ESL Supplemental Practice 3

Which of the following statements accurately reflects knowledge, research, and practices involving ESL students’ acquisition of academic language proficiency in content areas?

A. Acquiring academic language in L2 is a much longer process than acquiring conversational proficiency in L2.

B. Academic language proficiency is significantly promoted when ESL students are taught in an immersion approach.

C. Academic language proficiency proceeds at a faster rate when teaching focuses on distinct L2 skills rather than holistic teaching.

D. Scaffolded ESL instruction provides immediate increases in content-area proficiency but creates dependent learners in the long run.

A
As part of each experiment, each student has to write a report explaining the results of the experiment. Because Mr. Sauls wants to ensure that his teaching strategies address English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) for writing, he invites an English teacher colleague to conduct a writing workshop as the students complete their reports. Which of the following strategies would best enable Mr. Sauls to meet ELPS expectations for writing?

A. During the workshop, the English teacher reviews each report and marks all errors in spelling, punctuation, and word choice. The students then rewrite the reports reflecting the corrections made by the English teacher.

B. As part of the workshop, students exchange reports for peer editing. Mr. Sauls tells students that they need to find at least five errors in each report they read and correct them for their classmates.

C. Because the ESL students probably lack sufficient vocabulary to write their reports correctly, the English teacher encourages them to write their reports in L1 first and then translate their writing into L2.

D. The English teacher and Mr. Sauls conference using directive and nondirective strategies to help the ESL students describe and explain the results of their experiment in well-written sentences using terminology that reflects their understanding of the science content.

D
Idioms pose particular challenges for ESL students because

A. idioms frequently are based on sophisticated allusions that ESL students are not likely to recognize.

B. the meaning of idioms cannot be derived from the literal meaning of the component words in the expression.

C. idiomatic expressions can be understood only if the speaker knows the genesis of the expression.

D. idioms usually have ambiguous meanings.

B
A high school chemistry teacher wants his ELL students to pay more attention to the language of the reports they submit after each experiment. His students seem to understand the procedures and outcomes of each experiment, but their grades are low due to problems in language use and mechanics. Which of the following instructional strategies would best promote ELL students’ communicative competence in chemistry assignments?

A. The teacher starts putting two separate grades on each experiment: a content grade and a grammar grade.

B. The teacher distributes a checklist that students must complete before submitting each report. The checklist includes items such as “I looked up words that I might have misspelled,” “I used punctuation correctly,” and “I spelled all scientific terms correctly.”

C. The teacher integrates a writing workshop into each experiment unit. Working in small groups, students share their drafts with each other, conference with the teacher, and revise their work in class.

D. The teacher stops taking language use, grammatical correctness, and effective expression into account and scores the reports only on chemistry content.

C
A middle school social studies teacher has a sheltered class made up of beginning and intermediate ELL students. To introduce a lesson on different terrains in the United States, he shows slides of deserts, woods, lakes, mountain ranges, river valleys, farmland, mountain valleys, and so on in various parts of the United States.

As he shows each scene, he asks students to brainstorm about words suggested by each scene (for example, farmland might elicit words such as rows, neat, planning, harvest, and so on) and writes the list on the board. Then he asks for student volunteers to describe each scene orally in a few sentences. This activity primarily supports which of the following ELL instructional goals?

A. Students practice oral language in a low-stress class activity

B. Students gain new knowledge through activities that develop language and content concepts in a meaningful context

C. Students learn new vocabulary by connecting images to word lists

D. Students demonstrate comprehension of important content-area knowledge.

A
A middle school social studies teacher has a sheltered class made up of beginning and intermediate ELL students. To introduce a lesson on different terrains in the United States, he shows slides of deserts, woods, lakes, mountain ranges, river valleys, farmland, mountain valleys, and so on in various parts of the United States.

As a follow-up activity, students brings photographs or illustrations of terrains where they have lived or which they have visited. They write short paragraphs describing the area in the photos. Each student is invited to sit in the Author’s Chair and briefly talk about his or her picture. This follow-up activity reflects the funds of knowledge approach in which of the following ways?

A. Students discover meaningful connections between class activities and their own experiences.

B. In listening to each other, students recognize the broad parameters of the topic covered in class.

C. In writing paragraphs about their photographs, students are able to use vocabulary they already know instead of struggling with new content-area vocabulary.

D. The writing activity prevents learners from relying on L1 words and sentence patterns.

A
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A middle school social studies teacher has a sheltered class made up of beginning and intermediate ELL students. To introduce a lesson on different terrains in the United States, he shows slides of deserts, woods, lakes, mountain ranges, river valleys, farmland, mountain valleys, and so on in various parts of the United States.

Miguel is a student in this social studies class. He brings a photograph of a small wooden house with a mountain looming in the background. When he is writing his paragraph, he raises his hand to ask the teacher for help. He points to his photograph and says, “Uhmmm . . . Very big mountain. Like fall on the house.” What language-learning strategy is Miguel demonstrating in this exchange with the teacher?

A. Student-initiated question

B. Dependence on teacher support

C. Resistance to dictionary usage

D. Circumlocution

D
Ms. Eams, a high school history teacher, is starting a unit on the Great Depression. The class is mainstream but includes approximately 50 percent intermediate ELL students. She devises several activities designed to prepare students for learning the new concepts in this chapter.

