Environmental Valuation Of Bako National Park Environmental Sciences Essay

‘Marketing Malaysia as a finish of excellence and to do the touristry industry a major subscriber to the socio-economic development of the state ‘

This is Tourism Malaysia ‘s mission statement. It has been 37 old ages that Tourism Malaysia aims to promote the growing of touristry which will besides lend to state ‘s economic development and quality of life. The authorities began to take touristry earnestly in the late eightiess. Malaysia has launched ‘Visit Malaysia Year ‘ as the selling run in 1990, which contributed 54 % addition in international tourer reachings for that twelvemonth. The figure of visitants supports on increasing since so. Chart 1 below shows the tendency of tourer reachings and grosss to the state for the past 10 old ages.

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There was a rapid growing in both tourer reachings and grosss till the figure slowed down in the 2002 an 2003. This was due to worldwide frights of terrorist act, September 11 onslaught on the WTC in New York, followed by bird grippe diseases and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome ( SARS ) onslaught. However the tendency continues to increase despite reverses in the undermentioned old ages till present which amounting to 22 million of tourer reachings and RM 49,561.2 million in grosss for 2008. At the minute, touristry is the state ‘s 3rd largest beginning of foreign exchange net incomes after fabrication and oil.

Malaya, being situated within the tropical part, has many nature-based touristry attractive forces, for illustrations, caves, waterfalls, hot springs, beaches, coral reefs, mountains, and birds and wildlife sanctuaries. For these grounds, the authorities is really acute in advancing these nature-based attractive forces. To conserve these nature-based attractive forces, the authorities has established a web of protected countries for the preservation of biological diverseness.

Malaysia has ever been recognized to be one of the richest biodiversity in the universe. This is in line with the National Policy on Biological Diversity whose vision is to “ transform Malaysia into a universe Centre of excellence in preservation, research and use of tropical biological diverseness by the twelvemonth 2020 ” ( MoSTE, 1998 ) .

The World Conservation Union ( IUCN ) has defined national park as natural country of land and/or sea, designated to a ) protect the ecological unity of one or more ecosystems for present and future coevalss, B ) exclude development or business unfriendly ( harmful ) to the intents of appellation of the country, and degree Celsius ) provide a foundation for religious, instruction, recreational and visitant chances, all of which must be environmentally and culturally compatible ( IUCN, 1994 ) .

These national Parkss are established for the intent of saving, hence leting and encouraging entree for instruction, diversion and touristry intents.

The direction of touristry in sing the natural countries is complicated in Malaysia. Authority for assorted natural resources is randomly divided under different authorities umbrellas and several province governments ( Hall, 1994 ) . In Peninsular Malaysia, tellurian protected countries are chiefly managed by the Department of Wildlife and National Parks ( DWNP ) and the Department of Forestry. The Marine protected countries are managed by the Federal Marine Parks Section under the Ministry of Natural resources and the Environment. In Sabah, the tellurian protected countries are managed by Sabah Parks, Sabah Wildlife Department, Sabah Forestry Department and Sabah Foundation, while all the Marine protected countries are managed by Sabah Parks. In the instance of Sarawak, all tellurian and marine protected countries are managed by the Sarawak Forestry Corporation.

Malaysia has 30 gazetted national Parkss which inclusive of 6 Marine Parkss. There are 8 national Parkss located in Peninsular Malaysia, 7 are in Sabah and 15 are in Sarawak. A sum-up of the national Parkss in Malaysia is in Table 1.

