Exam #1 – Sociology (Spring 2017 Semester)

The scientific study of human social relationships, groups, and societies is known as:
a. social science
b. anthropology
c. sociology
d. psychology
c. sociology
Which of the following is NOT considered a characteristic of sociology?
a. strict, highly specific rules and guidelines about how to theorize about any particular topic
b. usage of research methods such as interviews, observations, surveys, and archival data
c. adherence to the principle of social embeddedness
d. an aim to understand and generate new knowledge about human behavior and social relations
a. strict, highly specific rules and guidelines about how to theorize about any particular topic
Which of the following would NOT be considered a social science?
a. sociology
b. economics
c. history
d. biology
d. biology
The idea that economic, political, and other forms of human behavior are fundamentally shaped by social relationships is referred to as:
a. sociology
b. social embeddedness
c. relational theory
d. social reciprocity
b. social embeddedness
The ability to grasp the relationship between individual lives and larger social forces that shape them is referred to as:
a. the “glasses” metaphor
b. critical thinking
c. sociological imagination
d. sociological eye
c. sociological imagination
Which of the following would NOT be considered an example of using the sociological imagination?
a. understanding the relationship between personal troubles and public issues
b. making a connection between biography and history
c. using structural explanations to understand the individual experience
d. assuming that a personal anecdote is indisputable evidence of a widespread phenomenon
d. assuming that a personal anecdote is indisputable evidence of a widespread phenomenon
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The ability of individuals and groups to exercise free will and to make social change is referred to as:
a. structure
b. agency
c. free choice
d. individualism
b. agency
Patterned social arrangements that have an enabling or constraining effect on agency are referred to as:
a. structure
b. institutions
c. free will
d. socialization
a. structure
The relationship between agency and structure is __________, as ___________.
a. one-sided, agency influences structure
b. one-sided, structure enables or constrains agency
c. reciprocal, they both have an effect on one another
d. nonexistent, there is no relationship between the two
c. reciprocal, they both have an effect on one another
Which of the following would be the best example of structure, according to the text?
a. President Barack Obama publicly announcing his support for gay marriage
b. a gay rights activist marching in a protest
c. a bisexual teenager coming out to their friends and family
d. multiple states passing legislation that legalizes same-sex marriage
d. multiple states passing legislation that legalizes same-sex marriage
The ability to evaluate claims about truth by using reason and evidence is referred to as:
a. critical thinking
b. sociological imagination
c. scientific reasoning
d. logical thought
a. critical thinking
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of critical thinking?
a. recognizing poor arguments
b. telling a woman or person of color that his/her opinions are invalid because of personal bias
c. rejecting statements not supported by evidence
d. questioning one’s own assumptions
b. telling a woman or person of color that his/her opinions are invalid because of personal bias
Which of the following is NOT discussed as a factor in the development of sociological thinking?
a. urbanization
b. industrial revolution
c. colonization and imperialism
d. the enlightenment
c. colonization and imperialism
Which of the following is NOT true of early founders of a sociological thought?
a. They believed sociological understanding would create a more egalitarian, peaceful society.
b. They sought to understand a society that was undergoing rapid change.
c. Because of social and economic barriers for women and people of color, they were mostly upper-class, white men.
d. They rejected scientific reasoning and logic.
d. They rejected scientific reasoning and logic.
Accepted social behaviors and beliefs are referred to as:
a. norms
b. culture
c. social status
d. values
a. norms
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of anomie?
a. It can be defined as a social condition of normlessness.
b. Individuals feel confused and anxious because they do not know how to interact with others.
c. It is more common in demographically homogenous areas than in demographically heterogeneous areas.
d. It can arise as a society transitions from a traditional, agricultural state to a modern, industrial state.
c. It is more common in demographically homogenous areas than in demographically heterogeneous areas.