On the first day of the unit, the students walk in to discover the class has been transformed: posters of Great Depression scenes are on the walls; old books written in the 1930s are piled on a desk; copies of newspaper articles from the 1930s are tacked on the bulletin board; a small table is covered with an old table cloth; and the table is set with old dishes. By using this instructional strategy to support ESL students’ content-area learning, the teacher

A. wants students to imagine what it was like to live in the historical period they are about to study.

B. wants to demonstrate that learning history is much more than reading a history book.

C. is enhancing the contextual support for new history information.

D. wants students to connect the new history content to their own backgrounds and experiences.

C
Ms. Eams, a high school history teacher, is starting a unit on the Great Depression. The class is mainstream but includes approximately 50 percent intermediate ELL students. She devises several activities designed to prepare students for learning the new concepts in this chapter.

As an introduction to the unit, Ms. Eams shows clips from several movies set in the Great Depression. After she shows all the clips, she has students work in groups to complete this statement: “The Great Depression was a time when…” She tells students to use details from the film clips to support their response. The content-area learning strategy that this activity promotes is that students will

A. demonstrate inductive and deductive reasoning.

B. activate prior knowledge by comparing what they see in the clips to their experiences.

C. demonstrate how carefully they have read the chapter.

D. need to rely on strong content-area vocabulary to complete the assignment.

A
Ms. Eams, a high school history teacher, is starting a unit on the Great Depression. The class is mainstream but includes approximately 50 percent intermediate ELL students. She devises several activities designed to prepare students for learning the new concepts in this chapter.

Before having students read the chapter, Ms. Eams organizes the class into groups and assigns one of the 1930s articles to each group. She tells the groups that, as they read the articles, they need to come up with at least three questions about the Great Depression. When the groups make their presentations before the whole class, Ms. Eams writes all the questions on a poster board. How will this activity reinforce students’ preparation for reading the chapter content?

A. The students will have activated some prior knowledge of the historical period they are about to study.

B. Students who have difficulties in content-area reading will still know a fair amount about the new history content.

C. Students will know the most important points that will be presented in the chapter.

D. Students will develop a broad understanding of major issues in the history unit they are about to study.

A
Ms. Eams, a high school history teacher, is starting a unit on the Great Depression. The class is mainstream but includes approximately 50 percent intermediate ELL students. She devises several activities designed to prepare students for learning the new concepts in this chapter.

Which of the following metacognitive strategies will promote students’ content-area learning as they read the new information in the chapter?

A. The teacher reads the entire first section of the chapter aloud before having students read silently.

B. The teacher creates questions that students have to answer for homework.

C. The students write short summaries of the information in each section of the chapter.

D. The teacher asks students to make a list of new words they encounter in the chapter.

C
The entity that is not officially involved in formation of the Language Proficiency Assessment Committee (LPAC) is

A. the local school board.

B. the school’s parent-teacher association.

C. the school district.

D. The Texas Education Agency.

B
A second-grade ELL teacher asks her students to bring a special object from home (for example, a toy, a photograph, a book, a gift, and so on). On Story Telling Day, each student describes her or his object and tells the story of why it is special to her or him. Which of the following English Language Proficiency Standards expectations for listening and speaking is best addressed by this instructional activity?

A. Narrating, describing, and explaining

B. Distinguishing sounds and intonations in English

C. Integrating new vocabulary into day-to-day language

D. Using grade-level content-area vocabulary

A
The document that is not an official, integral component of bilingual and ESL educational policy in Texas public schools is

A. the Texas Education Code.

B. the No Child Left Behind Act.

C. the Texas Administrative Code.

D. the National Center for Education Statistics annual Condition of Education Report.

D
In an elementary class of beginning ESL students from various countries and cultures, which of the following strategies would best help students transfer L1 knowledge to L2?

A. The teacher posts pictures of events, artifacts, geographical areas, and foods from the students’ culture and labels them in L2 terms.

B. The teacher insists that students speak only in L2 throughout the day.

C. The teacher adds books in the students’ L1 to the class library and has students read in their L1.

D. After each read-aloud, the teacher asks for a volunteer to translate the story into his or her own L1.

A
Ms. Sierra has a class of beginning to intermediate fifth-grade ESL students. She puts the following assignment on the board.

Prefixes- In- and Re-

Suffixes- -s, -ed, -ing, -ment, -able

With your group, combine the root word state with each of the prefixes and suffixes. Write a sentence correctly using each of the words you created (you may use the dictionary if you need to)

The area of grammar that this activity focuses on is

A. syntax.

B. semantics.

C. morphology.

D. phonology.

C
Ms. Sierra has a class of beginning to intermediate fifth-grade ESL students. She puts the following assignment on the board.

Prefixes- In- and Re-

Suffixes- -s, -ed, -ing, -ment, -able

With your group, combine the root word state with each of the prefixes and suffixes. Write a sentence correctly using each of the words you created (you may use the dictionary if you need to)

By having each group report the results to the whole class, Ms. Sierra is promoting her ESL students’ language proficiency in which of the following ways?

A. By using a simple class activity to assess the students’ understanding of affixes

B. By giving students the opportunity to increase their L2 competence through authentic oral-language classroom experiences

C. By shifting responsibility for L2 learning from the teacher to the students through collaborative work

D. By using a collaborative approach instead of independent work to keep students from making errors due to limited L2 proficiency

B
A middle school teacher assigns her class of intermediate ELL students an expository essay on the topic “what responsibility means.” As a prewriting strategy, she has each student bring a photograph or an illustration that depicts some aspect of responsibility. Students volunteer to be on a panel to discuss the illustrations they brought. Students in the audience ask questions and make comments as the panelists present their illustrations. This teaching strategy prepares students for the writing task in which of the following ways?

A. The panel discussion will trigger students’ prior knowledge on concepts related to the essay topic.

B. The panel discussion will enable the teacher to determine which students are using original ideas when the essays are submitted.