Table 1: List of National Parks in Malaysia

Location

Parks

Date established

Size ( hour angle ) /area

Attractions

Peninsular Malaya

Taman Negara National Park, within 3 province boundaries of

Pahang, Kelantan and Terengganu

1939

434,300 hectares

Largest in the state

Canopy walk

Wildlife observation

Endau-Rompin National Park,

Johor-Pahang boundary line

49,000 hectares

Rock formation

Sandstone tableland

Tropical wood

Tanjung Piai Johor National Park, Johor

2001

Wetlands

Coastal Rhizophora mangle

Bird observation and fishing

Penang National Park, Penang

2003

2,562 hectares

Meromictic lake

Wetlands

Mangroves

Coral reefs

Turtle nesting beaches

Payar Marine Park, Kedah

1985

Screens 2 maritime stat mis of 4 islands

Coral reefs

Marine life

Snorkeling

Scuba diving

Redang Marine Park, Terengganu

1985

25 square kilometer

Coral reefs

Marine life

Snorkeling

Scuba diving

Tioman Marine Park, Pahang

39 kilometer long and 12 kilometers broad

Coral reefs

Marine life

Snorkeling

Scuba diving

Cragged

Mersing Marine Park, Johor

White beaches

Coral reefs

North borneo

Crocker Range National Park

Assorted dipterocarp forest

Montane forest

Pulau Tiga Park

Coral reefs

Beach forest

Kinabalu Park

4,101 meters above sea degree

Mount mounting

Tunku Abdul Rahman Park

Beach forest

Turtle Island Park

Turtle nesting beach

Tawau Hills Park

27,972 hectare

Sarawak

Bako National Park

1957

2727

The oldest park

Heath forest

Open scrubland

Mangrove

Kubah National Park

1988

2230

The universe of thenar

Montane forest

Assorted dipterocarp forest

Heath forest

Gunung Gading National Park

1983

4196

Home of rafflesia

Montane forest

Assorted dipterocarp forest

Batang Ai national Park

1990

24040

Home of orang utan

Assorted dipterocarp forest

Riparian wood

Regenerated forest

Tanjung Datu National Park

1994

1379

The smallest park

Assorted dipterocarp forest

Beach forest

Niah National Park

1974

3138

The archaeological site of Sarawak

Assorted dipterocarp forest

Limestone forest flora

Heath forest

Lambir Hills National Park

1975

6949

The virgin rain forest of Sarawak

Assorted dipterocarp forest

Heath forest

Gunung Mulu National park

1974

52865

The biggest cave chamber in the universe

Assorted dipterocarp forest

Limestone forest flora

Montane forest

Similajau National Park, Bintulu

1976

8996

Where the rapids meet the sea

Assorted dipterocarp forest

Beach forest

Mangrove forest

Talang-Satang National Park

1999

Sarawak ‘s polo-neck islands

Marine polo-neck preservation

Bukit Tiban National Park, Bintulu

2000

Conservation and research presentation

Water-based diversion

Wildlife watching

Jungle trekking

Maludam National Park, Sri Aman

2000

Peat swamp

The last feasible ruddy banded langur population ( monkey )

Rajang Mangroves National Park, Sarikei

2000

The Rhizophora mangle ecosystem

Mangrove forest

Gunung Buda National Park

2001

The newest national park

Limestone forest

Loagan Bunut National Park

1990

10736

The largest natural lake

Peat swamp wood

Assorted dipterocarp forest

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Ministry of Natural Resource and Environment, 2006

In this survey, the range is limited to the tellurian protected country i.e. national park country, which is the most recognizable class of protected countries. As diversion is one of the grounds of the appellation of these national park countries, they are view as the of import subscriber to the touristry industry.

Sarawak National Parks

Modern Parkss and militias were established in the late 1800s. With this, Sarawak attempts began with the being of the National Park Ordinance in 1956 and the constitution of a Board of Trustees to administrate this. In 1973, there is a alteration in the disposal of national Parkss, where the Board of Trustees is replaced by the Conservator of Forests. Since so, Sarawak Forestry Corporation has been charged with the duty of implementing the regulation. Sarawak Forestry Corporation managed all 15 tellurian and marine Parkss in Sarawak province which covers the entire country of 184,922 hour angle.

The aims of the National Parks and Wildlife Division ( NPWD ) are: –

To set up and pull off the National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuaries, nature Militias, Forest Parks and other tantamount militias throughout Sarawak.

To supply recreational and other installations in National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuaries, nature Militias, Forest Parks and other tantamount militias.

To develop an effectual promotion and extension service on nature preservation.

To set about research in the ecology, saving and extension of wildlife and their natural home ground.

There are four subdivisions within the NPWD, viz. Parks and Nature Reserves Branch, Wildlife Branch, Planning & A ; Development subdivision and Interpretation & A ; Conservation Education Branch. The chief duties of Parks and Reserves Branch include overall direction of all Parkss and militias. The Wildlife Branch chief activities are wildlife direction and research. These include home ground direction, confined genteelness, species direction veterinary, enforcement and licensing. The research is chiefly on Primatess, big and little mammals, birds, reptilians and amphibious vehicles. The Planning and Development Branch is responsible to pull off the Planning and Investigation Unit and the Design and Implementation Unit. Last, the Interpretation and Conservation Education Branch is responsible for four units which are Interpretation Unit, Conservation Education and Extension Unit, Research Unit and Administration Unit.