______________ argued that injustices such as slavery and women’s inequality stunted a society’s moral development.
a. Auguste Comte
b. Emile Durkheim
c. Karl Marx
d. Harriet Martineau
d. Harriet Martineau
_______________ founded and named sociology as a discipline, pushing for a positivist society in which knowledge would be based on scientific reasoning and facts.
a. Auguste Comte
b. Emile Durkheim
c. Karl Marx
d. Harriet Martineau
a. Auguste Comte
______________ established the first rules for conducting sociological research and examined the impact of a modern society on social solidarity.
a. Auguste Comte
b. Emile Durkheim
c. Karl Marx
d. Harriet Martineau
b. Emile Durkheim
______________ believed that nearly all known societies are characterized by some system of division by economic class, which results in conflict as classes compete for wealth, power, and resources.
a. Auguste Comte
b. Emile Durkheim
c. Karl Marx
d. Harriet Martineau
c. Karl Marx
_____________ refers to the way society is held together, while _________ are the laws that govern change.
a. social statics, social dynamics
b. formal laws, forces of adaptation
c. social dynamics, social statics
d. stability, unrest
a. social statics, social dynamics
The bonds that unite the members of a social group is referred to as:
a. culture
b. social solidarity
c. norms
d. societal unity
b. social solidarity
______________ solidarity refers to bonds based on specialization and interdependence, while _____________ solidarity refers to bonds based on shared customs, language, and beliefs.
a. mechanical, organic
b. modern, traditional
c. organic, mechanical
d. traditional, modern
c. organic, mechanical
Competition between social classes over the distribution of wealth, power, and other valued resources in society is referred to as:
a. capitalism
b. economic conflict
c. stratification
d. class conflict
d. class conflict
According to Karl Marx, in a capitalist society the ________________ acquire wealth by exploiting the labor of the ____________.
a. proletariat/working class; bourgeoisie/ownership class
b. capitalists; communists
c. bourgeoisie/ownership class; proletariat/working class
d. slave owners; enslaved people
c. bourgeoisie/ownership class; proletariat/working class
According to Marx, the key difference between the working class and the capitalist class was:
a. ownership of the means of production
b. work ethic
c. intelligence
d. class status at birth
a. ownership of the means of production
Formal organizations characterized by written rules, hierarchical authority, and a paid staff, intended to promote organizational efficiency, are referred to as:
a. institutions
b. universities
c. bureaucracies
d. government
c. bureaucracies
Which of the following is NOT true of the early 20th-century brand of sociological thought known as the Chicago School?
a. It is largely focused on social ills such as crime, homelessness, and poverty.
b. Its founding members pioneered the field of urban sociology, as well as advanced the study of race relations.
c. Female sociologists in the field were highly respected and recognized.
d. The city or urban neighborhood was a common unit of study.
c. Female sociologists in the field were highly respected and recognized.
Which of the following is NOT true of W. E. B. DuBois?
a. He was a civil rights leader who condemned segregation and the racism of America.
b. He wrote about double-consciousness, an inescapable awareness of being both black and American that African Americans experience.
c. His ideas were often considered too radical for sociologists at the time of his writing.
d. His ideas are considered outdated and have been debunked by modern black sociologists.
d. His ideas are considered outdated and have been debunked by modern black sociologists.
____________ paradigms are concerned with large-scale patterns and institutions, while _______________ paradigms are concerned with social relations and interactions in specific, individual situations.
a. institutional, individual
b. macro-level, micro-level
c. structural, individual
d. micro, macro
b. macro-level, micro-level
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of structural functionalism?
a. emphasizes conflict and competition
b. seeks to explain the functions of various social structures
c. recognizes manifest, or obvious functions, as well as latent or hidden functions
d. upholds the status quo
a. emphasizes conflict and competition
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of conflict theory?
a. explains social organization in terms of conflict and competition
b. can be used to understand class, gender, and racial inequality
c. addresses the question of who benefits and who loses in a given situation
d. focuses solely on micro-level interactions
d. focuses solely on micro-level interactions
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of symbolic interactionism?
a. It is a micro-level paradigm.
b. Many of the ideas originated with George Herbert Mead.
c. Structural explanations are considered just as important as individual explanations.
d. People understand themselves through their interaction with others.
c. Structural explanations are considered just as important as individual explanations.