C. The discussion will introduce new vocabulary that students should include in their essays.

D. The discussion will ensure that all students include correct information in their essays.

A
A high school teacher has his ESL class listen to excerpts from several types of music: a classical piece, a popular rap song, a country-western song, a classic rock song, and a Mexican corrido. Each group picks a song and completes the following sentences about the person who might listen to that song:

My listener’s favorite food is ________.
My listener usually wears _______.
My listener drives a ________.
My listener would never, ever _______.
My listener’s hobby is _______.

This activity is likely to help students understand that cultural bias is connected to

A. different preferences.

B. closed-mindedness.

C. conflicts between old and young persons.

D. stereotyping.

D
A high school ELL student routinely says “supposably” instead of “supposedly.” This construction indicates that the student

A. does not know how to spell “supposedly.”

B. is approximating the sounds she hears when other speakers utter the word supposedly.

C. is not using her monitor in oral-language production.

D. has never seen the word “supposedly” in print; if she had, she would not be mispronouncing it.

B
Mr. Brentwood is collecting data for his yearly classroom assessment of the ELL students in his middle school science class.

Mr. Brentwood records the following notes about Rosario, a recent immigrant currently categorized as an intermediate ELL:

• Never asks questions when I introduce a new assignment. Instead, speaking in Spanish, she turns to ask a classmate.
• During informal class activities, she interacts comfortably with classmates but speaks in Spanish.
• When asked a question during class discussions, she responds monosyllabically.
• In group work, she sits quietly, nonparticipatory, but seems to understand what her group members are saying.
• When asked about incomplete homework assignments, she shrugs her shoulders. If I ask for details, she usually says, “Didn’t do it.”

This teacher’s notes will be useful in making an informal assessment about the student’s achievement in

A. academic language proficiency.

B. listening and speaking

C. content-area knowledge

D. general language proficiency

D
Mr. Brentwood is collecting data for his yearly classroom assessment of the ELL students in his middle school science class.

Which of the following adjustments should Mr. Brentwood make in his classroom presentations to promote his ELL students’ language development?

A. Whenever he notices students speaking in Spanish, he should interrupt them, tell them they have to speak in English, and have them come to his desk for reteaching.

B. As he lectures, he should stop occasionally and ask an advanced ELL student to translate the information for classmates who are having trouble understanding the content.

C. He should model think-alouds that illustrate how to express understanding, confusion, questions, need for more explanation, and other responses to typical class situations.

D. He should have a question-and-answer session at the end of each lecture, requiring every student in the class to ask one question

C
A third-grade teacher in a two-way dual-language immersion program is conducting a geography lesson in her class. She has large pictures of geographical sites such as volcanoes, rivers, rain forests, deserts, canyons, and so on. She gives each group a picture and directions for the geography assignment. Which of the following directions for further class activity would best reflect the characteristics of a two-way dual-language immersion program?

A. Each group collaborates in writing a paragraph in English describing their picture.

B. Each group creates a T-chart showing words that describe the picture with L1 words on one side and L2 on the other.

C. The teacher creates a master list of English words that describe geographical sites. Each group selects the words that fit their picture.

D. Each group collaborates in writing a paragraph in L1 describing their picture.

B
Which of the following passages shows correct use of a modal?

A. He got his first pen when he was eight. He wrote his first story and felt he had grown up. He felt the story or the words he wrote won’t be erased.

B. He got his first pen when he was eight. He wrote his first story and felt he had grown up. He felt the story or the words he wrote will not be erased.

C. He got his first pen when he was eight. He wrote his first story and felt he had grown up He felt the story or the words he wrote would not be erased.

D. He got his first pen when he was eight. He wrote his first story and felt he had grown up He would feel the story or the words he wrote won’t be erased.

C
A school district on the Texas-Mexico border has implemented a two-way dual-immersion program to meet federal and state mandates for teaching ELL students. Which of the following statements accurately characterizes a key outcome of this district’s approach to ESL instruction?

A. Native speakers of English will receive 75 percent of their daily instruction in English.

B. ELL students will be taught exclusively in Spanish for most of the day but will have to take all tests and complete all homework assignments in English. Additionally, only English will be allowed during class discussions.

C. All learners will acquire proficiency (or developing proficiency) in a second language.

D. After one year of two-way dual-immersion classes, ELL students will be automatically moved into English-only classrooms.

C
Parental notification that a student has been classified as an ELL and is recommended for placement in the school district’s ESL program comes from

A. the Language Proficiency Assessment Committee.

B. the student’s English language arts teacher.

C. the school principal.

D. the school district’s ESL coordinator.

A
An elementary school teacher wants his beginning ESL class to participate meaningfully in an upcoming science unit on insects. A teaching activity that would be an effective introductory strategy for this science unit would be for the teacher to

A. show a film on common insects and then ask students to talk about which part they liked best.

B. conduct a short lecture on misconceptions about insects.

C. put plastic models of insects all around the room and have each student pick an inset and draw it on a 3 x 5 card and on the back write three words that describe the insect.

D. arrange the students in a circle and have each student complete the following sentence orally: “I think insects are scary because….”

C
The math and science teachers at a South Texas high school tell their principal that they need guidance in assessing their students’ oral-language proficiency for spring TELPAS evaluations. Which of the following strategies would best address the math and science teachers’ request?

A. The principal gives the teachers a packet of materials from the Texas Education Agency.

B. The principal observes each teacher and gives them critiques on how effectively they are integrating oral language into content-area instruction.

C. The principal gives the teachers a packet of articles on good ESL teaching practices.

D. The ESL teachers do a demo during the next faculty meeting to illustrate how oral-language assessment can be integrated into daily class instruction.

