Exam 1 (Chapter 1, 2, 5)

What is Sociology?
study of society and human behaviors
What is society?
People who share a culture and a territory

(large group of people who live in an area and participate in the same economy or culture)

What is Culture?
Beliefs and knowledge shared by a group or society that influences attitudes and behaviors
Sociological Perspectives (3)
1. Context Matters
2. Society Matters
3. “Social Location Matters”
C. Wright Mills and Sociological Imagination
“It is the ability to grasp connections between history and biography” (1959)
History
each society located in a broad stream of events
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Biography
our experiences within those events
Quantitative
methods that obtain info on the social world that can be translated into numbers and then manipulated mathematically
Qualitative
methods that attempt to collect info about the social world that connect and be readily converted into numeric form
Sociological Perspective
understanding human behavior by placing it within its broader social context
Social Location
the group memberships that people have because of their location in history and society
Natural Sciences
intellectual and academic disciplines that are designed to explain and predict the events in our natural environment
Social Sciences
the intellectual and academic disciplines designed to understand the social world objectively by means of controlled and repeated observations

(examples: anthropology, economics, political sciences, psych, sociology)

Deductive
1. always start from a theory
2. form hypothesis
3. empirical observations
4. analyze data
Inductive
1. Empirical observations
2. analyze data
3. empirical observations
4. analyze data
Research Methods (6)
surveys
participation observation
case studies
secondary analysis
documents
experiments
Collecting Data: Validity
the extent to which a variable measures what it is supposed to
Collecting Data: Reliability
likelihood of obtaining consistent results using the same measure
Participant Observation
Qualitative research method
participates in research setting while observing what is happening
ex: little boy copying birds, acting as one with gorillas (psych)
case studies
intensive analysis of a single event, situation, or individual
Secondary Analysis
analyze data previously collected by other researchers
ex: census, national crime victimization survey, american community data
Experimentation
test causation
use of control and experimental groups
independent and dependent variable
positive Correlation
increase/decrease together
negative correlation
increase while other decreases or vice versa
Culture
language, beliefs, values, norms, behaviors, material objects that characterize a group and are passed from one generation to the next
“Culture within us” pg. 35
-Sense through which we perceive and evaluate
-Shapes norms, perceptions, interations, human behavior
Material Culture
Material objects that distinguish a group of people such as, art, buildings, weapons, hairstyles, utensils
Ethnocentrism
belief own culture or group is superior to others and tendency to view all cultures from perspective of one’s own
Cultural Relativism
Taking into account the differences across cultures without passing judgement or assigning value
Culture Shock
the disorientation that people experience when they come into contact with a fundamentally different culture and can no longer depend on their taken-for-granted assumptions
-feel uncomfortable
Principles of culture
culture is…
-human created
-shapes perception
-orienting
-provides moral imperative
all people are ____ but ____ is usually more beneficial
ethnocentric
cultural relativism
New Cultures can change our _____
“taken-for-grated work view”
What is non-material culture?
groups way of thinking and doing
“symbolic culture”
gestures
symbols
language
Slang and Sapir-Whorf
-language shapes what we see rather than reflecting it (reverses common sense)
-language has embedded within it ways of looking at the world (shapes the way we think)
Values
standard by which people define what is desirable or undesirable, good or bad, beautiful or not pretty
(can cluster, contradict, clash)
Norms
Expected rules for behaviors
Sanctions
positive or negative
reaction to breaking norms
Folkways
norms that are not strictly enforced (the way we do things)
Mores
Core values: we insist on conformity (right and wrong)
Taboo
a norm so strongly ingrained that even the thought of its violation is greeted with revulsion
Subculture
values and related behaviors of a group that distinguish its members from the larger culture (a world within a world)
ex: body building, goth, LGBT, alcoholics anonymous
Counterculture
groups whose values and beliefs, norms, and behaviors place its members in opposition in the broader culture
ex: hippies, KKK, Militant group, Cult group
Ideal Culture
A people’s ideal values and norms; the goals held out for them
Real Culture
the norms and values that people ACTUALLY followo
Cultural Lag
Some parts of culture change faster than others
-symbolic takes time to catch up with material
ex: table setting, school year
-sets frame work for a groups
nonmaterial culture
Cultural diffusing and leveling
cultural traits spread between cultures
cultures become more similar
Nature
hereditary/biological
Nurture
Social environment
According to C.Wright Mills, in what ways were people able to use sociological perspective to better understand their lives during the great depression?
a. to make enough money to survive, parents placed their children in the labor force
b. people blamed the european economy for triggering the european economy for triggering the great depression overseas
c. the us middle class formed out of a need for whit-collar workers
d. people realized they couldn’t find jobs because the economy had collapsed
d
According to sociological perspective, why do people choose spouses who share their race, social class, level of education, and degree of physical attractiveness?
society guides our actions, thoughts, and feelings, narrowing our choices to people similar to ourselves
which piece of info best helps describes an individual’s social location?
-job & income level
-how others perceive the person
-the latitude and longitude of the person’s hometown
-the person’s ability or inability to make friends
the person’s job and income level
During world war 2, women went to work in factories, understanding that men were needed to fight overseas
best example of what?
ex of people that do see their situation from a sociological perspective
Peter Berger refers to that moment when we absorb our cultural rules so that it feels instinctual as____.
Consciousness
acculturation
sociology
society within us
Society within us
Anthropology
understand culture, a people’s total way of life.
focus more on artifacts, authority (hierarchy), and language, especially kinship terms
What does culture include?
1. artifacts (toolsls, art, weapons)
2. structure (patterns that determine how its members interact with one another)
3. ideas and values (the ways the groups beliefs affect its members lives)
4. forms of communication (especially language)

