Empirical evidence, Objectivity, Interpretive, and Critical Sociology
A) explain how we all are unaffected by the operation of society
B) turn public issues into private concerns
C) in the United States see our way of life as better than those of other nations
D) assess the truth of “common sense
A) analyzing society with a micro-level orientation
B) studying our society’s place in the larger world
C) establishing a hierarchy for the globe
D) focusing on what makes everyone the same
A) ongoing interaction
B) a representation of objective reality
C) unequal and in need of social change
D) an orderly system
A) the global perspective
B) how people look at their marriage partners
C) the future
D) the sociological perspective
A)The operation of society
B) personal failing
C) a positive consequence of outsourcing
D) her lack of dedication to the job
B) deepening personal faith by going to church
C) growing up with the belief that stealing is wrong
D) comparing men and women to learn how the two sexes differ in size and weight
A) an experiment
B) an interview
C) a closed-ended questionnaire
D) using existing data
A) poor physical health
B) difficulties in social relationships
C) people’s personal issues
D) personality disorders
A) to gain support of a social organization
B) To worship and achieve salvation
C) to express her emotions
D) to reinforce her sense of identity
A) experimenting and collecting data
B) theory and its application
C) correlation and causation
D)being curious and using the sociological perspective
C) participant observation
D) existing sources
A) positivist, interpretive, and critical
B)structural-functional, social-conflict, and symbolic-interaction
C)reliable, valid, and spurious
D) conceptual, variable, and statistical
C) double standards
A) All of the people living in these countries have an extremely low standard of living.
B) Both kinds of countries display considerable social inequality, with a few rich but many poor.
C) Both of these categories of countries experience frequent serious droughts and famines.
D) Most of the people in these countries have no educational opportunities.
A) how different people interpret the rules of games slightly differently
B) that sports provide a social setting and create thousands of jobs
C) that the games people play reflect their social standing
D) how sports promote physical fitness and provide a stress release
A) its focus on how people are joined by society
B) its inability to clearly identify cause-and-effect relationships between conflict and social change
C) ignoring the large picture and focusing on individuals
D) ignoring of how shared values unify members of society
A) using existing data
C) participant observation
A) Objective observations
B) The influences of societal biases
C) Empirical data
D) Subjective meanings and feelings
A) descriptive statistics
B) numerical evidence
C) quantitative data
D) qualitative data
A) how race helps organize society and keeps it operating in a stable and orderly way
B) inequality and conflict between women and men of the same race
C) the everyday interaction of individuals and the resulting society that is established
D) inequality and conflict between people of different racial and ethnic categories
A) personal values and biases
B) all independent variables
C) all dependent variables
D) peer response to work
A) biological causes of our behavior
B) evidence of human free-will
C) general social patterns in the behavior of particular people
D) how each person is unique
A) Social structure
B) Social conflict
D) Social function
A) older men
B) younger women
C) older women
D) younger men
A) final evidence established in a controlled laboratory environment
B) proof of reliability and validity
C) no evidence that a third variable could be causing a spurious correlation between the two
D) the use of control
B) spurious correlation
D) cause and effect
A) 35-year-old Caucasian American man who is also a college graduate
B) 22-year-old African American woman with her PhD
C) 32-year-old Asian American man with a high school diploma
D) 35-year-old African American man who is also a college graduate
B) societal rules and patterns
C) state and federal laws
D) All of the responses are correct.
A) the belief that society is a reflection of human nature
B) the belief that society is a reflection of God’s will
C) an approach to knowledge that is based on science
D) the belief in the supernatural
A) why people turn to crime in the first place
B) which categories of people are most at risk of becoming criminals
C) which categories of people are most at risk of becoming victims
D) All of the responses are correct.
A) interpretation of people’s reasons for their behavior
B) qualitative data
C) empirical evidence found through scientific investigation
D) a need for social change
A) About one-fourth
B) More than 90 percent
C) About two-thirds
D) About one-third
A) It is slightly lower.