D
A high school teacher has a class in which almost all the students are intermediate ELL students. Each day, he presents lessons through lectures followed by an end-of-class quiz. The class has a failing quiz average, so the teacher wants to implement an approach that encourages student achievement. An effective, initial change in this teacher’s current approach would be for the teacher to

A. start posting the quiz-grade average each day and to announce that everyone will get a five-point bonus each time the average goes up by five points.

B. start using a jigsaw approach with each new chapter. Instead of lecturing, he divides the chapter into sections and makes each group responsible for teaching its assigned section to the class.

C. divide the lecture into mini-lessons of no more than 10 minutes each. At the end of each mini-lesson, the teacher writers the essential points on the board and asks students to write it in their daily notes.

D. start making audio tapes of each lesson. He has students listen to each lesson as many times as necessary until they pass the quiz for that lesson.

C
The 1974 Supreme Court Case, Lau v. Nichols, is important in the history of bilingual and ESL education in America because the court ruled that

A. bilingual and ESL programs in American schools must be exclusively and entirely funded through federally granted resources.

B. all students in America are entitled to an education that guarantees fluency both in English and in at least one other language.

C. establishing separate but equal educational programs for native speakers and nonnative speakers of English adequately safeguards all students’ constitutional rights to fair and equal treatment.

D. without access to education designed to promote proficiency in English, nonnative English-speaking students could not receive equality of treatment in the delivery of education.

D
Ms. Gorman, a high school English teacher has a ninth-grade class that includes a significant number of ESL students ranging from newcomer to advanced levels. She is introducing a thematic unit on change as the theme, using a frequently taught poem as the anchor text.

On the first day of the unit, she writes the word “CHANGE” in big letters on a poster board. She tells students to complete the following sentence: “To me, change means ________. ” She marks off a 3-inch x 5-inch box on the poster and models the activity by writing: “To me, change means that something is different.” After students complete their sentences, they briefly explain their sentences to the whole class and write them on the poster board. Which of the following statements best explains how this activity promotes English-language proficiency in the context of the teacher’s unit?

A. This prereading activity promotes oral-language proficiency by allowing students to focus on shared experiences relevant to the unit theme.

B. This comprehension activity gives the teacher an opportunity to create a semantic map using some of the concepts suggested by the students’ sentences.

C. This writing activity allows students to create a short text (the single sentence), which they can expand into a full essay as a culminating unit activity.

D. This grammar activity allows the teacher to correct the sentences as the students post them on the poster board.

A
Ms. Gorman, a high school English teacher has a ninth-grade class that includes a significant number of ESL students ranging from newcomer to advanced levels. She is introducing a thematic unit on change as the theme, using a frequently taught poem as the anchor text.

Which of the following teaching activities would enable Ms. Gorman to promote her ESL students’ Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency in this poem-based thematic unit?

A. The teacher has students visit an Internet site that provides biographical information on the poet. They then submit a short written report on what they learned about the poet.

B. The teacher has students memorize the poem, and, for a quiz grade, has them write the poem from memory.

C. The teacher reads the poem aloud, and then rereads it, stopping to explain the metaphors and imagery using photographs and other props that reflect the pivotal images in the poem.

D. The teacher has students write a response essay explaining what they like or don’t like about the poem.

C
A middle school English teacher is having a writing workshop in which students will work on their essay drafts. The class is a mainstream English class evenly divided among native speakers and intermediate and advanced ESL students. On workshop day, the teacher gives each student three colored pencils and gives the class the following directions:

• Underline the sentence that you are proudest of having written. This may be a sentence that you are proud of because of how you wrote it (the syntactic structure) or because of what it says (the content).
• With a different color, circle the single word that you are proudest of having included in your essay.
• With the third color, circle one or more words that you are unsure of (you think perhaps you are misusing them or you’re not sure about the meaning or you’re not sure if they fit the sentence, and so on).

After the students complete this activity, the teacher has mini-conferences with her students, listening to them as they explain what they underlined and circled in their drafts. This teaching activity reflects the teacher’s interest in promoting her ESL students’ language proficiency in which of the following ways?

A. The teacher wants her students to develop independence as writers.

B. The teacher is providing her students an opportunity to demonstrate metacognitive awareness of their language choices.

C. The teacher wants to make sure that her students use in-class workshopping to correct their sentences and word choices.

D. The teacher wants students to understand that every sentence they write must be correctly structured and effectively worded.

B
An elementary school teacher gives her beginning ESL students the following directions:

• Form your reading circles in your usual areas.
• Tell your reading circle partners your birth date (month, day, and year).
• Talk with your reading circle partners to figure out who has the earliest birthday in the year.
• Whoever has the earliest birthday hands out the reading circle books today.

The ESL teaching method that this classroom interaction activity reflects is

A. total physical response.

B. immersion.

C. basic interpersonal communicative skills.

D. pragmatics.

A
In an elementary class of beginning ELL students, the teacher wants to introduce more writing. However, many of her students live in homes where only L1 is spoken. Consequently, they have not yet developed sufficient L2 vocabulary to write complete sentences. Which of the following strategies would best promote these students’ writing development?

A. The teacher has each student pick his or her favorite book from the class library. Each student has to copy five sentences from the book into his or her writing notebook.

B. The teacher has an Author’s Chair day. Each student brings a favorite toy and tells a story about it. After the student tells the story of the favorite toy, the teacher writes a one-sentence summary and has all the students copy it into their writing notebooks.

C. The teacher organizes the class into writing circles. Each group picks an object out of the class surprise box. Each writing circle writes a storybook, with illustrations, about the object they picked. Each group presents their story to the whole class.

