Environmental degradation may be defined as the deterioration of the environment through depletion of resources such as air, water and soil; the destruction of ecosystems and the extinction of wildlife. Environmental degradation has occurred due to the recent activities in the field of socio-economic, institutional and technologies. Environmental changes are dependent on many factors including economic growth, population growth, urbanization, intensification of agriculture, rising energy use and transportation.
Poverty still remains a problem at the root of several environmental problems. Introduction to environmental issues problems There are innumerable issues and problems faced by the environment today. Due to rapid industrialization, heavy usage of chemicals and lack of concern for the environment, today we are facing several problems. These issues should be dealt with immediately else mankind may have to face serious repercussions. Environmental degradation is a r esult of socio-economical, technological and institutional activities.
Degradation occurs when Earth's natural resources are depleted. These resources which are affected include: •Water •Air •Soil CAUSES The causes of environmental degradation are often as complex the problems that result. The primary cause is human disturbance. The degree of the environmental impact varies with the cause, the habitat, and the plants and animals that inhabit it. There are many causes of environmental degradation. These include. Environmental changes are based on many factors including: •Urbanization •Population growth •Economic growth Intensification of agriculture Increase in energy use Causes of Environmental Pollution Increased and uncontrolled human activities like industries, transportation, agriculture, health care, dwelling, and energy generation are some of the causes of environmental pollution. Several industries like textile, steel, paper, sugar, food, petroleum, cement industries, and chemical industries and causes soil or land pollution, air pollution, and water pollution. Conclusion of environmental pollution is that the major cause for the environmental pollution is activities of humans.
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Industrial pollutants that causes pollution includes gases like cyanides, methane, carbon disulphides, carbon tetrachloride, hydrochloric acids, hydrogen disulphides, carbon monoxide, ammonia, and sulphur dioxide and several other liquid / solid compounds. Modern agriculture which uses large scale of pesticides and fertilizers causes soil pollution and pollution of drinking water. Vehicular traffic releasing excess amounts sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen dioxide are the major causes of air pollution especially in cities.
INCREASE IN TRANSPORTATION Increased and uncontrolled human activities like industries, transportation, agriculture, health care, dwelling, and energy generation are some of the causes of environmental pollution. Several industries like textile, steel, paper, sugar, food, petroleum, cement industries, and chemical industries and causes soil or land pollution, air pollution, and water pollution. Conclusion of environmental pollution is that the major cause for the environmental pollution is activities of humans.
Industrial pollutants that causes pollution includes gases like cyanides, methane, carbon disulphides, carbon tetrachloride, hydrochloric acids, hydrogen disulphides, carbon monoxide, ammonia, and sulphur dioxide and several other liquid / solid compounds. Modern agriculture which uses large scale of pesticides and fertilizers causes soil pollution and pollution of drinking water. Vehicular traffic releasing excess amounts sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen dioxide are the major causes of air pollution especially in cities. •Water and air HABITAT FRAGMENTATION
Habitat fragmentation carries long term environmental impacts some of which can destroy entire ecosystems. An ecosystem is a distinct unit and includes all the living and non-living elements that reside within it. Plants and animals are obvious members, but it will also include other components on which they rely on such as streams, lakes, and soils. ACID RAIN Acid rain occurs when sulfur dioxide from coal plant emissions combines with moisture present in the air. A chemical reaction creates this acid precipitation. Acid rain can acidify and pollute lakes and streams. It causes similar effects to the soil.
If enough acid rain falls in a given environment, it can acidify the water or soil to a point where no life can be sustained. Plants die off. The AGRICULTURAL RUNOFF animals that depend upon them disappear. The condition of the environment deteriorates. Agricultural runoff is a deadly source of pollutants which can degrade environments,. Surface water washes over the soil and into lakes and streams. When it does so, it carries the fertilizers and pesticides used on the farm lands into water resources. Obviously, introducing poisons into waterways will have dire consequences.
Fertilizers whether or not they are organic carry equal risks. URBAN DEVELOPMENT Urban development is the primary cause of environmental degradation. As populations increased, so did the need for land for homes and farms. Wetlands were drained. Environmental degradation is one of most urgent of environmental issues. Depending upon the damage, some environments may never recover. The plants and animals that inhabited these places will be lost forever. We do not have to look far to see the impacts of environmental degradation on our Earth.
DEFORESTATION Cutting down massive forests impacts our biosphere. . Deforestation, wasting resources, and pollution all add to the demise of an environmentally-sound and safe planet. For example, when trees in forests are cut down in large quantities, so that more homes can be built on the land, the birds and wildlife who lived in the forest must find a new place to live. Unfortunate Impacts of Environmental Degradation The degradation also impacts our: •Wildlife •Plants •Animals •Micro-organisms When factories produce harmful chemicals and toxic waste into bodies of water, humans suffer.
