Environment Industry Marketing
The study is about the analysis of the environment of car industry and the selling scheme for Ford Motor Company. It initiates with examining of external environment of car industry by utilizing PEST analysis and Porter ‘s five forces analysis. After the internal analyses that focus on the resource audit on trade name, merchandises, markets, engineering, people and boy on, the value concatenation analysis of the company will be behavior.
Then the generic competitory schemes would be discussed through SWOT analysis, Ansoff Matrix and BCG Matrix in order to place the general concern scheme taken by the Ford Company. After stipulating the company scheme by those analysis tools, the strategic ratings would be drawn together with the scheme control methods. Finally, a suggested recommendation for the company hereafter development will be mentioned at the terminal of the study.
1.1 Aim of The Report
This study aim to place the external environmental of the planetary car industry, step and evaluate feasible and sustainable selling schemes utilizing by the Ford Motor Company. Through appropriate theoretical constructs and theoretical accounts, together with appropriate methodological analysiss, the organisation within its contextual scene will be carefully examined, and warrant recommendation will be mentioned. Though the study, how a successful corporation is operated and how its concern scheme is implemented and controlled will be understood.
1.2 Company Background
Ford Motor Company is an American transnational corporation and one of the universe ‘s largest car manufacturer based on world-wide vehicle gross revenues. It has industries and distributes cars in 200 markets across six continents and has approximately 300,000 employees and 108 workss worldwide[ 1 ]. Ford now encompasses many planetary trade names, including Lincoln and Mercury of the US, Jaguar and Land Rover of the UK, and Volvo of Sweden and one-third commanding involvement in Mazda every bit good[ 1 ]. Ford introduced methods for large-scale fabrication of autos under different trade names and large-scale direction of an industrial work force and its combination of extremely efficient mills and low monetary values revolutionized fabrication had made the company successfully go a universe taking car industry.
1.3 Rational of Company Selection
Car industry is a consistant developing industry in the planetary in the twenty-first century. Ford Company is a universe taking automobile industry, which has its concern all over the universe. To analysis the planetary car industry environment and the development scheme for such a universe celebrated company would be a greate aid to understand how concern schemes are generated, implementated and controlled and meanwhile to see how would the company make to maintain its concern perform good when confronting a complicated environment and a diminution market.
1.4 Company Vision, Mission and Value
The company ‘s vision is ‘to become the universe ‘s prima company for automotive merchandises and services. ‘ And the company ‘s mission is to go a ‘global, diverse household with a proud heritage, passionately committed to supplying outstanding merchandises and services. ‘ And together with a company value that ‘do the right thing for our people, our environment and our society, but above all for our clients[ 2 ].
Based on its vision, mission and company value, the Ford Company is enterprise to maintain its prima place in the planetary, and do attempt to supply first-class merchandises and services that satisfied its clients. Approachs that be taken to carry through it ends and aims with sing the harmoniousness of concern environment and modern society.
2.1.1 Industry Background
The universe car industry has good developed for many decennaries and stable advancement was made during recent old ages. Now the automotive fabrication sector produce over 60 million vehicles every twelvemonth[ 3 ]and lend approximately 2.45 trillion Euro one-year grosss[ 4 ]. There are legion universe celebrated car manufacturers all round the planetary, and although the competition in car industry becomes more and more ferocious, it is still one of the biggest markets in planetary industry.
2.1.2 PEST Analysis
Finlay[ 5 ]point out that distant environment affect concerns by an indirect manner and would do alterations in a company ‘s operation. The car industry touches on a broad scope of facets, such as industry, supply concatenation, retailing and so on. As a consequence, many factors such as authorities policies, local ordinances, and societal civilization differences would act upon this industry. By patterning the distant environment with PEST analysis ( see appendix I ) , factors that would impact the planetary car industry would be examined.
220.127.116.11 Political and Legal
Anti-monopoly policies such as the EU competition policy tack several barriers to competition to do certain houses operate under a certain legal model[ 6 ]. This policy has force a perfect competition in car industry and will perfectly impact car industries ‘ selling scheme to some extend through forestalling houses from conspiring by price-fixing and every bit good commanding the size of houses.
. Environment Legislations
Nowadays, much attending has been devoted to the environmental issues. Organization such as European Environmental Liability Directive has formulated many Torahs and ordinances for environment protection[ 7 ]. Those statute laws force industries to believe over the environmental harm their operations may convey along, so that industries have to take action to protect the environment.
. Car Industry Legislations and Policies
First, ordinances in many parts have introduced different emanation bounds for Diesel and gasolene vehicles. Since 2005, all cars have to make the Euro 4 emanation criterion in European states[ 8 ]. And in America, stricter emanation criterion is set since 2005[ 9 ].
Besides, some authoritiess are promoting car manufacturers to bring forth environmental friendly vehicles. For illustration, UK authorities had asked car industries to plan new extremist low C household auto in 2003[ 10 ], which says can be the measure rock of the new coevals fuel efficiency autos.
