Environmental Science Chapter 1-6

What is an abiotic factor
temperature
The best description of a sustainable system component is ________.
one which is in balance with the system as a whole
Ecosystem services ________.
are economically valuable services provided by natural systems
How did the agricultural revolution lead to an increase in human population numbers?
Farming allowed for the discovery of pesticides, which allowed for better food production.
A(n) __________ is a testable statement that attempts to answer a scientific question.
hypothesis
A(n) _________ tests the validity of a hypothesis.
experiment
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A condition in an experiment that can change is called a(n) ____________.
variable
A scientist manipulates the _________________ ______________ in an experiment.
Independent Variable
A scientist measures the __________________ __________________ in an experiment.
Dependent Variable
A(n) _______ is an unmanipulated point of comparison for treatments in an experiment.
Control
__________ is information obtained from scientific studies.
Data
Ethicists who believe that the guidelines for making environmental decisions are context-specific, depending on the cultures, social issues and other factors framing the decision are ________.
relativists
What is Earth’s natural capital?
It is the sum of Earth’s wealth of resources
Which statement best exemplifies the concept of sustainability?
Water extracted from underground resources must be equal to or less than the water that recharges the underground resources.
Which one of the following represents quantitative data?
levels of nitrate pollution in local waterways
All of the following contribute to 21st century sustainability EXCEPT __________.
lowering the federal tax on gasoline to lessen the financial burden on citizens living below the poverty line
A __________ is widely accepted and has been extensively validated by a great amount of research.
Theory
Sustainable development ________.
means consuming resources without compromising future availability
In a controlled experiment, __________.
the effects of all of the variables are controlled except the one whose effect he or she is testing
Which of the following can be depleted if overused?
fresh water
Advances in agriculture ________.
have often resulted in alteration and destruction of natural systems
The average citizen of which of the following nations has the largest ecological footprint?
The United States
Water purification, nutrient cycling, and plant pollination are all examples of Earth’s __________.
ecosystem services
A scientific field of study
Ecology
Information expressed with numbers
quantitative data
The variable that is manipulated
independent variable
Expectations of experimental outcome
Prediction
Widely accepted, well-tested explanation of one or more cause-and-effect relationships
Theory
Type of discipline describing environmental science
interdisciplinary science
Who is credited for articulating the conservation ethic and for founding the U.S. Forest Service?
Gifford Pinchot
Scientific inquiry is based on ________.
an expanding knowledge based on observation, questioning, testing and discovery
A(n) __________ expresses environmental impact in terms of the cumulative area of land and water required to provide the resources a person consumes.
ecological footprint
Environmental problems whose dimensions include differential exposure to risk from toxic wastes and air pollution or lack of access to the natural beauty of parks based on ethnicity or race are issues of ________.
environmental justice
John Muir, a great American environmentalist, felt that ________.
pristine wilderness should be preserved because “We need beauty as well as bread”
The Endangered Species Act, passed by Congress nearly four decades ago, has spawned a continuous series of debates between those who feel the ethical necessity to protect species at the brink of extinction and others who feel that if we have to protect every habitat of every species at risk, then there will be a loss of jobs and a blow to an already shaky economy. This boils down to a conflict between ________.
anthropocentrists and ecocentrists
If a scientist travels to the rain forest to observe and catalog new species, he or she would be conducting __________.
descriptive science
________ gives inherent value to certain living things or to the biotic (living) realm of the earth in general; both human and nonhuman lives have ethical standing.
Biocentrism
A __________ occurred when scientists determined that the earth is round rather than flat
paradigm shift
Later in his life, pioneering environmental philosopher Aldo Leopold would have most likely agreed with which one of the following statements?
Humans are members of the land-community.
The entire area of land that a river drains is called its __________.
watershed
The __________ includes all of the water that is underground, in surface bodies, and in the atmosphere.
hydrosphere
The structural sphere of Earth that is best described as the rocks and sediment is the __________.
lithosphere
If the pond above is chemically treated to raise the pH to 7.0 ________.
the pond is now pH neutral and it has more hydrogen ions than at pH 7.5
All organic compounds contain __________.
carbon
How do organic compounds differ from inorganic compounds?