Bako National Park ( BNP ) was the first to be gazetted as a protected country on 1 May 1957 among all the 15 national Parkss in Sarawak. It is located 37 kilometres to the E of the capital metropolis of Kuching. Covering an country or 2727 hectares of a rugged sand rock, in the map, BNP is at the tip of the Muara Tebas peninsular. It was merely until 1985, the route from Kuching to BNP was completed and in order to entree to the park, it requires a short express boat journey of about 25 proceedingss ride along the Bako River. BNP is one of the smallest national Parkss in Sarawak, yet recorded as one of the highest rate of visitants to day of the month. BNP is celebrated for its rain forest, forest wildlife, jungle watercourses, waterfalls, works life, secluded beaches and trekking trails. The jungle trekking trails are good maintained web of 16 colour-coded walking trails, from easy ambles, full twenty-four hours treks to overnight bivouacing expeditions which allows the visitants to acquire to the most out of its alone environment.

The undermentioned tabular array provides inside informations of trekking journey in BNP.

No

Name of trail

Trail length

( kilometer )

One manner clip & A ; Distance from HQ

Colour Code

1

Tanjung Sapi

0.5

30 proceedingss ( 0.8km )

White/Red

2

Telok Paku

0.8

1 hr ( 1.2 kilometer )

White

3

Ulu Assam

0.8

1 A? hours ( 1.4km )

Blue/Red

4

Telok Delima

0.25

45 proceedingss ( 1km )

Blue/White

5

Telok Pandan Besar

0.75

1 hr ( 1.75km )

Yellow

6

Telok Pandan Kecil

1.5

1 A? hours ( 2.5km )

Yeloow

7

Serait

1.25

1 A? hours ( 2.2km )

White/yellow

8

Lintang

5.25

3 A? hours return

Red

9

Tajor

2.75

2 A? hours ( 3.5km )

Red/White

10

Tanjung Rhu

1.8

2 A? hours ( 4.2km )

Red/Yellow

11

Bukit Keruing

2.25

3 A? hours ( 5.5km )

Blue

12

Paya Jelutong

0.2

3 A? hours ( 5.7km )

White/Blue

13

Bukit Gondol

2

4 A? hours ( 7.7km )

Yellow/White

14

Ulu Serait

2.75

3 hours ( 4.8km )

Blue/yellow

15

Telok Sibur

0.8

3 A? hours ( 5.3km )

Red/Black

16

Telok Limau

5.75

7 hours ( 10km )

Red/Blue

17

Telok Kruin

1.5

7 A? hours ( 10.5km )

Blue/Black

18

Pa ‘ Amit ( Lakei Island )

1.0

30 proceedingss ( from Base )

Orange

Revised Fess and Accommodation Charges

Effective 1 July 2002

Entrance Fees

Visitor Category

Single Entry ( per individual )

Multiple Entry

( Non-transferable )

( per individual )

5-Entry Base on balls

( Movable valid for 1 individual )

1-month cogency

3-months cogency

Adult

RM10.00

RM50.00

RM100.00

RM40.00

Student/Senior Citizen/Disabled individual

RM5.00

RM25.00

RM50.00

RM20.00

Assorted Group*

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

Child, 6 old ages and below

Free

Free

Free

Free

Type of accomodation

Facilities

Rate per dark

No. of units available

Forest Lodge, Type 5

2 suites with 3 individual beds each

Non-air conditioned

Fan merely

Shared bathroom and lavatory

RM100+ per room

or

RM150+ per house

7

Forest Lodge, Type 6

2 suites with 2 individual beds each

Non-air conditioned

Fan merely

Attached bathroom and lavatory

RM50+ per room

or

RM75+ per house

2

Forest Hostel

4 suites with 4 individual beds each

Non-air conditioned

Fan merely

Shared bathroom and lavatory

RM15+ per bed

or

RM40+ per room

3

Camp site ( bivouacing equipment is non provided )

Public bathrooms and lavatories

RM5 per individual

18 sites

+ Plus 5 % authorities service revenue enhancement

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Rules and Regulations

The regulations and ordinances are at that place to protect the park for the benefits of visitants.

