Light is electromagnetic energy with a _____ frequency and a _____ wavelength compared to radios.
What type of light is used in fiber optic transmissions?
What are the four items needed for a fiber optic system to work?
Transmitter, fiber optic cable, receiver, and connector
1 mW is the same as what in dBm?
0 dBm (absolute power)
How is the power measured in fiber optics?
What fiber optic wavelength has the lowest loss?
1550 nm wavelength
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What wavelength windows are used most for fiber optic communications?
850 nm, 1300 nm, and 1550 nm wavelengths
What year was fiber optic cable first used in commercial telephone systems in the U.S.?
What light source is used for singlemode fiber?
What two light sources are used with multimode fiber?
LED and VCSEL
All wavelengths of light travel at the same speed. (true or false; why)
False; different wavelengths of light travel at different velocities
Which type of fiber has the larger core size: singlemode or multimode?
What is OSHA responsible for?
OSHA is responsible for enforcing it’s standards on regulated entities
What are two ways to reduce modal dispersion?
Use a smaller core; use graded-index fiber
What happens to the wavelength in fiber when the number of modes increase?
The wavelength gets shorter with more modes
Where does Fresnel reflection occur?
Air gas and mechanical interconnections
What is it called when light bends when moving between water and air?
What is the refractive index of the core and cladding of fiber?
Core – 1.457 and 1.451; cladding – 1.42
Singlemode fiber systems usually operate at what three wavelengths?
1310 nm, 1550 nm, and 1625 nm wavelengths
What two multimode wavelengths are the most commonly used?
850 nm and 1300 nm wavelengths
How is attenuation measured?
What is a “mode” in fiber?
A path of light
What will happen to the tensile strength of a fiber cable if it is bent more than recommended?
The tensile strength decreases
OM3 and OM4 multimode fibers are known as what type of fiber?
Laser optimized multimode fiber
What are the two most common core and cladding sizes in multimode fiber?
62.5/125 um (US); 50/125 um (EU)
What is the buffer size for a fiber used in tight buffered cables?
What jacket color does singlemode fiber have?
What are the 12 fiber color codes in order?
Blue, Orange, Green, Brown, Slate, White, Red, Black, Yellow, Violet, Rose, Aqua
OM1 and OM2 are known as what types of fibers?
Legacy multimode fibers
Why does graded-index fiber use numerous concentric layers of glass?
Reduce modal dispersion
What is the fiber’s cladding bonded to during the assembly process?
A fiber optic cable that is “fire retardant and low smoke” is called what according to the NEC?
What type of fiber has an aqua jacket?
Laser optimized multimode fiber
What does the gel in a loose tube fiber optic cable protect the fiber from if the jacket fails?
Protects the fiber from moisture in outdoor environments
What is OFNR?
Optical Fiber Non-conductive Riser
The NEC considers cables that contain no conductive members as what type of cable?
What type of cable has optical fibers and current-carrying electrical conductors in the same jacket?
What is the name of the tight-buffered cable used for indoor applications?
What is the last thing you do before you test a connection?
What material is used for precision fiber connector ferrules?
What pattern of polishing is used to finish a fiber connector end-face with the hand polish technique?
An MPO connector is recognized by the ANSITIA-568-C.3 standard. (true or false)
An SC connector is recognized by the ANSITIA-568-C.3 standard. (true or false)
What safety forms must be available when using any type of chemical?
Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)
How do you dispose of wast fiber ends?
A sealable container marked for fiber waste
What type of loss results from mated fiber ends not being perpendicular to the fiber’s axis due to a poor cleave angle?
A 1.25 mm ferrule is used with what type of connector?
A small form factor connector
The NEC is updated every _____ years.
What is required at termination points of a cable containing metallic members?
Bounding to grounding
What kind of cable kit branches the fiber’s contained in a loose tube fiber optic cable onto 900 um outdoor diameter protective tubes?
Fan out kits
What are most singlemode fiber ends terminated to?
Fresnel reflection can be reduced by using what type of material?
Index matching gel
How should the scoring blade be held, in relation to the fiber, to achieve a good cleave?
Perpendicular to the fiber
What should be left for future changes when installing cable?
What color identifies a singlemode fiber connector’s strain relief, adapter housing, and plug body?
What light source(s) would you use to test multimode Local Area Network (LAN) connections?
LED and VCSEL
What is an inspection scope used for?
Identify dirty, damaged, or poorly finished connectors
NEC article 770 states that unlisted cable shall extend no more than how many feet inside a structure before transitioning to listed cables?
Which NEC article covers grounding and bounding?
What does NEC stand for?
National Electronic Code
What is the generally accepted dynamic bend radius of a fiber optic cable?
20 times dynamic; 10 times static
What class of laser has the fewest hazards associated with it?
When inspecting the end face of a connector, where are you allowed to have minor defects?
If you have a cross section of a fiber optic cable, where is the cladding: center, middle, outer ring?
What is the acronym for LASER?
Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation
What does OFCR stand for?
Optical Fiber Conductive Riser
What are the three fiber fabrication methods to making a preform?
MCVD, OVD, and VAD
What is the diameter for the acrylate coating?
What are the three types of dispersion?
Modal, chromatic, and waveguide
What component of an optical power meter converts light to electrical energy?
What is the purpose of the cladding?
Total internal reflection
Which class of laser has the highest power and is used for surgery, research, drilling?
Name three advantages of fiber optic cables versus copper cables.
Security, light weight, bandwidth, low signal loss, electromagnetic immunity, safety, and small size
What do the sequential markings on a fiber jacket represent?
Approximate length of cable
Name three ways fiber optic cables are used today.
Network/telecommunications, cellular systems, electrical utilities, security systems (CCTV), military, medical equipment
Never look directly into the end of fiber cables, especially with a microscope, until you are certain there is no light being transmitted down it. (true or false)
Electrodes in a fusion splicer become rounded or corroded when worn and should be replaced when the arc count reaches _____, or at the interval recommended by the manufacturer
What is the ferrule diameter for a ST or SC connector?
What is the first event on an OTDR trace?
Which has more bandwidth: singlemode or multimode?
What type of light source does a VFL have?
What is the purpose of the Kevlar in the jacket of a fiber cable?
Protection and strength
What is the maximum allowed loss for a fusion splice?
What does a continuity tester test for?
Breaks in fiber
Fiber optic transmissions are visible to the naked eye. (true or false)
What is the last event on an OTDR trace?
What is the initial test run on a fusion splicer when first turning on the equipment?
What is the maximum loss for a mated connector pair?
What do Physical Contact (PC) or Angled Physical Contact (APC) ferrule finishes reduce?
What test equipment requires periodic and traceable calibrations?
Optical power meter
When using a conduit with one cable, what is the maximum fill ratio percentage by cross-sectional area?
The splicing environment must be kept as _____ as possible.
The Telcordia general recommendation GR-326 CORE specification recommends that fiber optic connectors have a repeatability value of not greater than _____.
What type of panel is used as a central location for cross connecting, monitoring, or testing fiber cables?
What must you be aware of when preparing to install a fiber optic cable in a conduit?
Maximum fill ration
A microscope will not confirm fiber continuity over short distances. (true or false)
What instrument is used for testing fiber spans, shows loss per kilometer, and total distance of measurements?
Optical Time Domain Reflectometer (OTDR)
What must installers consider when installing fiber optic cables?