium in 31 B.C
True
Emperor worship was introduced into the Roman religion in the first century AD.
By the fifth century Christianity was the official state religion of Rome.
True
Which of the following are true concerning Roman Religion?
The term for the belief that all natural objects have spirits is animistic.
The procreating power of men was called genius.
Flora was the numen of the blossoming fields.
True/False
Flora was the numen of the blossoming fields.
False
True/False
To sacrifice, Vestal Virgins wore purple-bordered white woolen veils
True
True/False
The sacred fire was kept burning so that Vesta would protect the city just as the family’s fire was held sacred so that she would protect the home.
True
King Numa Pompilius organized the religious festivals and the first priestly colleges.
The Pontifices administered sacred laws.
The Flamines offered sacrifices.
True
The head of the Pontifices was known as the Pontifex Maximus.
Today the Pope is known as the Pontifex Maximus.
True
True/False
The Etruscans introduced statues of the gods into Roman temples.
True
True/False
In the Etruscan period, Roman deities began to be imagined more typically as individual gods rather than merely powers
True
True/False
The Sibylline oracles were prophetic verses introduced to Rome by the Egyptians
False
True/False
The Sibylline oracles helped Roman religion to maintain its original Roman character
False
Which of the following are true concerning changes in Roman religion in the early republican period?
The lectisternium encouraged greater emotional expression and greater participation by the people in the state religion.
The Pontifex Maximus became the real leader of the state religion.
Greek and Roman gods began to merge.
The crisis of the Second Punic War began to erode the strength of character of the Roman people.
The crisis of the Second Punic War caused the Roman people to believe that the old Roman religion was inadequate and led them to accept new foreign religions, including the cult of Cybele.
True
Epicureanism taught that humanity must overcome its superstitious belief in the gods of popular tradition and find happiness by cultivating a quiet existence of simple pleasure in the company of friends.
Stoics believed that all reality was pervaded by an intelligent divine force, the Logos, and that humans could achieve happiness by doing one’s duty and live in conformity to the will of this force.
True
The frame for the history found in this lesson will be the dynasties of the emperors.
One of the themes of this lesson will be the decline of paganism and the conversion of the empire to Christianity.
One of the themes of this lesson will be the factors, decisions, and individuals that led to the fall of the empire.
The dynasties of the Roman emperors can be divided into two main parts, the Principate and the Dominate.
True
True/False
The Principate is characterized by a determined effort on the part of the Emperors to preserve the illusion that the Roman Republic was still alive and well.
True
True/False
During the Dominate, emperors ruled more like eastern kings rather than continuing the pretense that they were simply the first citizens of the Republic.
True
True/False
During the Julio-Claudian dynasty, Christianity was generally thought to be one of the different divisions of the Jews.
True
By keeping for himself the power of tribune, Augustus Caesar had the right to initiate and veto legislation.
The legislative, judicial, and electoral powers of the Tribal Assembly and Concilium Plebis were transferred to the Senate during the reigns of the first few emperors.
True
True/False
The Praetorian Guard guarded the person of the emperor.
True
True/False
The Praetorian Guard would often play a large role in who became the emperor.
True
True/False
Augustus almost bankrupted the Empire by creating a professional army.
True
Which of the following did Augustus accomplish?
He beautified Rome
He built a system of roads that greatly facilitated the speed of travel.
He instituted Rome’s first police and fire fighting forces.
Caesar’s propaganda campaign advertised the idea that Rome was a nation blessed by the divine sanction of the gods and it encouraged the people to return to and maintain the old Roman virtues.
The hero of the Aeneid, Aeneas, is portrayed as a man who was devoted to the greatness of his country and was willing to sacrifice personal desires for its success.
The Aeneid helped engender a new patriotism and optimism among the Roman people.
True
Augustus Caesar was, by 12 BC, both the political and religious head of Rome.
The first step toward the practice of full emperor worship was the worship of Augustus’s genius.
Augustus did not permit the worship of his person.
As part of his effort to reinforce the old Roman religion and virtues, Augustus restored the college of Flamines and the Rex Sacrorum.
True
Which of the following are true concerning Nero?
Nero had Seneca executed.
Nero committed suicide.
Nero’s persecutions of Christians in Rome were the first such persecutions conducted by a Roman emperor.
Tacitus reported that people began to pity Christians persecuted by Nero.
Christian reaction to persecutions throughout the period of their existence varied from those who actively sought martyrdom, to those who fled, to those who recanted their faith and went back to paganism.
True
True/False
In a culture where there is no separation of church and state, to be seen as irreligious is also generally to be seen as being unpatriotic.
True
Which of the following occurred during the Flavian Dynasty?
Titus put down the Jewish rebellion of 70 AD.
The Coliseum was built.
True/False
The Five Good Emperors were all from the city of Florence in central Italy.