It is an offense to: –

Enter without a license ;

Kill, gaining control, toxicant or upset any animate being ;

Cut, take, destruct or put fire to any object ; life or inanimate, dead or alive,

Introduce any animate being or works onto the park ;

Damage, erect any edifice or other constructions ;

Litter

Punishments:

The minimal mulct for the above offenses is RM1,000 and six months imprisonment.

License:

Visitors must obtain a certified license before come ining the national Parks, nature Militias or Wildlife Centre from the nearest engagement offices. For professional movie shapers and those transporting out expeditions, a particular permission from the Sarawak State Secretary must be acquired in progress.

Exclusion of liabilities:

Any individual sing Sarawak ‘s national Parkss, nature militias and wildlife Centres enter at their ain hazard. The license to come in is granted capable to the status that the Forest Department and/or the State Government and/or Officer shall non be responsible for any physical, mental or emotional hurt sustained, or any loss of life, or belongings or whatsoever sort within these countries. The State Government of it Officer disclaims any act ( s ) or skip nevertheless caused or originate within these countries.

LITERATURE REVIEW

Economic Evaluation of Environment

Policy shapers in developed states have realized that it is of import to take into history the economic rating in the procedure of determination devising. However, in developing state like Malaysia, the rating of environmental good is regarded as unfamiliar. Though researches sing this issue in Malaysia published are found to be rare, the determination proved that our state besides give values on environmental goods.

Economic rating refers to the measuring on footings of money values to non-marketed goods and services. Non-marketed goods and services include those which can non be straight bought and sold in the unfastened market topographic point.

Goods and services which have economic value contribute positively to human well-being. This is determined by the penchants of the persons which show the degree of satisfaction. These penchants can be revealed in the context of willingness to pay ( WTP ) . On the contrary, human well-being will besides necessitate to digest with the unwanted values which revealed in the context of willingness to accept ( WTA ) .

Economic rating technique aims to find the entire economic value ( TEV ) . TEV identifies the alterations in human well-being that accrue from a alteration in the proviso of the good. These values may accrue to users and non users. The illustrations for this would be the willingness to pay for the saving of the forest in the national park and the preservation of endangered species like the proboscis monkey, even though the person may non hold seen the species while in the national park.

TEV is made up of the amount of usage and non-use value. Use values may be direct or indirect. An illustration for this would be a wood in a national park. Visitors to the forest brand direct usage of it and the fact that the forest protecting the water parting of the part is an illustration of an indirect usage. A non-use value, besides known as inactive usage values, is when persons are willing to pay even though they make no direct usage of it.

There are two methods in gauging the economic values of non-marketed goods and services which are revealed penchants ( RP ) and stated penchants ( SP ) . RP and SP can be use to gauge the usage value, nevertheless non-use values can merely be estimated by SP techniques. RP is exercised when the penchant of the persons is revealed by their buying wont in the existent market, which is price-based. In contrast, SP measures the demand of goods and services which do non hold market monetary value as they are non straight sold. Normally, the study would inquire on how much money would persons are WTP or WTA to bask the benefit of the goods and services, for illustration, the being of the environment.

Property market ( WTP )

Labour market ( WTA )

Contingent ranking

Contingent ( conjoint ) evaluation

Choice experiments

Paired comparings

Market monetary values ( WTP )

Contingent rating ( WTP/WTA )

Choice modeling ( WTP/WTA )

Debaring behavior ( WTP )

Random utility/ distinct pick theoretical accounts ( WTP )

Hedonic pricing

Travel cost method ( WTP )

Benefit transportation

Stated Preferences

conjectural markets

does response/production maps

Entire Economic Value

Non-use Value

Use Value

Revealed Preferences

conventional and proxy

Figure 1 Economic rating techniques

Developed states every bit good as the developing states have accepted that environmental goods can be measured utilizing several methods. In developed states, the methods used are beforehand where they have applied the usage of benefit transportation into their researches. However in Malaysia, the most common is CVM and merely late CM was adopted in researches done byaˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦..

Revealed penchants technique

Stated penchant technique

SP technique which ask conjectural inquiries, are categorized into contingent rating ( CV ) and multi-attribute rating ( MAV ) ( Anna Merino-Castello, 2003 ) .

Contingent Valuation ( CV )

CV measures the WTP through direct inquiries such as “ How much are you willing to pay? ‘ and ‘Are you willing to pay RMx? ‘ . The former estimates the single penchants utilizing the open-ended method which is penchant based. The latter inquiry estimates the single penchants utilizing the referendum or dichotomous pick evocation. The respondents are merely given the option of replying yes or no, which is choice-based. This implies the premise of random public-service corporation map where the coefficients value are obtained through the appraisal of binary logit utilizing the maximal likelihood process.