B) It is about the same.
C) It is much lower.
D) It is higher.
A) increased slightly
B) declined slightly
C) stayed about the same
D) declined sharply
A) Society regulates sexual behavior in order to maintain social order.
B) Sexuality is linked to social inequality; since incest is more common among the poor, society has deemed it taboo.
C) The meanings people attach to sexuality are socially constructed and not subject to change.
D) The regulation of sexual patterns is one of the ways in which men control and dominate women
A) serves several useful functions
B) is found only in low-income nations
C) should not be regulated by society
D) is never acceptable in anyone’s eyes
A)the domination of women by men
B) social equality
C) sociobiological factors
D) societal roles
A) one out of every three
B) one in six
C) two out of every three
D) one in one hundred
A) the same in every period of history
B) socially constructed meanings
D) inherently the same across cultures
A) Gender refers to a person’s biological traits, while sex refers to a person’s sexual orientation.
B) Sex is cultural, while gender is biological.
C) Gender refers to a person’s sexual orientation, while sex refers to a person’s biological traits.
D) Gender is cultural, while sex refers to biological traits
A) she is married and does not want any more children
B) she cannot financially afford another child
C) she does not want a child for any reason
D) her life is threatened by the pregnancy
A) a view that labels anyone who is not heterosexual as “queer”
B) a view that labels heterosexuals as sexist
C) bias against transsexual people
D) against women
A) a homeless man on the street
B) a current male friend
C) a stranger she met at a bar
D) her father
A) a low-income white teen who lives with her aunt and has no other family
B) an African American teen whose large, supportive family has no religious affiliation
C) a middle-class Hispanic teen who lives with her parents and three older brothers
D) a low-income white teen who lives with both parents and has strong family ties
A) countries where religion is a weak element in the culture
B) poor countries where patriarchy is strong and women have low standing
C) countries where it is illegal
D) wealthy countries where men have disposable incomes
A) is tied to the concept of reproduction
B) has a different meaning in every culture
C) is both a cause and an effect of inequality
D) has become less socially controlled over time
A) Abortion was made legal in 1973.
B) The word “pornography” comes from the Greek word for “prostitute.”
C) Gay marriage is banned in more than 40 states.
D) Circumcision is common in the United States but rare in other parts of the world.
A) call girls
B) massage parlor workers
B) South America
A) dates back to ancient Greece
B) did not exist until about a century ago
C) originated during the sexual revolution of the 1960s
D) was first introduced by the Kinsey studies in the 1940s
A) Porn stars who make a profit are essentially engaging in prostitution.
B) Pornography leads to a breakdown of social morals.
C) Research has conclusively shown that pornography is the main cause of violent crimes.
D) Regulation of pornography diverts law enforcement from more important issues.
A) According to Kinsey’s research, almost everyone is gay at some point in their lives.
B) Estimates range from 10 to 30 percent.
C) About 1.7 percent of men and 1.1 percent of women.
D) According to Laumann’s research, less than 1 percent of adults say they are gay.
A) do not usually develop secondary sex characteristics
B) disregard conventional ideas about how females and males should look and behave
C) uphold conventional ideas about how females and males should look and behave
D) have both male and female sexual characteristics
A) More people began choosing to limit their number of sexual partners or not to have sex at all.
B) It caused a national uproar.
C) It was a conservative call for a return to “family values.”
D) It increased sexual activity overall, and it changed women’s behavior even more than men’s.
A) less likely to be a norm only in high-income societies
B) the norm in about half of the world’s societies
C) the norm in a slight majority of human societies
D) the norm in all human societies
A) a person’s romantic and emotional attraction to another person
B) the emotional, but not sexual, attraction one person feels toward another
C) the sex of a person’s partners
D) how highly “sexed” a person is
A) Austin, who is not attracted to men or to women
B) Silvia, who was born with male genitalia but underwent gender reassignment surgery
C) Miguel, who is attracted to both men and women
D) Jill, who considers herself a female but was born with both male and female genitalia