Talcott Parsons argued that men were socialized into ____________ roles to be rational workers, while women were socialized into _____________ roles to be emotional and sensitive caretakers.
a. instrumental, expressive
b. masculine, feminine
c. expressive, instrumental
d. intellectual, nurturing
a. instrumental, expressive
Conservative politicians oppose gun control reform because they receive contributions from wealthy pro-gun lobbyists. Which perspective does this statement reflect?
a. symbolic interactionism
b. conflict theory
c. functionalism
d. feminism
b. conflict theory
Elementary schools serve as childcare institutions, allowing more parents to participate in the workforce. Which perspective does this statement reflect?
a. functionalism
b. educational sociology
c. symbolic interactionism
d. conflict theory
a. functionalism
Sororities assign some women as “big sisters” to provide advice to incoming “little sisters” to foster friendships and strengthen bonds. Which perspective does this statement reflect?
a. feminism
b. conflict theory
c. structural functionalism
d. symbolic interactionism
d. symbolic interactionism
Which of the following is NOT considered a major theme of sociology, as outlined in the text?
a. globalization
b. power and inequality
c. technological innovation
d. the rise of communism
d. the rise of communism
The ability to mobilize resources and achieve goals despite the resistance of others is referred to as:
a. authority
b. wealth
c. power
d. inequality
c. power
The practical application of knowledge to transform natural resources for human use is referred to as:
a. information revolution
b. technology
c. innovation
d. industrialization
b. technology
The choices we make as individuals have no effect on larger economic, political, and cultural structures.
a. true
b. false
b. false
Early studiers of social life modeled sociology on the traditional natural and physical sciences, aiming to create a “social physics”.
a. true
b. false
a. true
According to Emile Durkeim, social facts are external to the individual, yet have a significant influence on our day-to-day behavior.
a. true
b. false
a. true
Collective conscience, common beliefs and values that bind a society together, is a hallmark of organic solidarity.
a. true
b. false
b. false
Karl Marx believed capitalism was a sustainable and necessary evil in society that would be perpetuated for hundreds of years.
a. true
b. false
b. false
Max Weber believed modern society was increasingly characterized by rationality, as rules, regulations, and larger social structures played a greater role in people’s decisions.
a. true
b. false
a. true
The reason there are so few “founding mothers” is because women were not interested in sociology and did not write about social life.
a. true
b. false
b. false
Sociological theories are logical, rigorous frameworks for the interpretation of social life that make particular assumptions and ask particular questions about the social world.
a. true
b. false
a. true
Sociologist Talcott Parsons believed that although traditional gender roles were biologically predetermined, they were the root cause of gender equality and conflict.
a. true
b. false
b. false
Symbols can refer to languages, words, gestures, images, tattoos, hairstyles, and clothing.
a. true
b. false
a. true
Symbolic interactionism would argue that special handshakes, team bonding during road trips, and group chants are largely unimportant when researching the dynamics of a sports team.
a. true
b. false
b. false
Gender inequality can be understood as differences in wealth, power, opportunity, and other valued resources for men versus women.
a. true
b. false
a. true
The discrimination, harassment, and maltreatment Muslim Americans face in the United States may reflect powerful ethnocentric norms and values.
a. true
b. false
a. true
Many nations today, including the United States, are characterized by a high degree of social diversity.
a. true
b. false
a. true
Advances in technology have had little or no effect on the spread of globalization.
a. true
b. false
b. false
Structural functionalism and symbolic interactionism are macro-level theories, while social conflict is a micro-level theory.
a. true
b. false
b. false
The process of gathering empirical (scientific and specific) data, creating theories, and rigorously testing theories is known as:
a. sociological method
b. scientific method
c. data collection
d. theoretical reasoning
b. scientific method
In sociological research, ideas about the world that describe a possible relationship between social phenomena are referred to as:
a. theories
b. correlations
c. hypotheses
d. causations
c. hypotheses
Which of the following is NOT an example of qualitative research?
a. forty in-depth interviews with residents of a suburban neighborhood
b. field observations of people interacting and dancing in a nightclub
c. content analysis of meme images on a popular blogging website
d. 2,000 survey questionnaires that measure respondents’ drug usage habits
d. 2,000 survey questionnaires that measure respondents’ drug usage habits
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of qualitative research?
a. data is quantified or converted into numbers
b. some methods include focus groups, interviews, and participant observation
c. rich, in-depth data the investigates closely some phenomena
d. small sample sizes
a. data is quantified or converted into numbers.