False
True/False
The Roman Empire reached its greatest size during the reign of Trajan.
True
True/False
Trajan told Pliny that he should search out any Christians that he could find and execute them.
False
Which of the following are true concerning of Nervan-Antonian dynasty?
Hadrian rescinded Trajan’s policy of expansionism, enclosing the empire within clearly marked borders.
After Hadrian put down the Bar Kochba rebellion, there would not be a Jewish state in Palestine until 194
Which of the following are true concerning the reign of Marcus Aurelius?
Stoic philosophy guided his decisions for much of his life
The plague that hit Asia Minor, Greece, Italy, and parts of Europe up to the Rhine River in 166 contributed substantially to the future weakening of the empire.
Aurelius allowed many German settlers to come into the empire, which was the beginning of an immigration that eventually took over the western part of the Roman Empire.
Which of the following are true of the information on Septimius Severus?
He executed 29 senators.
He was the first Roman to introduce the worship of the god Sol Invictus into the empire. He decreed that new converts to Christianity should be punishable by death.
True/False
Caracalla killed his brother in front of his mother and executed his own wife.
True
Which of the following are true concerning Elagabalus?
He built a huge temple to El-Gabal on the Palatine Hill.
He married a man.
He was assassinated at the age of 18.
He married the same Vestal Virgin twice.
True/False
The period between 235 and 284 was an era of rebellion and civil war when prominent generals, many from plebian backgrounds, used their armies to stake a claim to the emperorship.
True
Which of the following are problems that almost brought down the Empire during the Emperors of the Army period?
external invasion
internal civil war
economic collapse
Valerian made being a Christian clergyman punishable by death.
True
The term pope means “papa” or “father.”
Papal primacy is the belief that the bishop of Rome is the successor to the Apostle Peter and is therefore the leader of the whole church
The unintended consequence of Marcion’s heresy is that the church began to discuss which of the writings of the apostolic period then being quoted at church meetings should be considered authoritative.
True
Which of the following statements are true concerning Diocletian?
In 293 he divided the empire into two large parts that were then also divided in half.
He increased taxes in order to pay for his revamping of the military and its increase to over 500,000 men.
The portion of the empire that was administered by Constantius as Caesar included Britanniae, Galliae, and Viennensis
Which of the following statements are true concerning Constantine I?
He subsidized, and promoted Christianity.
True/False
Though Constantine built many churches in Rome and gave bishops’ courts the right to act as courts of appeal for civil cases, he was not able, for political reasons, to exempt the clergy from paying taxes.
False
True/False
The church where the pope today officially presides as bishop is St. Peter’s at the Vatican.
False
Which of the following statements are true concerning Constantine I?
The people of the Middle Ages would look back on Constantine as the epitome of a Christian emperor, one who supported and defended Christendom.
After the Edict of Milan, Constantine’s help immediately vaulted the Roman bishop into the highest levels of social prominence in the capitol city of the empire.
Constantine proclaimed Sunday a day of rest as the “venerable day of the Sun,” referring to the sun god Sol Invictus.
True/False
The vast majority of Christians today believe in Arian’s teachings concerning the Godhead
False
True/False
The council at Nicaea established the proto-orthodox brand of Christianity as the state-accepted version.
True
True/False
Constantine was baptized a year after the Edict of Milan.
False
True/False
Julian the Apostate felt that Roman paganism, not Christianity, would heal Roman society.
True
Valentinian issued an edict of toleration of other religions.
Valens was an Arian Christian who persecuted Nicene Christians
Gratian dropped the pagan title of Pontifex Maximus.
True
True/False
Theodosius moved the capital of the empire to Milan.
True
True/False
Theodosius’s decision to greatly increase the number of foederati in his armies led directly to the fall of Rome.
True
True/False
When Hadrian established a stable border in the second century, it created a huge demand in the Roman army for more recruits from non-ethnic Romans.
True
True/False
What we know as the Byzantine Empire is the continuation of the east side of the Roman Empire.
True
After Theodosius ordered the massacre of 7,000 people at Thessalonica, Bishop Ambrose of Milan withheld communion from the emperor for several months until Theodosius had done sufficient penance.
Theodosius abolished the position of Vestal Virgin.
True
True/False
St Ambrose converted to Arian Christianity
False
The Germanic general, Odovacar, eliminated the office of the emperor in the west in 476.
The Vandals sacked Rome in 410.
By the end of the empire in the west, German generals controlled and dominated a series of puppet emperors.
True
Which of the following is false?
Augustine was a teacher of rhetoric early in his career and later taught mathematics.
Which of the following in Augustine’s life happened last?
He learned that scripture should not always be taken in a literal sense.
Which of the following in Augustine’s life happened last?
A close friend of his died.
After Augustine married, he left his Neo-Platonist philosophy behind.
False
Which of the following is false concerning the beliefs of the Manichees?