students used to live with groups

Economics
production and distribution of material goods and services of a society
(single social institution)
-choices that determine production and consumption
ex: why buy one item instead of the other?
Political Science
politics and government
Psychology
processes that occur within the individual, inside what they call the “skin-bound organism”
generalizations
a statement that goes beyond the individual case and is applied to a broader group or situation
-patterns
Goals of Science
Explain why something happens
make generalizations, go beyond individual case and apply to broader groups/situations
predict, specify in the light of current knowledge what will happen
Common Sense
Those things that “everyone knows” are true
Which of the following best defines sociology?
the study of cultures
the study of processes within individuals
the study of politics and government of a society
the study of society and human behavior
the study of society and human behavior
___ sciences are the intellectual disciplines designed to explain and predict the events in our natural environment
sociological
psychological
ecological
the natural
the natural
The chief concern of anthropologists is to understand__.
culture
attitudes
behaviors
emotions
culture
The ___ sciences are the intellectual and academic disciplines designed to comprehend, explain, and predict events in our natural environments.
social
formal
applied
natural
natural
Which of the following best describes the work of experimental psychologists?
often work as therapists
give personality and intelligence tests
they do research on intelligence and emotions
they often work as counselors in school and work settings
they do research on intelligence and emotions
How is sociology different from psychology?
sociologists look at factors external to the individual
August Comte (1798-1857)
founding father of sociology
apply scientific method to social world (positivism)
bases of social order
study of society vs biologists
stressed sci method be used to society, didn’t apply to self
Karl Marx (1818-1883) & class conflict
German philosopher
social change
does not see self as sociologist
Conflict theorists
Bourgeoisie & proletariat
communism
Herbert Spencer & Social Darwinism
2nd founder
“survival of the fittest”
do not guide social reform
Emile Durkheim & social Integration
history and economics
french
comparison of suicide rates diff. countries
weak ties in community=more likely to commit suicide
social integration
must look at whole not just individual (social basis)
Class Conflict
Marx term for the struggle between capitalists and workers
Bourgeoisie
marx term for capitalists, those who own the means of production
proletariat
marx term for the exploited class, the mass of workers who do not own the means of production
social integration
the degree to which members of a group or a society feel united by shared values and other social bonds; also known as social cohesion
Max Weber
used cross-cultural & historical materials to trace the causes of social change to determine how social groups affect peoples orientation to life
religion & origin of Capitalism
“protestant ethic
value free
the view that sociologists values or beliefs should not influence social research
values
standards by which people define what is desirable or undesirable, good or bad, beautiful or ugly
objectivity
value neutrality in research
Why did Durkheim use the term “social integration” to explain the differences in suicide rates among various groups of people
The difference was due to the strength of the groups social ties
Herbert Spencer used the phrase “survival of the fittest” to refer to his theory that ___.
societies evolve over time because the fittest members adapt to their environment
Based on Emile Durkheim’s analysis, why might an unmarried, Protestant man be more likely to commit suicide than a married catholic woman?
unmarried, protestant ment have more freedom than others, and freedom weakens social ties
the word sociology combines the greek word logos, meaning study of, with the latin word sauces, meaning “____”
being with others
Which phrase best defines the protestant ethic according to max weber?
financial investments
to understand human behavior
can be used by anyone for any purpose
to investigate harmful social arrangements
should be used to improve society
why max weber believe sociology should be value free, & that sociologist’s values should not affect social research
values may taint objectivity
a group of sociologists would like to ensure that their findings are unbiased. What is the best thing they can do?
recruit other groups of sociologists to perform similar studies
Verstehen
(max weber)
german for “to understand”
your understanding of what it means to be human and to face some situation in life, you gain insight into other peoples behavior
Subjective meanings
The meanings that people give their own behavior
how people interpret their situation in life, how they view what they are doing and what is happening to them
Social Facts (durkheim)
group’s patterns of behaviors
“use social facts to interpret social facts”
Verstehen: Weber=core to understand society. Durkheim preferred___. Actually however, ansers to social questions lie at the intersection of these two.
social facts
Durkheim said that we must use ___ to interpret social facts
social facts
way ppl interpret their situation in life, how they view what they are doing and what is happening to them is best described as
subjective meanings
4 k’s: Kirche, K├╝che, Kinder, and Kleider
(four C’s in english)
church, cooking, children, and clothes
WEB Du Bois
studied relations between african americans and whites
combined the role of academic sociologist with that of social reformer
Jane adams
nobel peace prize
poor immigrants
C Wright Mills
controversial figure
analyze role of the power elite in us society
power elite
basic sociology
making discoveries about life in human groups, not for making changes in those groups
applied sociology
used to solve problems from the micro level of classroom interaction and family relationships to the macro level of crime and pollution