Which of the following would NOT be considered a goal of quantitative research?
a. to measure patterns of social behavior
b. to measure social attitudes
c. to explain a relationship between 2 variables
d. to provide a rich, detailed description of some phenomena
d. to provide a rich, detailed description of some phenomena
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of a good scientific theory?
a. logically consistent
b. it can be disproven or falsified
c. it is not testable
d. there is possibility for revision
c. it is not testable
The term used to summarize a set of phenomena is:
a. definition
b. concept
c. operationalization
d. pattern
b. concept
A variable is defined as:
a. the description of a relationship
b. a phenomena that is constantly changing
c. a term used to summarize a set of phenomena
d. a concept that can take on 2 or more possible values
d. a concept that can take on 2 or more possible values
Which of the following would NOT be considered a quantitative value?
a. the respondent’s religious affiliation
b. the number of times the respondent visits church per month
c. amount of money the respondent donates to his/her church
d. the number of hours spent volunteering with a church
a. the respondent’s religious affiliation
Which of the following would NOT be considered a qualitative variable?
a. employment status
b. occupation
c. job title
d. yearly salary
d. yearly salary
The degree to which 2 or more variables are associated with one another is referred to as:
a. causation
b. statistical relationship
c. correlation
d. frequency
c. correlation
A researcher finds that as years spent driving increases, the number of accidents decreases. This is an example of:
a. negative causation
b. negative correlation
c. positive correlation
d. decreasing relationship
b. negative correlation
A researcher finds that as income increases, square footage of a respondent’s home also increases. This is an example of:
a. positive correlation
b. positive causation
c. negative correlation
d. increasatory relationship
a. positive correlation
What is Karl Popper’s principle of falsification?
a. To be scientific, a theory must lead to testable hypotheses that cannot be disproven.
b. If a respondent is believed to have lied on a single question, all the responses must be thrown out.
c. To be scientific, a theory must lead to testable hypotheses that can be disproved if they are wrong.
d. For a theory to be accepted, all other competing theories must be disproven.
c. To be scientific, a theory must lead to testable hypotheses that can be disproved if they are wrong.
The idea that concepts and measurements accurately represent what they claim to represent is referred to as:
a. replication
b. validity
c. reliability
d. falsifiability
b. validity
Which of the following does NOT represent the concept of reliability?
a. The major funder of a study is not allowed to be a part of the research process because it is considered a conflict of interest.
b. A study conducted in 2012 supports a similar study conducted by another researcher in 2005.
c. The hypothesis of one study is tested by 2 different researchers and they reach the same conclusion.
d. A study is revisited every 10 years and has similar findings each time.
a. The major funder of a study is not allowed to be a part of the research process because it is considered a conflict of interest.
A characteristic of results that systematically misrepresent the full dimensions of what is being studied is referred to as:
a. conflict of interest
b. misleading
c. one-sided
d. bias
d. bias
The ability to represent the object of study accurately is referred to as:
a. reliability
b. validity
c. objectivity
d. falsifiability
c. objectivity
The repetition of a previous study using a different sample or population to verify or refute the original findings is referred to as:
a. verification
b. replication
c. validation
d. reliability
b. replication
Specific techniques for systematically gathering data are referred to as:
a. data collection instruments
b. sociological research tools
c. research methods
d. surveys
c. research methods
A researcher is interested in how same-sex marriages have been represented on cable television since certain states have begun introducing related legislation. Which of the following would be the most appropriate research method?
a. Content analysis of television shows that have featured LGBT characters
b. Conducting interviews with gay or lesbian actors
c. A national survey of Americans who watch 30+ hours of television each week
d. An experiment that measures respondents attitudes about same-sex marriage after they view images of married same-sex couples
a. Content analysis of television shows that have featured LGBT characters
Which of the following is another term used to describe fieldwork, the in-depth study of a group or community?