D. The teacher concentrates on reading until students acquire sufficient vocabulary and syntax knowledge to write meaningful sentences.

C
A high school teacher wants his ELL students to understand the importance of using vivid details in writing that describes or explains. Which of the following instructional strategies would best enable students to recognize the power of details in writing?

A. The teacher hands out a short passage from a story the class has recently read and asks students to highlight sensory details in green and explanations in yellow.

B. During a writing workshop, the teacher puts students in groups of three. The students are to read each other’s drafts and underline every detail in the draft. If the peer readers cannot identify any details in their group members’ drafts, the writer has to add details.

C. Group members collaborate in writing a three-minute description of a chocolate chip cookie. The teacher collects all the descriptions and redistributes them to different groups. Then, he collects all the cookies and arranges them on the front desk. The students try to match the descriptions to the cookies.

D. The teacher gives each group of students a simple verb (for example, run, walk, talk, sit, look). Each group is asked to come up with five different synonyms for their assigned verb. Each group picks one of their new words and acts it out for the class.

C
A high school history teacher realizes that his ELL students are having significant difficulties in understanding the content of each new chapter. To introduce the next chapter, he creates an outline of the key points. Prior to starting the chapter, he projects the outline on the overhead and has students copy the outline. Which of the following adjustments should the teacher make to this activity to promote his students’ better understanding of history content?

A. After they finish copying the outline, the teacher should have several students read the outline orally.

B. As a next step, the teacher should model how to create a graphic organizer connecting the key concepts in the outline.

C. After the students finish copying the outline, the teacher should check all the outlines to ensure the students copied everything correctly.

D. As a next step, the teacher should give students time to work in groups to discuss the outline and then administer a quiz to determine the students’ understanding.

B
The following verb forms occur in an essay written by a fifth-grade ESL student:

“haded, knowed, ated, thinked, knewed, runned, breaked, broked, had”

These forms indicate that the student

A. is overgeneralizing in his use of the past morpheme.

B. has limited understanding of verb tense forms in English.

C. has not yet internalized rules for irregular verb forms in English.

D. lacks phonological understanding to recognize that the -ed suffix sounds “wrong” when attached incorrectly.

A
A teacher is using literature circles in her third-grade ESL class. Which of the following explanations offers the best rationale for promoting literacy through literature circles?

A. Because the groups select the text they want to read, the students’ interest level in reading is higher.

B. Literature circles allow the teacher to integrate more texts into the curriculum.

C. Literature circles are based on books that are simple to read, so students have an easier time doing the required work.

D. No reading skills are addressed in literature circles, so students enjoy the activity far more than routine reading lessons.

A
Early in the school year, a middle school ESL teacher gives each student a 4 x 6 card and makes the following assignment:

On the blank side, please write in large letters a single word that you think describes you perfectly. On the ruled side, write a little story or just a paragraph explaining how and why that word fits you. The word you pick can be either English or Spanish.

After the students complete their cards, the teacher has each student read his or her statement. Then the teacher posts all the cards, word side showing, on the class community board. Which of the following components of creating and maintaining an effective multicultural learning environment does this activity primarily promote?

A. By sharing information about themselves, the students will work more effectively in groups.

B. By sharing information about themselves, students will develop awareness of and respect for each other’s cultural diversity.

C. By displaying the cards on the board, the teacher will have readily available examples of L1 and L2 words for grammar and writing lessons.

D. By having students read their statements orally, the teacher will establish a baseline for tracking students’ speaking skills throughout the year.

B
A high school teacher is preparing her ELL class for the state-mandated writing exam. She wants to familiarize her students with the format of the writing exam as well as to teach them writing-on-demand strategies.

The teacher creates a prompt modeled on the state-mandated writing exam. She leads a discussion on how to break down the topic and do quick planning. To most effectively promote students’ understanding of the writing task, the teacher

A. does a think-aloud and a demonstration of how she would respond to the prompt, writing her response in front of the class.

B. tells students that the exam will require quick writing. She distributes new prompts and gives students 15 minutes to write an essay.

C. breaks students into groups and has each group create a collaboratively written essay.

D. arranges the class into a large circle. She composes a starting sentence for the essay. In a round-robin approach, each student in the circle contributes a sentence to the developing essay.

A
A high school teacher is preparing her ELL class for the state-mandated writing exam. She wants to familiarize her students with the format of the writing exam as well as to teach them writing-on-demand strategies.

After the introductory activity, the teacher writes a new prompt on the board. Students are given a class period to respond to the selected prompt. Which of the following would be a good next step in meeting the teacher’s goal?

A. Students take the drafts home to revise them and submit them the next day for a grade.

B. The teacher collects the essays written in class, scores them, and returns them to the students the next day.

C. The teacher collects the essays, covers each name with a label, and distributes the essays for students to score using a rubric based on the state-mandated expectations.

D. The next day, the teacher has one-to-one conferences with each student to point out the problems in the student’s essay.

C
The fundamental purpose of federal and state regulations regarding ESL education is to

A. provide equal educational opportunities for all learners.

B. develop a citizenry that is fluent in English.

C. promote English as the official language of the United States.

D. reduce immigrant students’ dependence on L1 in everyday social and academic activities.

A
A sixth-grade teacher creates a lesson focused on Sandra Cisneros’s story “My Name” and Alice Walker’s story “Everyday Use.” She introduces the unit with the following book talk:

These stories present characters who have issues with their names. Esperanza, a Hispanic girl is named after her grandmother, but says the syllables in her name feel like they’re made of tin and hurt the roof of her mouth. In the end, she says she would like to change her name. In the other story, Dee, a young African American woman, is also named after her grandmother. She changes her name to “Wangero” after she goes to college and studies the civil rights movement.

