Exam 4 Social Psych

Implicit Egotism
we like what we associate with ourselves (people’s names, jobs)
mere exposure effect
tendency for novel stimuli to be liked more or rated more positively after the rater has been repeatedly exposed to them
matching phenomenon
The tendency for men and women to choose as partners those who are a “good match” in attractiveness and other traits.
physical attractiveness stereotype
presumption that physically attractive people possess other socially desirable traits as well: what is beautiful is good.
complementarity
popularly supposed tendency in a relationship between two people for each to complete what is missing in the other
ingratiation
the use of strategies, such as flattery, by which people seek to gain another’s favor
reward theory of attraction
theory that we like those whose behavior is rewarding to us to whom we associate with rewarding events
passionate love
state of intense longing for union with another. Passionate lovers are absorbed in each other, feel ecstatic at attaining their partner’s love and are disconsolate on losing it
compassionate love
affection we feel for those with whom our lives are deeply intertwined
secure attachment
attachments rooted in trust and marked by intimacy
avoidant attachment
attachments marked by discomfort over, or resistance to being close to others
insecure attachment
attachments marked by anxiety or ambivalence
praire voles
one of few species genetically inclined toward monogamy
social-exchange theory
theory that human interactions are transactions that aim to maximize one’s rewards and minimize one’s costs
egoism
a motive(supposedly underlying all behavior) to increase one’s own welfare. the oppose of altruism, which aims to increase another’s welfare
reciprocity norm
an expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them
social capital
the mutual support and cooperation enabled by a social network
genuine altruism
Our willingness to help is influenced by self-serving and selfless considerations
empathy
Identification with and understanding of another’s situation, feelings, and motives
depression realism
tendency of middy depressed people to make accurate rather than self-serving judgements, attributions and predictions
explanatory style
one’s habitual way of explaining life events. A negative, pessimistic, depressive explanatory style attributes failure to stable, global and internal causes
Loneliness
Painful awareness that our social relationships are less numerous or meaningful than we desire
anthropomorphism
attributing human characteristics to an animal or inanimate object (Personification)
Shyness
a form of social anxiety characterized by self-consciousness and worrying about what others think
Self-presentation theory
theory that we are eager to present ourselves in ways that make a good impression; in terms of social anxiety, we feel anxious when we are motivated impress others but have self-doubt
health psychology
study of the psychological roots of health and illness. Offers psychology’s contributions to behavioral medicine.
Social Skills training
Observing and practicing new behaviors in safe situations, one may develop the confidence to behave more effectively in other situations
explanatory style therapy
Reversing one’s negative beliefs about himself and his future
kin selection
idea that evolution has selected altruism toward one’s close relatives to enhance the survival of mutually shared genes
bystander effect
finding that a person is less likely to provide help when there are other bystanders
pluralistic ignorance
Error of assuming that no one in a group perceives things as we do
illusion of transparency
The illusion that our concealed emotions leak out and can be easily read by others
door-in-the-face technique
a strategy for gaining a concession. After someone firsts turns down a large request, the same requester counteroffers with a more reasonable request
moral exclusion
perception of certain individuals or groups as outside the boundary within which one applies moral values and rules of fairness.
Moral inclusion
regarding others as within one’s circle of moral concern
overjustification effect
the result of bribing people to do what they already like doing; they may then see their actions as externally controlled rather tun intrinsically appealing