Seeking to advance in rank, lesser members of the Manichees had stricter rules than the higher members.
Question #6: In which book do we find this quote: “I did not realize that the very root of my misery was that I had sunk to such depths and was so blind that I could not discern the light of virtue and of beauty that is loved for its own sake.”
6
In which book do we find this quote: “No friends are true friends unless you, my God, bind them fast to one another through that love which is sown in our hearts by the Holy Ghost.”
4
In which book do we find this quote: “For my will was perverse and lust had grown from it, and when I gave in to lust habit was born, and when I did not resist the habit it became necessity.”
8
In which book does Augustine use the analogy of a waking man wanting to get out of bed but pulled back to sleeped by his tired body to show that there are often two conflicting wills within us.
8
In which book do we find this quote: “But my sin was this, that I looked for pleasure, beauty, and truth not in him [God] but in myself and his other creatures, and the search led me instead to pain, confusion, and error.”
1
In what book do we find this quote: “I was sick and tired of living and yet afraid to die.”
4
In which book do we find the following quote: “I used to pretend that I had done things I had not done at all, because I was afraid that innocence would be taken for cowardice and chastity for weakness.
2
True/False
What impressed Augustine about the book Hortentius was its style of writing.
False
True/False
Concerning the Wreckers, Augustine states that they were very much like devils, getting malicious pleasure out of mocking others.
True
Which of the following is the best contribution of the Confessions?
Remarkable insights into the psychology of sin and the struggle to repent.
True/False
One of the themes of Book 1 is the nature of God, his goodness, majesty, and power
True
True/False
One of the themes of Book 1 is that little children are innocent before God.
False
True/False
One of the themes of Book 1 is the nature of humans, their innate corruptness and selfishness
True
Which of the following is false concerning Book 1?
Augustine believes that it was best that he was not baptized as a child.
True/False
Augustine expressed his gratitude to God that the beatings he got at school stopped after he prayed to God and asked him for protection. ‘
False
True/False
Part of the reason that Augustine sinned in his youth was to win the applause of his friends.
True
True/False
Augustine says that his mother had escaped the center of Babylon, but loitered in the outskirts because she couldn’t completely break the habit of drinking wine that she had picked up as a girl.
False
Which of the following is false concerning Book 2?
In describing the state of his soul during his adolescence, Augustine states that part of the joy of sin in stealing pears was the reputation he gained after getting caught.
True/False
Augustine points out that his family did not try to save him from his lust by arranging a marriage, but was only concerned that he should learn to make fine and persuasive speeches.
True
True/False
Augustine’s father was the wealthiest person in Thagaste.
False
Which of the following is false concerning Book 3?
Augustine states that the most important thing that happened to him at Carthage was being introduced to Platonic thought.
Which of the following is not one of the reasons for which Augustine condemns theater?
The stage plays promoting devotions to the old pagan gods caused greater persecution of Christianity.
Which of the following is false concerning Book 3?
Concerning his student years at Carthage, Augustine states that the only reason he even went to Carthage for an education was the insistence of his family.
True/False
In section one, Augustine is referring to the Neo-Platonists when he says that they were deceivers who publicly expounded liberal ideas and privately practiced religion.
False
True/False
Augustine describes the loss of his friend in terms that show deep pain and sorrow.
True
Which of the following is not important in book 5?
Chastised by his mother, Augustine reached a level of humility that he had not yet obtained.
True/False
One of the doctrinal challenges for Augustine at the time that he hung on to Manichaeism was the idea that evil was not a substance.
False
True/False
As a believer in Manichaeism, Augustine believed that when he sinned it was not really him but some other nature within him.
True
True/False
The converted Augustine tended to put much of the blame for his earlier sins on Satan.
False
True/False
Monica treated her dreams of Augustine’s marriage as some of her most sacred revelations.
False
True/False
Augustine states that after his mistress was sent away, the pain subsided over time and he began to have a greater spiritual hope that he would find true love in his upcoming marriage.
False
True/False
Simplicianus told Augustine that in the writings of the Neo-Platonists, God and his word are constantly implied.
True
True/False
Victorinus was convinced to go public with his confession by the statement, “I shall not count you as a Christian until I see you in the Church of Christ.”
False
True/False
In the end, Victorinus did not confess Christ publicly but accepted the priest’s offer to confess privately.
False
True/False
One of the main themes of Book 8 is the struggle of will power to turn from a life of sin to a life of holiness.
True
Alypius did not believe Augustine when he was told him about the experience in Romans 13:13.
False
The command to read reminded Augustine of something that he had heard about St. Catherine of Alexandria.
False
True/False
As Augustine and his mother rested in Ostia they began to talk of what the eternal life of the saints could be like and their conversation led them to have a mystical experience in which they touched, for just a moment, God’s wisdom.
True
Which of the following is false concerning Book IX?
Adeodatus was not baptized before he died.