After the students read the stories, the teacher leads a class discussion starting with these questions:

• Why are their names so important to these characters?
• In what ways are their names more than just names?

On her lesson plan, the teacher includes an explanation of how this unit addresses important concerns in ESL teaching. The best rationale is that the discussion

A. demonstrates the importance of using prior knowledge to launch a literature unit.

B. fosters students’ respect for cultural and linguistic diversity.

C. encourages students to talk about the stories surrounding their own names.

D. illustrates the connection between names and individual identity.

B
Which of the following is a cornerstone of dual-language immersion programs?

A. All students in the program develop language proficiency in both L1 and L2.

B. Paired with one or more L1 students, L2 students serve as literacy coaches for the nonnative speakers.

C. The curriculum is modified, allowing teachers to reduce the amount of content-area material that needs to be taught in both languages.

D. Dual-immersion programs extend only through the end of elementary grades because the increasing complexity of content is impossible to address in the two-language framework.

A
In an essay, a high school student wrote the following sentence: “I am sitting in class, the geometry teacher up front droning like a cicada on a summer evening.” Which of the following terms describes the underlined part of this sentence?

A. Absolute

B. Subordinate clause

C. Participle phrase

D. Misplaced modifier

A
A high school ESL teacher is having students take turns reading aloud. Every time someone stumbles or hesitates over a word, the students who know the correct pronunciation laugh at the reader. The teacher continues the read-aloud, but the next time someone laughs at a mispronounced word, she stops and says: “Reading aloud can be scary. You’re on the spot. You’re sort of performing. Let’s listen politely and pay attention to the words we are reading, not to words we’re hearing. And if you want to help your classmate, instead of laughing, how about saying the word he or she is trying to pronounce?” The teacher’s actions focus on which of the following ESL learner needs?

A. By choosing to explain instead of rebuke, the teacher is supporting the students’ affective learning domain.

B. By continuing the read-aloud, the teacher is demonstrating that linguistic growth occurs by working through a problem independently.

C. By choosing not to embarrass the students who are laughing, the teacher is promoting a sense of camaraderie among the students.

D. The teacher is supporting the cognitive domain; instead of focusing on the students who are laughing, the teacher keeps the students’ concentration on the content.

A
The list that best reflects research- and practice-based instructional practices designed to create educational equity for ESL students is

A. grammar drills, frequent testing, and limited L1 support.

B. students’ prior knowledge, scaffolding, and collaborative work.

C. oral-language precedence, simplified curriculum, and targeted teaching to standardized tests.

D. parental involvement, curricular accommodations, and L2 immersion.

B
A teacher is using writing circles in her fifth-grade ESL class. She adjusts the typical writing circle framework to have students create stories based on family history and events. She gives the class the following assignment:

I want each of you to ask a parent or another relative to tell you a story about an important person in your family. Make sure you write down some of the details, but you don’t have to write the whole story unless you want to. In class tomorrow, you will work in your literature circles to select one story to turn into a book that you illustrate and then present to the whole class. Then we will turn our stories into short plays and invite your parents to see your plays.

Which of the following tenets of effective ESL instruction does this class activity primarily address?

A. The teacher is conveying to students the importance of looking for story material in familiar environments.

B. The teacher is creating an assignment that integrates reading, writing, speaking, and listening.

C. The teacher is promoting family involvement in ESL students’ education.

D. The teacher is taking into account the diversity of student abilities; students will be able to collaborate on art, writing, and presentation.

C
A school district has an ESL program in which ELL students are integrated with English speakers for core academic course instruction in L2. The program components include biliteracy, biculturalism, and cross-cultural awareness, but the focus is to provide targeted L2 instruction that promotes academic achievement and L2 proficiency among ELL students. For which ESL education model does this program meet the criteria?

A. Home-language enrichment

B. Two-way dual-language immersion

C. One-way dual-language immersion

D. Mainstreaming

C
Mr. Christopher, a middle school social studies teacher, has a mainstream class that includes a large number of intermediate ESL students. His ESL students are having trouble understanding the basic information in each chapter. Ms. Caranza, a colleague who teaches ESL classes, suggests two things: that he break up his lectures into mini-lessons, and that he create groups that include two or more native speakers in each group and allow students to network with each other after each mini-lesson.

The language-learning scaffold that Ms. Caranza’s advice to Mr. Christopher reflects is

A. syllabus-based instruction.

B. reliance on universal grammar.

C. the zone of proximal development.

D. holistic assessment.

C
Mr. Christopher, a middle school social studies teacher, has a mainstream class that includes a large number of intermediate ESL students. His ESL students are having trouble understanding the basic information in each chapter. Ms. Caranza, a colleague who teaches ESL classes, suggests two things: that he break up his lectures into mini-lessons, and that he create groups that include two or more native speakers in each group and allow students to network with each other after each mini-lesson.

The value of mini-lessons in helping ESL learners acquire content knowledge is that

A. mini-lessons are short in order to keep ESL students from getting bored when they don’t understand.

B. mini-lessons enable the teacher to divide a lesson into manageable “chunks” of information to help students receive comprehensible input.

C. in mini-lessons, difficult concepts are omitted, so even beginning ESL learners are able to understand.

D. mini-lessons are delivered very quickly so that the teacher is able to cover a lot more information in a class session.

B
Mr. Christopher, a middle school social studies teacher, has a mainstream class that includes a large number of intermediate ESL students. His ESL students are having trouble understanding the basic information in each chapter. Ms. Caranza, a colleague who teaches ESL classes, suggests two things: that he break up his lectures into mini-lessons, and that he create groups that include two or more native speakers in each group and allow students to network with each other after each mini-lesson.