a. ethnography
b. casework
c. environmental impact studies
d. community research
a. ethnography
A detailed conversation designed to obtain in-depth information about a person and his/her activities is referred to as:
a. interview
b. in-depth discussion
c. questionnaire
d. observation
a. interview
Which of the following is an example of a leading question?
a. Do you oppose increasing state funding for health clinics that target low-income women?
b. Do you believe that harsher drunk driving laws decrease the number of car accidents?
c. Wouldn’t you agree that our president should be doing more to stop the deforestation of Brazil and subsequent displacement of thousands of people?
d. Do you support legislation that decriminalizes marijuana?
c. Wouldn’t you agree that our president should be doing more to stop the deforestation of Brazil and subsequent displacement of thousands of people?
Which of the following is NOT typically included in the ethnical consideration portion of the research design process?
a. ensuring respondent anonymity
b. ensuring confidentiality
c. keeping the respondent safe from physical and emotional harm
d. ensuring the respondent answers truthfully
d. ensuring the respondent answers truthfully
Creating an operational definition of a concept is an important part of the research process because it allows for the concepts to be observed and measured.
a. true
b. false
a. true
Correlation is a synonym for causation. If 2 variables are associated with one another, then it means one variable causes the other.
a. true
b. false
b. false
A good way to ensure validity in a research study is to compare 2 or more sources of data.
a. true
b. false
a. true
A researcher stands on a street corner and surveys people who pass by about their opinion on contraception. Because the researcher interviewed an equal number of men and women, the researcher’s study is free from bias.
a. true
b. false
b. false
For scientific research to be objective it has to be value-neutral; personal beliefs and opinions should not influence the course of research.
a. true
b. false
a. true
As long as the main idea gets across, question-wording is largely unimportant and has little effect on the subject’s response.
a. true
b. false
b. false
Sociologists have more freedom than ever before to conduct research studies without institutional oversight or ethical consideration.
a. true
b. false
b. false
___________ reasoning starts from broad theories but proceeds to break them down into more specific and testable hypotheses.
a. deductive
b. hypothesis
c. inductive
d. grand theory
a. deductive
______________ reasoning starts from specific data and tried to identify larger patterns from which to derive more general theories.
a. logical
b. inductive
c. ground-level
d. deductive
b. inductive
____________________ variables include factors we can count, while __________________ variables are variables that express a quality and do not have a numerical value.
a. numerical, categorical
b. qualitative, quantitative
c. quantitative, qualitative
d. quantitative, categorical
c. quantitative, qualitative
A _______________ relationship is one in which one variable is the cause of another variable.
a. correlated
b. causal
c. positive
d. statistical
b. causal
A _________ refers to a relatively small number of people selected to represent a ___________, which is the entire group of interest.
a. sect; population
b. population; sample
c. respondent list; population list
d. sample; population
d. sample; population
In an experiment, the ____________ variable is one changed intentionally to produce an effect, while the _______________ variable is one that is expected to change as a result.
a. dependent; independent
b. explanatory; categorical
c. independent; dependent
d. dependent; experimental
c. independent; dependent
Sociologists who conduct _____________ research should give extra considerations to ethics, as subjects may engage in illegal or dangerous activities.
a. participant observation
b. survey
c. experimental
d. document analysis
a. participant observation
For a study to be ____________, a researcher should report in precise detail the research methods and process.
a. free of bias
b. validated
c. confirmed
d. replicated
d. replicated
The Nuremberg Code was adopted after the discovery of gruesome experiments conducted by the Nazis during World War II to serve as guidelines for ethical research.
a. true
b. false
a. true
A study found that as amount of time spent exercising increased, smoking rates decreased. This is an example of a positive correlation.
a. true
b. false
b. false
Cultural representations of social realities are referred to as:
a. Images
b. Symbols
c. Trademarks
d. Ethnographies
b. symbols
Which of the following is not characteristic of the mass media?
a. Medium of public communication
b. Vehicle of transmitting popular culture
c. intended to reach and influence a mass audience
d. Highly inaccessible
d. Highly inaccessible
What is the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis?
a. Our language, the words we use, shapes our perception of the social world.
b. Culture is inescapable; everyone is influenced by culture.