Public Sociology
applying sociology for the public good; esp use of sociological perspective (how things are related to one another) to guide politicians and policy makers
in the 19th century, male academic sociologists effectively dismissed the contributions of women, many of whom had little access to higher education by___
reducing their study of social reform to social work
what challenge did female sociologists in the 19th century face
gender roles made it difficult for them to be respected as sociologists
which of the following is most likely approach an applied sociologist would take to the problem of children in an urban area who are hungry?
create a school lunch program
which program would most likely to hire an applied sociologist?
a non-profit organization’s program to improve a neighborhood
Approach of WEB Du Bois in addressing the problems facing black communities?
he spoke out against racial inequality and become involved with organizations to combat racism
WEB DU Bois described __ as a major problem facing the united states in the 20th century
racial inequality
symbolic interactionism is a micro level approach because it analyzes
meanings that groups attach to their social world
George herbert mead
symbolic interactionism: theoretical perspective in which society is viewed as composed of symbols that people use to establish meaning, develop their views of the world and communicate with one another
Functional analyses
theoretical framework ;society is viewed as composed of various parts,each with a function that when fulfilled contributes to society’s equilibrium also known as functionalism and structural functionalism
robert k merton
funtionalism
what do symbolic interactionists study>
everyday interactions of individuals
___ approach would be likely to ask: What are major parts of society? how are these parts linked? what does each part do to help society work?
functional analysis
Robert K merton, what is social dysfunction
any social pattern that may disrupt the operation of society
study meaning of prayer beads in different religions. Which socio type is she align with?
symbolic interactionism
how might someone using functional analysis view a handshake
as a social pattern that ties people together
which sociological approach would most likely lead to comparison of the various aspects of society the parts of the human body?
fxn analysis
Current general trend in sociology?
sociologists are re-emphasizing the use of sociology to solve real-world probs
socio perspective, how has the spread of capitalism across the globe affected our own lives?
made us more dependent on one another
define positivism
using the scientific method to study the social world
how is economic different from sociology?
economics concentrations on a single social institution
groups become friends & social outside study group. What was the manifest function of the study groups.
helping the students prepare for their chemistry exam
early female sociologists viewed sociology as
a path to social reform
what does symbolic interactionism help to explain
how people make sense out of life and their place in life
which piece of info best helps describes an individual’s social location?
job & income level
what factor contributes the most to the birth field of sociology
scientific method
which theory about work would be supported by herbert spencer’s theoriees?
highly educated and skilled workers move up and become leaders
according to fun analysts, why might a family experience a temporary, though mild, crisis if an oldest son leaves home to attend college
roles of each person in family would shift and change
max weber concluded that ___ was the key factor in the rise of capitalism around the world
religion
C Wright Mills ,” the sociological imagination enables us to grasp the connection between history and biography”? meaning
personalities are determined by external forces
writing ppr on unfairness of wage differences bt races and genders. Which socio approach?
conflict theory
conduct study on global economic crisis and how unemployment are affecting the rate of college attendance in various countries. ___ level
macro
relationship between human behavior and sociological research?
socio research can be on any human behavior
why is socio research important?
in order to answer ?s about human behavior, we need to move beyond guesswork and common sense.
In comparison to sociological research, common sense is __ understanding social life.
an insufficient means of
a researcher find that the use of deodorant cause break cancer. Subsequent studies bu other researches, however, have not replicated this finding. The 1st researcher’s study lacks____
reliability
important to share results of research even if H disproven
others repeat research & compare results
b4 research, must know EXACTLY what “eating disorders” entail in context of his study. Jack needs a(n)___
operational definition
the statement of what you expect to find according to predictions from a theory is known as the ___
hypothesis
which of the following is the 1st basic step in sic research
selecting a topic
decide research eating disorders. determine how begin teen girls. next step in research model
review literature
when an operational def measure what they are intended to measure they are said to be
valid
____ focuses on a single even, situation, or individual
case study
In a ___, everyone in your target population has the same chance of being included in the study
randome sample
Participant observation is also known as
field work
karl wants to study buying habits of other students at uni. Which method?
survey
Sudhir Venkatesh’s research with chicago gangs imply about socio research
researches must understand the true nature of their work and know how fully they are willing to follow it through
feared that their interviews of rapists in prison might be affected by
interviewer bias
Gender is influential in social research because
gender is significant in our lives in general
jess downplays answers in interview bc of fear interviewer will view her as whiney and incompetent
interview bias
Laud Humphreys’ research on “tearooms” stir ethical