Mr. Christopher plans to use Ms. Caranza’s mini-lesson and networking suggestion to promote his ESL students’ understanding of social studies content. Which of the following additional classroom activities would help him meet his goal?

A. After each networking session, each group offers the following report to the whole class: “We think the most important information in this mini-lesson is ________, but we want more explanation of ________.”

B. Before each networking session, Mr. Christopher asks each student to write down one word she or he doesn’t understand, and he creates a class list of vocabulary words.

C. As part of each networking session, students silently reread the section of the chapter just covered in the mini-lesson.

D. At the end of each networking session, each student writes a paragraph summarizing the information in the mini-lesson.

A
A teacher is conducting a read-aloud session in a sixth-grade language arts class. George is a newcomer ESL student. When it’s his turn to read, the teacher says, “George, how about continuing where Aimee left off?” George says, “No, thank you.” George’s response can be explained by which of the following language concepts?

A. Register

B. Semantics

C. Monitor hypothesis

D. Pragmatics

D
An English teacher reads aloud a chapter from a novel to her middle school ESL students. The chapter is about Rey, a Hispanic boy, who jumps out of a tree to prove to his friends that he’s a man. The chapter includes quite a few sentences that show code switching between English and Spanish as the narrator muses about how he has to jump to fulfill cultural expectations. At the end of the read-aloud, the teacher asks, “How many of you have done something similar to what Rey did?” She invites students to share their stories. This teaching activity creates a multicultural learning environment primarily by

A. showing students that even a simple childhood event can be turned into a story.

B. encouraging ESL students to talk comfortably in a classroom oral-language activity.

C. showing students connections between shared common childhood experience and culturally driven behaviors.

D. showing students how integrating L1 is essential to presenting an experience in L2 effectively.

C
Mr. Sauls teaches a high school biology class made up of native speakers and intermediate to advanced ESL students. A good bit of the course work involves conducting experiments in class by following written directions provided by the teacher. Students work collaboratively on each experiment.

Mr. Sauls notices that each time a new experiment is assigned, the ESL students turn away from their assigned groups and talk in their native language with the other ESL students. Which of the following strategies would most effectively support the teacher’s goal to use collaborative work to promote his ESL students’ language competence?

A. The teacher tells the ESL students that to learn science content, they must speak in English rather than in their L1.

B. The teacher restructures the groups to include two or more ESL students in each group.

C. Using an Internet translation tool, the teacher translates the experiments into the students’ L1.

D. The teacher moves from group to group and reads the instructions orally to each group.

B
Mr. Sauls teaches a high school biology class made up of native speakers and intermediate to advanced ESL students. A good bit of the course work involves conducting experiments in class by following written directions provided by the teacher. Students work collaboratively on each experiment.

Which of the following teaching activities would enable Mr. Sauls to promote his ESL students understanding of science content?

A. To help the students understand the scientific concepts addressed by the hands-on experiments, Mr. Sauls has the ESL students read elementary-level books on the relevant science concepts.

B. Before the next experiment, Mr. Sauls schedules a computer lab period so that ESL students can search for information on the experiment on websites in their native language.

C. Before the next experiment, Mr. Sauls models a similar experiment and posts illustrations throughout the room to reinforce the ESL students’ understanding of the procedures.

D. Before the next experiment, Mr. Sauls administers a pretest to predict areas in which students may have comprehension problems.

C
Mr. Reyes teaches fourth grade in a South Texas school district. He wants to create a multicultural and multilingual environment in his math classes. One day, he brings in materials for students to make their own piatas. Mr. Reyes creates a math unit structured around the piatas as manipulatives.

In what primary way does the introduction of the piatas contribute to creating a multicultural and multilingual environment?

A. The students will be unable to talk about the piatas in English and will have to use Spanish.

B. The students will want to talk in Spanish, and this will provide the teacher an opportunity to direct the students into English-only math.

C. Because he is using piatas as props, the teacher will have to create the math problems in Spanish.

D. The math lessons the teacher creates around the piatas will connect students funds of knowledge to academic course content.

D
Mr. Reyes teaches fourth grade in a South Texas school district. He wants to create a multicultural and multilingual environment in his math classes. One day, he brings in materials for students to make their own pinatas. Mr. Reyes creates a math unit structured around the pinatas as manipulatives.

Mr. Reyes writes math problems such as the following on posters and displays them at the front of the classroom. Students work in groups to solve the problems and explain their calculations.

Imagine that your pinata has to be shipped to Kearney, Nebraska. What size mailing box would have to be used? Report the size in length, height, and width and be ready to explain how you got your answer.

Assuming that each piece of candy in the pinata is about one cubic inch in size, how many candies will it take to fill your pinata half full? Three-fourths full? Work with your group members to make sure you can explain to the whole class how you got your answers.

Which of the following explanations best addresses how Mr. Reyes’s use of the pinatas can facilitate students’ cognitive learning and language acquisition in math?

A. The students will work harder because they will understand what Mr. Reyes is talking about.

B. Using the pinatas as props, the teacher will be able to create simpler math problems than those in the book.

C. Using a culturally relevant artifact will heighten the students’ participation and learning potential in this math lesson.

D. The students will be able to solve the problems because they will not have to use difficult math formulas. Instead, they can base their answers on past experience.

C
A high school teacher wants to promote his ELL students’ vocabulary development but does not want to administer vocabulary tests. To best meet his literacy development goal, the teacher

A. has students pick vocabulary slips out of a box. Each student creates an illustrated poster to introduce her or his word to the whole class.