c. Control over language can be used as a tool of oppression.
d. One’s first language will always be dominant.
a. Our language, the words we use, shape our perception of the social world
The beliefs, norms, behaviors, and products common to the members of a particular group are referred to as:
a. Ethnicity
b. Culture
c. Society
d. Class
b. culture
The physical objects created, embraced, or consumed by society that help shape peoples’ lives are referred to as:
a. Real culture
b. Nonmaterial culture
c. Material culture
d. Products
c. material culture
The abstract creations of human cultures, including ideas about behavior and living, are referred to as:
a. Philosophy
b. Nonmaterial culture
c. Material culture
d. Theory
b. nonmaterial culture
Which of the following is not an example of material culture?
a. A restaurant building
b. Waiter uniforms
c. Pasta with marinara sauce
d. Polite table manners
d. polite table manners
Which of the following is not an example of nonmaterial culture?
a. Textbooks
b. Formal writing vocabulary and techniques
c. The institution of higher education
d. Respect for professors as authorities
a. textbooks
Particular ideas that people accept as true are referred to as:
a. Religion
b. Cultural norms
c. Values
d. Beliefs
d. beliefs
Common rules of a culture that govern the behavior of people belonging to it are referred to as:
a. Laws
b. Beliefs
c. Norms
d. Values
c. norms
Which of the following would be considered a violation of a folkway?
a. Cheating on an exam
b. Not offering your bus seat to an elderly person
c. Robbing a convenience store
d. Shouting and swearing at the professor during class
b. not offering your bus seat to an elderly person
Powerful mores, the violation of which is considered serious and even unthinkable, are referred to as:
a. Criminal laws
b. Commandments
c. Taboos
d. Fundamental values
c. taboos
Which of the following is not characteristic of laws?
a. Are always based on reason and logic
b. Codified norms or rules of behavior
c. Formalize and institutionalize society’s norms
d. Can be based on serious norms such as taboos and less serious norms such as folkways and mores
a. Are always based on reason and logic
Abstract and general standards in society that define ideal principles such as right and wrong are referred to as:
a. Laws
b. Public opinions
c. Religious beliefs
d. Values
d. values
Which of the following would be considered an American value?
a. Creativity and innovation are useless—it is better to just follow the crowd.
b. Hard work and effort will get you nowhere in life.
c. Everyone deserves an equal chance to succeed.
d. Laws and government decisions should be based on religious beliefs.
c. Everyone deserves an equal chance to succeed.
The contradiction between the goals of ideal culture and the practices of real culture is referred to as:
a. Ideal-real inconsistency
b. Cultural inconsistency
c. Cultural contradiction
d. Ideal-real disconnect
b. cultural inconsistency
The worldview whereby we judge other cultures by the standards of our own is referred to as:
a. Patriotism
b. Nationalism
c. Ethnocentrism
d. Multiculturalism
c. ethnocentrism
The worldview whereby we understand the practices of another society sociologically, in terms of that society’s own norms and values and not our own, is referred to as:
a. Ethnocentrism
b. Pluralism
c. Multiculturalism
d. Cultural relativism
d. cultural relativism
A culture that exists together with a dominant culture but differs from it in some important respects is referred to as:
a. Ethnicity
b. Subculture
c. Counterculture
d. Subgroup
b. subculture
Which of the following would not be considered counterculture?
a. Religious cult rituals
b. Rules of respect in graffiti crews
c. Codes of conduct on Anonymous (a well-known “hacktivist” group) message boards
d. Federal laws and guidelines
d. federal laws and guidelines
Music, theater, literature, and other cultural products that are held in particularly high esteem in society are referred to as:
a. Classy taste
b. Upper-class culture
c. High culture
d. High taste
c. high culture
The entertainment, culinary, and athletic tastes shared by the masses is referred to as:
a. Mass culture
b. Popular culture
c. Low-brow culture
d. Classless culture
b. popular culture
The way class status is reproduced from generation to generation is referred to as:
a. Socio-economic reproduction
b. Social class reproduction
c. Culture of poverty
d. Class regeneration
b. social class reproduction
Which of the following would not be considered a valuable form of cultural capital in dominant U.S. high culture?