Pesticides and fertilizers can also get into a region's water system and pollute it. Drinking water is contaminated. Some residing in third-world countries are highly effected by the degradation of our planet and these unhealthy practices cause the following: •Illnesses •Death in children •Death in adults POVERTY . People are finding less nutritious food to eat. , especially those around the Equator, are vulnerable to weather changes, water shortages, and urbanization. All of these factors are increasing the health and lives of thousands.
Some scientists and environmentalists are asking that non-food items and agriculture waste be used as alternative fuel for vehicles instead. LOSING EARTH'S BEAUTY As humans dump waste products, use chemicals, and over fish in the oceans and seas, areas of beauty such as coral reefs are damaged. At times the destruction is so great that is cannot be reversed. We are killing our planet and the consequences are tremendous. How to Stop Degradation There are ways which you can help to decrease degradation in our environment. Some of these include: •Purchase recycled products •Conserve water Do not litter or toss waste into inappropriate places •Conserve energy •Join an awareness group •Talk with others about the impacts of environmental degradation •Be an advocate to save our planet! Factors Affecting Envi: 1. Destruction of natural resources: Agricultural development and farming activities contribute, to soil erosion, land salination and loss of nutrients. The green revolution and over exploitation of land and water resources, and use of fertilizers and pesticides have increased to many folds resulting in land degradation and water logging. 2. Effects of Environmental Degradation: 1.
Loss of biodiversity: The extinction of plant and animal species will heavily affect the ecosystem; it will reduce ecosystem adaptability and lead to the loss of genetic resources. 2. Environmental changes: Global warming is the result of ozone depletion which is responsible for perhaps 300,000 additional cases of skin cancer a year and 1. 7 million cases of cataracts and may lead to increase in the risk of climatic natural disasters. 3. Hazardous waste production: Diseases are spread by uncovered garbage and drains; the health risks from hazardous wastes are typically more localized, but often acute.
Wastes affect productivity causing pollution of groundwater resources. 4. Soil erosion has increased due to deforestation. 5. Climate has become warmer in the deforested regions due to lack of humidity. 6. Floods and droughts have become frequent. 7. Pattern of rainfall has been changing. 8. Pollution due to increased levels of chlorofluorocarbons and nitrogen oxides cause depletion of ozone layer in the stratosphere. 9. Acid rain is the indirect impact of air pollution. 10. Use of pesticides makes the soil toxic for plants. 11.
Large amount of organic matter causes eutrophication. 12. Thermal zonation caused by hot water affects migration of aquatic animals due to thermal barriers. Environmental pollution can be defined as the deleterious effects or changes that causes disturbance to the existing environment and affects the components of the environment. Find below the causes, effects, and conclusion of environmental pollution. Presence of unsafe unnatural components that causes imbalance to the ecosystems and health hazards to animals and human beings is called pollution.
Pollution affects the all the components of environment that mainly includes soil (land), water, and air Effects of Environmental Pollution Health problems due to environmental pollution ranges from the skin irritations and simple vomiting to brain tumors, intestinal cancer, and other cancers, from simple fever to the fatal hepatitis, from normal throat irritation to the deadly heart diseases. Air pollution affects the human health and is associated with problems of lungs, throat, respiratory problems, cancer etc.
Water pollution of water causes health problems like gastric problems in human, affects the life aquatic organism, etc. Foods that we consume are polluted due to the use of polluted water and use of pesticides, or microbial activities. Many persistent pesticides that enter into the food chain accumulate in the human and animal bodies at larger concentrations and affect the health. Soil pollution due to various hazardous solids and liquids creates imbalances to soil ecosystems and affects the vegetation and habitats of living organisms. Conclusion of environmental pollution effects s it is a major concern of human and animal health and affects the entire ecosystem. So keeping in view of effects of environmental pollution humans and government should take several measures to prevent pollution and incorporate stringent laws to prevent environmental pollution. Environmental Issues Problems Conservation of species:Conservation of water, air and the natural habitat of animals and plants to curb their extinction. Over the last fewdecades several plants and animal species have become extinct which has led to a loss of biodiversity on the planet.
Climate Change: Due to global warming effect the climate has changed significantly over the last century. Extreme temperatures are bringing about never before seen natural calamities like frequent draught and flooding Energy Crisis:Excessive usage of fossil fuels has led to depletion in these fuels. Usage of alternate fuel will help conserve fossil fuel. Exploitation of Natural Resources:Large scale deforestation has led to loss of vegetation. This in turn has affected rainfall, caused land degradation, soil erosion and changed the planet surface.