Organic compounds consist of carbon atoms joined by covalent bonds and may contain other elements, such as nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, and phosphorus. Inorganic compounds lack carbon-carbon bonds
In all ecosystems energy is eventually lost to the environment via ________.
heat resulting from respiration
River water held behind a dam is best described as a form of ________.
potential energy
That all the energy of the universe remains constant, is conserved, neither created nor destroyed, but may change form is a statement of the ________.
First Law of Thermodynamics
According to the first law of thermodynamics, the total amount of energy in the universe __________.
remains constant
In most ecosystems, the original source of energy for the living things in the system is __________.
the sun
Which of the statements below best describes energy?
Energy provides the ability to change the position, the composition, or the temperature of matter
Which of the following are the reactants (ingredients) needed for photosynthesis to occur?
carbon dioxide, water, and sunlight
The second law of thermodynamics states that __________.
in any transformation, some of the original energy is converted to heat, and the system becomes more disordered
During photosynthesis within plants, ________.
there is net consumption of water and carbon dioxide
During the light reactions of photosynthesis, the solar energy absorbed by chlorophyll is used to ________.
split water molecules and release oxygen in the form of O2 and produce small, high-energy molecules that are used in the Calvin cycle to manufacture sugars
A leaf falls from a tree and lands on the ground. Through time, bugs and bacteria consume the leaf. Which of the following statements regarding this scenario is true?
The nutrients from the leaf have been recycled and released back into the soil.
Most energy in the majority of ecosystems arrives as __________ and exits in the form of __________.
radiation from the sun; heat
The greatest human impact on the carbon cycle has been through ________.
combustion of fossil fuels
Some organisms, such as plants, algae, and cyanobacteria, produced their own food by absorbing the sun’s radiation. These organisms are referred to as ________.
autotrophs or producers
How do plants contribute to the water cycle?
through the process of transpiration
The process that makes nitrogen available to plants by mutualistic and free-living bacteria is called __________.
nitrogen fixation
Although 78% of Earth’s atmosphere is nitrogen, nitrogen is limited in most ecosystems because __________.
the natural conversion of atmospheric nitrogen occurs via only lightning and nitrogen-fixing bacteria
Which of the following is the major reservoir for phosphorus in the phosphorus cycle?
sedimentary rock
In order for two organisms to belong to the same species, individuals of their species must __________.
be able to reproduce and have fertile offspring
A single, small population that exists only in one place on the planet is considered __________ to that area.
endemic
___________ is the only process that can change a gene’s DNA and therefore give rise to new variations of the gene
Mutation
The sixth mass extinction event is likely being caused by __________.
human-induced events
Which of the following populations would be most vulnerable to extinction?
a small, endemic population
The two processes that determine the world’s current biodiversity are ________.
extinction and speciation rates
The fossil record clearly shows that ________.
all species evolve from pre-existing species
One example of artificial selection is ________.
broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage, and brussels sprouts bred from Brassica oleracea
Which of the following is the broadest (most all-encompassing) level of ecological organization?
the biosphere
A __________ is defined as the living and nonliving elements in the area around an organism.
habitat
Which of the following is considered a community?
several interacting species living in the same area
a scientist spends his time studying communities and the nonliving materials that they interact with, he or she would be considered a(n) __________.
ecosystem ecologist
is the scientific study of the interactions among organisms and of the relationships between organisms and their environments.
Ecology
a single fish living in the lake’s shallow water near the shoreline
Organism
a group of fish of the same species inhabiting the shallow water near the shoreline
Population
fishes, invertebrates, plants, and microbes inhabiting the shallow water near the shoreline
Community
: the fishes, invertebrates, plants, microbes, rocks, sediments, and water in the lake, and the interactions between them
Ecosystem
Most extinction is ________.
gradual, generally occurring when species cannot adapt genetically to changes in environmental conditions
Endemic species ________.
are found only in one place on the planet
Of the following, ________ would be most vulnerable to extinction
an orchid endemic to a mountaintop forest where logging is occurring
__________ is the number of individuals in a population per unit area.
Population density
Which of the following best represents the overall growth rate of a population?