a. Knowing how to operate a tractor trailer truck
b. Having parents who hold graduate degrees
c. Having an “ear” for classical composers.
d. Being able to distinguish between fine wines
a. knowing how to operate a tractor trailer truck
The internalization of objective probabilities and the expression of those probabilities as choice are referred to as:
a. Personal preference
b. Socialization
c. Cultural tastes
d. Habitus
d. habitus
Commitment to respecting cultural differences rather than submerging them into a larger, dominant culture is referred to as:
a. Multiculturalism
b. Cultural relativism
c. Ethnocentrism
d. Tolerance
a. multiculturalism
Symbols are only written words, spoken languages, and images; actions and rituals would not be considered symbols.
a. True
b. False
b. false
People can both shape and be shaped by culture.
a. True
b. False
a. true
Beliefs can be based on faith, superstition, science, tradition, or experience.
a. True
b. False
a. true
Violating a more is not considered offensive, as these are weak norms passed down from the past that people do not consider that important.
a. True
b. False
b. false
Deeply entrenched values can be powerful and, in some cases, dangerous, as they are often used to justify or defend certain behaviors.
a. True
b. False
a. true
Because ideal culture values, norms, and beliefs are often not reflective of real practices, they have little to no effect on how we perceive the world.
a. True
b. False
b. false
The social organization of our lives is not “natural.” Rather, our norms, values, and practices are socially constructed.
a. True
b. False
a. true
According to Pierre Bourdieu’s theory of social class reproduction, the class one is born in is not necessarily important in determining what class one ends up in.
a. True
b. False
b. false
_____ culture refers to the values, norms, and behaviors that people profess to embrace, while _____ culture refers to the values, norms and behaviors that people actually embrace and exhibit.
a. ideal, real
b. model, actual
c. ideal, actual
d. supreme, real
a. ideal, real
“Poverty exists because someone has to be on bottom. That’s just the way life is.” This statement reflects _____ beliefs.
a. internalized
b. doxic
c. ethnocentric
d. capitalist
b. doxic
An _____ perspective reflects the standpoint of an outside observer, while an _____ perspective reflects that of an insider.
a. emic, etic
b. external, internal
c. etic, emic
d. inner, peripheral
c. etic, emic
Imperialistic nations engaged in _____ desire to see their power, influence, and profits grow throughout the world.
a. Colonization
b. Grobalization
c. Glocalization
d. Imperialism
b. Grobalization
_____ theorists would argue that elites use culture to gain or maintain power over other groups.
a. Marxist
b. Conflict
c. Symbolic Interactionist
d. Functionalist
b. conflict
An example of _____ would be a child of two successful surgeons choosing to attend medical school because they say they have an interest in science and health.
a. Culture
b. Norms
c. Habitus
d. Ethnocentrism
c. habitus
Rape culture is just a theory; it does not reflect the actual prevalence of rape in the United States.
a. True
b. False
b. false
Which of the following is not considered a characteristic of global culture?
a. Heavily influenced by American culture
b. Spread via mass media such as Hollywood films and pop music
c. Limited to Western countries in Europe, North America, and Australia
d. Marked by dominance of fast-food chain restaurants
c. Limited to Western countries in Europe, North America, and Australia
Which of the following statements does not reflect a conflict perspective on globalization?
a. The spread of fast-food chain puts locally owned, independent restaurants out of business.
b. The spread of corporations disconnects people from owning their own means of production.
c. Unique, indigenous cultures become devalued and risk extinction.
d. The spread of large corporations promotes stability and integration as people share similar working conditions.
d. The spread of large corporations promotes stability and integration as people share similar working conditions.
According to some sociologists, we do not really have free will in the traditional sense. Our “choices” are limited by what is realistically made available to us based on larger structure.
a. True
b. False
a. true
Multiple cultures cannot exist in any one country; eventually one culture will dominate and usurp the other.
a. True
b. False
b. false
High culture tastes are natural and transmitted at birth. A person may change economic classes, but that person will never be able to change cultural class.
a. True
b. False
b. false
Meanings to words in English-speaking countries are consistent.
a. True
b. False
b. false