Nuclear Issues:Usage of nuclear power has caused major changes in the climate and composition of soil, water and air. This in turn has changed the habitat for birds, animals which migrate to other places in search of a good habitat and sometimes become extinct. Radioactive Nuclear waste needs to be dealt with in a proper way so that it does not affect the environment. Overpopulation:Overpopulation is a major global environmental issue. As the population of the world is increasing more and more resources are used up and destroyed for human use, this has dented the environment.
Appropriate measures should be taken to curb population explosion. Pollution:Large and small industries and households discard industrial and household waste in water and in the atmosphere that is causing large scale pollution. This kind of pollution prevents proper growth of plant and animal species. Waste management is an important process of controlling pollution. CONCLUSION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES PROBLEMS Continuous damage has been caused to the environment over the centuries. It is important to make consolidated efforts to control degradation of envi HOW TO STOP DEGRADATION There are ways which you can elp to decrease degradation in our environment. Some of these include: •Purchase recycled products •Conserve water •Do not litter or toss waste into inappropriate places •Conserve energy •Join an awareness group •Talk with others about the impacts of environmental degradation Be an advocate to save our planet! CONCLUSION • Air pollution affects all life on Earth, from reducing a plant's ability to produce food to acidifying lakes and killing fish, to causing human disease and death.
The complexity of air pollution with its many causes requires a multi-faceted approach that involves not only industry control but conservation practices by citizens as well. it is impossible that one can control environmental pollution but one can control one's own surrounding by throwing garbage in proper place, can ride cycle to nearby places and this motto should be followed by each and every person . What do you mean by "Money is a System of Power? " Money is one of the most extraordinary of human inventions. As a means of exchange it makes modern commerce possible and is one of the most beneficial of institutions.
As an instrument of power it can support the most insidious and destructive of tyrannies, particularly when the processes of its creation and extinction are hidden from public view and shielded from public accountability. Money, a mere number of no inherent substance, utility, or worth created from nothing with an accounting entry when a bank creates a loan, shapes the boom and bust cycles of economic life. Its international flows determine the fate of nations. Individuals who have it in large supply enjoy lives of grand opulence in the midst of scarcity.
Those who lack it face death by starvation in the midst of plenty. roleThe function of money as medium for exchange required that money acts as a measure of value, otherwise how else would we know how much one item is measured in terms of other items? So human need to facilitate exchange is what gave rise to the role of money as both measure of value and medium of exchange. So far there would be little or no argument as to what money is or its role. As measure, money in and by itself has no value except in terms of the goods and services you can get in exchange for giving up an amount of that money.
As a measure, money also is a neutral medium where it only shows how much each commodity is worth in relation to another commodity. A tape measure is the same tape measure whether you are measuring carpet, a pipeline, or how tall or short you are. The value is not in the tape except for the function of standard measuring it provides. It is in what the tape is measuring, and such a value is weighed in relative terms. The distance a taxi travels is measured in terms of money which the driver gets in return for the services of traveling such a distance, which is the same amount of money the passenger pays the driver in return for the service.
Neutrality of money is a guarantee that money does not distort the terms of exchange as the relative value of things would be measured of how much one is willing to sacrifice in terms of one commodity in return for another. Once neutrality of money is violated then its very role in facilitating exchange and promoting economic growth of producing more and consuming more in and by itself is compromised. Placing value on money itself then becomes a distorting factor where things are no longer only weighed in terms of relative values to buyers and sellers.
A new player comes into play where terms of exchange are now affected by how much value a “money supplier” places on that money where money abandons the role it was created for to become a commodity in itself. Role Of Commercial Banks In The Economic Development Of A Country - Presentation Transcript 1. o1. Banks promote capital formation o2. Investment in new enterprises o3. Promotion of trade and industry o4. Development of agriculture o5. Balanced development of different regions o6. Influencing economy activity o7. Implementation of Monetary policy o8. Monetization of the economy o9. Export promotion cells . Role of Commercial Banks in the Economic Development of a Country o3. Promotion of trade and industry: oWith the growth of commercial banking, there is vast expansion in trade and industry. oThe use of bank draft, check, bill of exchange, credit cards and letters of credit etc has revolutionized both national and international trade. 3. Role of Commercial Banks in the Economic Development of a Country o4. Development of agriculture: oThe commercial banks particularly in developing countries are now providing credit for development of agriculture and small scale industries in rural areas. The provision of credit to agriculture sector has greatly helped in raising agriculture productivity and income of the farmers. Globalization and the Indian Economy Indian markets have been transformed relatively as there is addition of wide range of goods in the recent years. These rapid transformations can be understood by analyzing the various aspects like:- 1) Production across countries: Before the middle of the twentieth century, production was largely organized within countries. Raw materials, food stuff and finished products were crossing the boundaries. Trade was the main channel connecting distant countries.