(birth rate – death rate) + (immigration rate – emigration rate)
The __________ of a population is the proportion of males to females in the population.
sex ratio
Density-dependent factors __________.
have a greater impact at higher population densities
A uniform distribution will occur when __________.
individuals are competing for an evenly distributed resource such as space
If a population of 1000 individuals has an annual growth rate of 5%, how many individuals will be in the population one year later?
1050
A population is a group of ________.
individuals of a single species that live and interact in one area
The functional role of a species in its community is its ________.
niche
Population distribution describes ________.
spatial arrangement of individuals of a single species within a particular area or ecosystem
Populations lacking any environmental resistance tend to increase by ________.
exponential growth
Density-dependent factors ________.
include the effects of disease, predators, and food on a single species within a community
Of the following, ________ are the major factors that determine a population’s growth rate.
birth rate, death rate, emigration, and immigration
An ecosystem ________.
encompasses all the organisms and the physical and chemical environment within an area
In ecology, a ________ is made up of interacting populations of different species that inhabit the same area.
community
The niche of a species is the functional role of that species in the community that it belongs to. Species that have narrow niches (have very specific resource requirements) are said to be ________, while species that have broad niches (able to use a wide array of resources) are known as ________.
specialists; generalists
When the organisms of a particular population seek habitats or resources that are unevenly spaced, the distribution of the individuals in the population is ________.
clumped
__________ is the visitation of natural areas for enjoyment, often in areas near less-affluent communities that economically benefit from conserving the natural area.
Ecotourism
Many interacting species that live in the same area
Community
Communities and the abiotic material with which their members interact
Ecosystems
Stabilizes a population at its carrying capacity
Environmental Resistance
Species occurring in only one area
Endemic
Which of the following statements about ecosystems is true?
Ecosystems describe the living and non-living entities in a given area, and their interactions.
Individuals of a single species fighting over access to a limiting resource is one example of ________.
intraspecific competition
Microbes in our digestive tract that help us digest food demonstrate a ________ association.
Symbiotic
Global warming has been hypothesized to cause many plants to flower earlier. If bees and other pollinators begin search for food earlier in response to this, this would represent ________ within the community.
coevolution
The relationship between flowering plants and bees is best described as ________.
Mutualism
Many wild orchids cannot be successfully dug up and transplanted because they need the native mycorrhizae (a fungus) in the soil to survive. What kind of interaction is this?
Mutualism
Fungi and bacteria are __________, organisms that break down leaf litter and other nonliving matter, making it available for plant uptake.
decomposers
________ capture solar energy and use photosynthesis to produce sugars
Producers
Grazing animals such as deer are ________.
Primary consumer’s or herbivores
Zooplankton-eating fish are ________.
Secondary consumers
Detritivores include ________.
millipedes, soil insects, many ants
The energy content and biomass of ________ is lowest in any food web.
Top carnivores
What kind of interaction occurs when two cardinals (birds of the same species) are trying to build a nest in the same tree?
Intraspecific Competition
Autotrophs, at the base of the trophic pyramid, exist in greater numbers than organisms at higher levels of the pyramid and also have greater stores of energy as well as greater __________.
Biomass
What moves through the community from one trophic level to another as organisms feed on one another?
Matter and Engery
Which is enhanced by decomposers and detritivores as they recycle nutrients?
Soil
What potential energy-bearing compound is produced through photosynthesis and made available for consumers?
carbohydrates
Ecological restoration tries to __________.
return ecosystems to a more “natural” state, often what they were like before industrial civilization altered them
If a human consumes both plant and animal products, then he or she is considered a(n) __________.