However, an increasing figure of empirical surveies revealed that dichotomous pick consequences seemed to be significantly larger that open-ended values, perchance due to ‘yeah-saying ‘ ( Hanley et al. , 2001 ) . Both open-ended and dichotomous CV attacks have restrictions in gauging values. These restrictions are:

1. merely one property to be valued by respondent

2. respondents are improbable to give accurate response for conjectural market

3. May bring on some respondents to act strategically when public goods are involved

Due to these restrictions, researches in rating of non-use value exchanging to the option stated penchant technique which is MAV. The chief difference between CV and MAV is that CV analyses one property of the merchandise at a clip whilst MAV analyses more than one property at the same time. This includes whether the properties are attached to one another or a trade-offs between them.

Choice Modelling ( CM )

Similar to CV, MAV can be categorized into preference-based and choice-based method. In preference-based, the respondents are required to rate or rank each alternate merchandise in conjectural and existent market.

On the other manus, in choice-based method, the respondents need to take one among several options merchandises which is more realistic because the respondents execute this mundane as a consumer taking a series of viing merchandises. In preference-based, the respondents does non necessitate doing any committedness to take a peculiar option, hence this is the ground why choice-based method is more preferable than preference-based attack.

Preference-based method is by and large termed as conjoint analysis ( CA ) which comprises of contingent evaluation and paired comparing while choice-based method globally termed as pick mold ( CM ) which comprises of contingent ranking and pick experiment.

CA and CM are differentiated by the signifier of the public-service corporation map. CA use a deterministic public-service corporation map and CM use the random public-service corporation map. Deterministic public-service corporation map is assumed to be related to an person ‘s evaluation via a transmutation map o :

Uij = o [ Vij ( Xij ) ]

This information is estimated utilizing ordinary least squares ( OLS ) arrested development techniques which implies the premise of the cardinality of evaluations graduated table ( Bateman et al, 2002 ) . In contrast, CM usage random public-service corporation map which represents the incorporate behavioural theory of determination behaviour and is composed of a deterministic constituent Vij and s stochastic Iµij:

Uij = Vij ( Xij ) + Iµij

This random public-service corporation theory ( RUT ) leads to the distinct pick theoretical accounts which describes the behaviour of respondents ‘ pick chances in response to alterations in properties that step differences across other respondents. This information is estimated utilizing the maximal likeliness method. All these four methods in multi-attribute rating differ in the quality of information they generate, in their grade of complexness and besides in their ability to bring forth WTP estimations that can be shown to be consistent with the usual steps of public assistance ( Bateman et al, 2002 ) .

In contingent evaluation, respondents are presented with a figure of events one at a clip and are asked to rate each one separately in a numeral graduated table. The evaluation is so transformed into public-service corporation graduated table. This indirect public-service corporation map is assumed to be related to respondents ‘ evaluation via a transmutation map which leads to a typical analyzed utilizing OLS arrested development technique. As mentioned before, this implies strong premises of cardinality of evaluation graduated tables. This is inconsistent with the consumer theory. Hence, contingent evaluation does non bring forth public assistance consistent value estimations.

In mated comparing, respondents are asked to take their preferable alternate out of a set of two picks and to find their penchant in a numeral graduated table. The public-service corporation map is besides estimated utilizing OLS.

In a contingent ranking, respondents are required to rank a set of alternate options from most to least preferable. Each option has two or more properties, which are offered at different degrees across options. The respondents are required to rank their options. One of the options must be the current executable pick set of the respondent. The ground is, if the position quo is non included, the respondents may be forced to take the options which they non prefer at all. This rank order informations is estimated utilizing maximal likelihood process.

In pick experiment, respondents are given a series of options and are required to bespeak their most preferable option. The baseline option, which is the position quo, need to be included in each of the pick set. This experiment gives welfare consistent estimations because,

1. the respondents needs to tradeoff alterations in property degrees against the cost of doing these alterations

2. the respondents can take the position quo

3. we can stand for the econometric technique used in a manner which is precisely parallel to the theory of rational and probabilistic pick.

4. we can deduce estimations of counterbalancing and tantamount excess.

This conditional logit theoretical account can be estimated utilizing the maximal likelihood process.