This was before large companies called multinational corporations emerged pm the scene. Whence the goods and services are produced globally and production is organized in increasingly complex ways. The production process is divided into small parts and spread out across the globe. The advantages o f spreading out production across the borders to the multinationals can be truly immense. 2) Interlinking production across countries: Almost all MNC’s set up production where it is close to the markets; where there is skilled and unskilled labour available at low costs; and where the availability of other factors of production is assured.
The money that is spent to buy assets such as land, building, machines and other equipment is called investment. Investment made by MNC’s is called foreign investment. At times, MNC’s set up production jointly with some of the local companies of these countries. MNC’s provide money for additional investments like buying new machines for faster production and they might bring with them the latest technology for production. As a result, production in these widely dispersed locations is getting interlinked. 3) Foreign trade and integration of markets Foreign trade has been the main hannel for connecting countries. It is an opportunity for the producers to reach beyond the domestic markets. Producers can sell their produce not only in markets located within the country but can also compete in markets located in other countries of the world. Similarly, for the buyers, import of goods produced in another country is one way of expanding the choice of goods beyond what is domestically produced.
Therefore, foreign trade results in connecting the markets of integration of markets in different countries. ) By understanding the meaning of globalization: Globalization means integrating the Indian economy with the world economy. In the process India becomes economically interdependent with other countries at the global or international level. It seeks removal of trade barriers. There are various features of globalization they are: 1. Many producers from other countries can sell their goods and services in India. 2. India can also sell its goods and services in other countries. 3. Businessmen of other countries can establish their enterprises in India, produce goods for sale within the country or to other countries as export. . In the same way entrepreneurs from India can also invest in other countries. 5. Globalization includes not only movement of capital and goods but also allows exchange of technology experience and laborers from one country to other and 6. In pursuance of this policy government of India has removed restrictions on imports of goods, reduced taxes 5) Factors enabled globalization: Rapid improvement in technology has been one major factor that has stimulated the globalization process. This has made much faster delivery of goods across long distances possible at lower costs.
There have been remarkable developments in information and communication technology. Information and communication technology has played a major role in spreading out production of services across countries. Removing barriers or restrictions set by the government is what is known as liberalization. The government imposes much less restrictions than before and is therefore said to be more liberal. 6) WTO – meaning and its functions: It was set up in 1995 by the member countries of the United Nation to promote trade among countries.
Headquarter is located in Geneva. It has influenced the liberalization and globalization processes in most of the developing countries, including India. It aims at conducting international trade among countries of the world in an open uniform and non-discriminating manner. WTO allows free trade to all, in practice, in developed countries. On the other hand, it rules have forced the developing countries to remove trade barriers. 7) Impact of Globalization in India: Globalization has taken an important place in the Indian economy for the last fifteen years.
Globalization in combination with greater competition among producers – internal as well as external, has been of greater advantage to consumers, particularly the well-off sections in the urban areas. Although the impact of globalization has not been uniform, because, MNC have increased their investments in India during the last fifteen years, which has proved to be beneficial to India. Mushrooming of industries like cell phones, automo iles electronics, soft drinks, fast food or services, via MNCs have created new avenues. It has given an opportunity to the raw material suppliers to prosper too.
On the other hand, the top Indian companies have been able to benefit from the increased competition by investing in new technology and production methods and raised their production standards. Moreover, globalization has enabled some large Indian companies to emerge as multinationals themselves! Some of the Indian companies which are spreading their operations world-wide are Tata-Motors (automobiles), Infosys (IT), Ranbaxy (Medicines), Asian Paints (Paints). It has created new opportunities for companies providing services, particularly those involving IT.
But for a large number of small producers and workers, globalization has posed major challenges. Globalization and the pressure have also posed a threat to the worker’s jobs, as they are not secure any more. Workers are low and workers are forced to work overtime to make both ends meet. The workers are sometimes denied their fair share of benefits which is brought about by globalization. 8) The struggle for a fair globalization: Globalization has not benefited everyone by way of not giving the best of the new opportunities and have not shared the proper benefits.
Fair globalization would create opportunities for all and ensure the benefits of globalization are shared better. It is possible if government takes major steps in this respect. The policies should be framed to protect the interests of all the people in the country, such as labour laws are properly implemented and thus the workers get their rights. By supporting small producers to improve their performance till the time they become strong enough to compete. •
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