Omnivore
Which trophic level provides energy for all of the other trophic levels?
first
Secondary succession ________.
occurs after a fire or flood
_________ terrestrial biome has the most biodiversity
Tropical Rainforest
Of the following, ________ are pioneer species.
lichens
A trophic cascade is the effect of ________ on ________.
top consumers; abundance of lower consumers
What two factors exert the greatest influence over a terrestrial biome?
annual average temperature and precipitation
Which of the following biomes has acidic soil with few nutrients and little organic matter?
a tropical rainforest
What type of biome has been converted most frequently by humans for agricultural use?
temperate grassland
In general, when one views a food chain, they can expect the biomass of herbivores (organisms that eat plants) in an ecosystem to be about _____ of the biomass of the plants and other photosynthetic organisms in the ecosystem.
10%
Which type of feedback loop acts to resist change in natural systems, thereby enhancing system stability and promoting conditions favorable for life?
Negative Feedback
What is the term that refers to the substances and forces that sustain our society and everyday lives?
Natural Resources
Which term is used to describe the conversion of natural resources into goods and services in addition to the ongoing trade of such goods and services?
Economy
How do economists assess (calculate) the economic health of a nation?
Gross Domestic Product
What costs are associated with transactions that can result in damage to the environment, human health, and property?
External Costs
A distinguishing feature of ecological economics is the concept of ________.
steady-state economies that, like natural systems, neither grow nor shrink
What event is credited with leading to the passage of the Clean Water Act?
the Cuyahoga River catching fire
Who signed the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)?
Richard Nixon
Which of the following was NOT part of public policy during the early years of the United States?
The Superfund
Environmental policy aims to ________.
promote fairness among people and groups in the use of resources
During what century did consumption of natural resources and pollution increase dramatically for the first time in human history?
19th Century
Which of the following acts to discourage unsustainable activities?
Green Tax
Most of the environmental progress made over the past few decades has come about through __________ methods.
command-and-control
An environmental impact statement is required ________.
for any federal action that may affect U.S. environmental quality
The social changes in the United States in the 20th century gave rise to environmental laws concerned primarily with ________.
reducing pollution caused by industry
The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) ________.
required environmental impact statements for any projects funded by the U.S. government
The entire environmental policy process ________.
includes more steps than the average citizen is able to accomplish alone
What is sustainable development?
promoting a viable economy while maintaining a viable environment and meeting social needs
Approximately $15 billion in support from the U.S. federal government was provided to the renewable energy industry from 2002-2008. Approximately how much federal support was provided to the fossil fuel industry over that same period?
$70 billion
During the period ________ the world’s population more than doubled.
1950-2000
If a population roughly doubles in the course of 50 years, its growth rate would be close to ________%.
1.5
__________ death rates and __________ infant mortality rates are due in large part to technological advances, improved sanitation, and better medical care in developed countries.
lower;lower
Which was Thomas Malthus’s argument?
He argued that if there was no control over population growth, then the population would come under check because of war, disease, and starvation.
When birth rates decline, what happens to a given population?
The average age of the population grows older.
Which of the following are the three principal effects of a human population that determine its impact on the environment (the IPAT model)?
population, affluence, technology
Which large country is currently experiencing zero or even negative population growth?
Russia
Which of the following is an input to a given population?
Immigration
Why do we study demography?
Demography investigates the relationship between population ecology and population changes.
What keeps a population size stable?
replacement fertility
Which of the following statements about Earth’s carrying capacity for humans is true?
Human beings are not unlike other animals concerning carrying capacity, but we utilize technology to artificially raise the carrying capacity increasingly higher.
Which of the following is not one of the world’s top five most populous nations?
Vietnam
Increasing levels of literacy among women is shown to ________.
lower TFR
The term demographic transition refers to ________.
the decline in death rates followed by decline in birth rates, occurring as a country economically develops
The richest one-fifth of the world’s population possesses approximately ________ times the income of the poorest one-fifth, and the richest one-fifth uses over 86% of the world’s resources.
80
In the demographic transition model, the highest population growth rate in a country is likely to occur during ________.
stage 2, the transitional stage
Most of the world population growth in the near future will be in ________.
developing countries
Which term describes the amount of cumulative land and water required to provide the raw materials a person or population consumes and to dispose of the waste that is produced?
ecological footprint