B. makes a list of challenging words from the class texts and has students guess at the meaning of the words.

C. makes a list of challenging words from the class texts and has students find where the words occur in those texts.

D. posts a new-word-a-day calendar and has a student volunteer read the word of the day at the beginning of each school day.

A
ESL teachers at a high school with a sheltered instruction program present a workshop on Effective Teaching Strategies for Promoting ESL Student Success in All Content Areas. The workshop is a response to content-area teachers’ concerns about not knowing how to adjust their teaching to meet ESL students’ needs. Which of the following additional advocacy activities would best enable the ESL teachers to improve their content-area colleagues’ instructional effectiveness?

A. The ESL teachers team teach one or two classes with the content-area teachers to demonstrate how to accommodate instruction and integrate ESL strategies.

B. The ESL teachers tell the content-area teachers to avoid difficult vocabulary and to repeat everything multiple times because ESL students have trouble hearing things correctly.

C. The ESL teachers tell the content-area teachers that ESL students often lack parental support in challenging academic areas and explain that this very likely explains students’ low achievement in content areas.

D. The ESL teachers give the content-area teachers several books on teaching ESL.

A
A high school teacher is having a writing conference with Ana, an advanced ELL student.

The teacher asks a question about a sentence in the draft. The student writer responds, “Pues I was reading the sample essay. It had a sentence like this one.” The student’s utterance is an example of

A. interference.

B. transfer.

C. word coinage.

D. code-switching.

D
A high school teacher is having a writing conference with Ana, an advanced ELL student.

To most likely promote the student’s oral-language competence, the teacher

A. makes the student repeat the utterance until she uses only L2 language.

B. corrects the student orally and has her write down the corrected L2 version.

C. doesn’t say anything because the insertion of the L1 word does not interfere with the speaker’s communicative intent.

D. repeats the sentence, correcting the student’s L1 usage and tells her never to use L1 words in L2 utterances.

C
In assigning listening and speaking class activities, an ESL teacher needs to take into account individual differences in language and culture because

A. in a class with diverse languages and cultures represented, the teacher needs to figure out how to get everyone to understand each other.

B. culturally based behavioral and social norms impact oral-language interactions in the class environment.

C. most ESL students are very uncomfortable about speaking in public.

D. rates of oral-language acquisition vary significantly among individual students.

B
The following sentences are from a high school student’s essay about the day he and his classmates made a teacher cry.

Instead of starting the new lesson like we did everyday, she asked us what we thought about her and her teaching. That’s when an explosion of comments erupted from us like lava flowing from a volcano.

Which of the following terms is the best label for the underlined phrase?

A. Hyperbole

B. Imagery

C. Simile

D. Alliteration

C
Which of the following establishes the federal foundation for ESL programs in Texas schools?

A. Public Law 107-110 (Elementary and Secondary Education Act)

B. The U.S. Department of Education

C. The Texas Education Agency

D. The Texas English Language Proficiency Assessment System (TELPAS)

A
In an upper elementary class of beginning to intermediate ESL students, the teacher displays the following exercise on the overhead.

Look at this set of sentences. With your group members, come up with a “rule” that explains the text structure that you see repeated in all of the sentences.
-Growing up, I spent a lot of summers with my grandparents in Mexico.
-On my grandparents’ ranch, the mesquite trees, dirt piles, and watering holes were my playgrounds.
-Almost every day, I would wake up with the first light, gobble my breakfast, and dash out the door.
-At the end of the summer, it was time to return to my home in Texas.

This teaching activity is designed to address which of the following cognitive processes in L2 acquisition?

A. Syntactic variation

B. Generalization

C. Transfer

D. Error analysis

B
Toward the end of the first grading period of the year, a middle school teacher makes the following assignment in her ESL class:

I want you to write a short letter to your parents. Write a letter that your parents will understand, so you can write in either English or Spanish or a combination. From your perspective, tell your parents the highlights of this six. Write neatly. Use some detail. You might want to add illustrations in the margins. You need to give your letter to your parents. Tomorrow, we will spend some time talking about what your parents said about your letter.

The primary purpose of this assignment is to

A. provide an authentic writing experience for the students.

B. create an opportunity for students to self-assess their progress.

C. communicate with ESL students’ parents or guardians regarding school activities.

D. measure the level of parental interest in ESL student educational activities.

C
Which of the following statements best summarizes the way an ELL teacher can use results of mandated assessment to improve student achievement in the classroom?

A. Although scores on mandated state exams provide summative assessment data, teachers can use information about performance in discrete areas of the exams to devise formative assessments embedded in day-to-day class activities.

B. Because mandated state exams create a great deal of anxiety among teachers and students, the teacher should concentrate on improving students’ comprehension of academic content instead of integrating state testing requirements.

C. Because state exams are high stakes for students and teachers, teachers should revise their curriculum to cover only material included on the mandated exams.

D. Teachers should adapt all course content to reflect the format of state assessments and administer benchmarks every few weeks.

A
An elementary school teacher is planning to introduce a new read-aloud story to a class of beginning and intermediate ELL students. Which of the following prereading strategies would best enable students to understand new vocabulary in the story?

A. The teacher posts a list of new words and has students look them up prior to the read-aloud.

B. The teacher posts labeled illustrations of the new words, with each illustration showing the new word in large letters. The teacher explains each new word prior to the read-aloud.

C. Prior to the read-aloud, the teacher has students skim through the story and write down all the words they don’t know.

D. The teacher gives the students a short summary of the new story prior to the read-aloud and tells the students that once she starts the read-aloud, they should raise their hands each time they hear a word they don’t know.

B