With the infliction of a fuel revenue enhancement, consumers will hold to believe more carefully about their buying determinations. In the planetary, many states has really high fuel revenue enhancement, such as in the UK, it has took revenue enhancement higher up to 81.5 % of the entire monetary value of fuel[ 11 ]. And in Europe, EU has imposed a minimal revenue enhancement of 0.287 Euro per litre on gasolene[ 12 ]. As a consequence of such a high fuel revenue enhancement, the use of autos would be reduced to a great extent for many people.
.Economic Growth and Inflation
For these old ages, the planetary economic system is turning steady. Forecasters say that the mean universe growing rate of 4.9 per centum in the period 2003-2006 will go on at least for the following two old ages[ 13 ].
In footings of rising prices, there is a study shows that an increasing planetary rising prices with the one-year rate of consumer monetary value rising prices in the U.S. went up to 4.2 per centum in May,2007 ; 2.2 per centum in Great Britain and 2.5 per centum in the Euro zone[ 14 ]. As a consequence of the increasing rising prices, people may prefer to pass their money right now alternatively of salvaging money in the bank and it would promote people to devour merchandises such as cars.
Globalization has removed many barriers to cross-border activities and international trade can make great chances for local concerns to spread outing their concern into new countries overseas to run into a whole new set of possible clients[ 15 ].
The ever-closer international concern relationship would supply the industry more cost-efficient resources and meanwhile provide clients the chances of wider picks.
The unemployment figure in the planetary is increasing every twelvemonth. It is said that no affair in the developed states like United States and the United Kingdom or in the development states in China, and India, they are bring forthing less employment than it has in the past even though economic growing is strong[ 16 ]. So, in many topographic points all around the universe, the velocity of occupation creative activity can non catch up with the gait of population growing. This big figure of unemployment indicates that many people may hold non hold steady income to afford a auto.
.Personal Income and Distribution of Wealth
Despite a high and turning planetary mean income[ 17 ], planetary distribution of wealth, ingestion, and chance still remain badly imbalanced. The wealthiest 20 per centum of the population consumes 80 per centum of the resources[ 18 ]. As a consequence, people who could afford an upper category merchandise merely history for a little proportion of the entire population and most people merely has the mean income.
Although recent long-run demographic projections suggest a fast slowing of planetary population growing, grounds shows that the figure of aged people is turning fast[ 19 ]. As a consequence, industries should see merchandise that oriented to the aged.
Some experts claim that there was a diminution in the mean size of family in the twenty-first century[ 20 ].
Due to the increasing figure of older people and the smaller size of family, I think the little auto may go the chief watercourse for its practicality.
.Private and Public Transportation
Though the public transit may non be the first pick of some people, it is still the best replacement of private transit such as private autos. This is particularly true when increasing automobile use generates some negative impacts such as congestion, traffic accidents and extra vehicle emanations. So some authorities is be givening to switch people off from private transit to public transit with the attempt that bettering the public presentation[ 21 ].
Environmental jobs that touch us all has now has drawn the attending of public. People become more awareness about environment issues such as air pollution and nursery gas emanation. For illustration, Public are informed by many channels about the impacts of conveyance can convey, such as the clime alteration, human wellness fondnesss and loss of biodiversity[ 22 ]. As a consequence, consumers may go more cautious when buying autos. Meanwhile it is evidently the use of environmental friendly merchandises would turn up an increasing tendency.
.Other Social Concerns
Parking can be a large job for many drivers. It is ever difficult to happen a topographic point for parking and the monetary value charged for parking is sometimes goes really high[ 23 ]. As a consequence, some people would instead to utilize public transit alternatively of utilizing their private autos.
Road accident is ever a large issue for drivers. Take UK for illustration, harmonizing to the 2005 one-year study of UK section of transit[ 24 ], there is a entire figure of casualties in 2005 were 271,017 with a figure of 3,201 people killed and 28,954 injured. The high hazard of driving would act upon consumers ‘ determination on buying.
Recent old ages some diseases such as SARS had challenged societal stableness[ 25 ]. This had consequence people ‘s imposts and their behaviour to some extend. For illustration, there is a crisp lessening of public transit usage rate during the period of SARS in 2003. These public wellness issues more or less have influenced the planetary car market.
Since increasing attending has paid to environmental issues, research workers are seeking actively for new exploitable resources that can alternatively of gasoline and Diesel.
Bio-fuels are one of the most favourite replacements at current, which says made from renewable resources such as agricultural harvests or waste. They are more environmental friendly and can be refined as conventional gasoline that used in today ‘s engines[ 26 ].
Another replacement is natural gas that is comparatively cleaner comparison with other options. Besides, it is claimed that natural gas is non merely a inexpensive energy, but besides can good suited to driving utilizations[ 27 ].
In add-on, Lewin[ 28 ]believe H fuel cell autos that will hit the market in close hereafter and many car manufacturers are be aftering to establish this sort of merchandise.
Besides, solar power is besides a executable replacement for car manufacturers. It is claimed that the really first solar power trade for resuscitating auto batteries had made by a Canadian maker of solar panels with the VW[ 29 ].
.Computer Aided Design Program
Wernle and Bolduc[ 30 ]point out that vehicles design in the new century must be typical and tempting so that it would win a ideal market portion. It is ever a difficult and clip devouring procedure for auto interior decorator to plan a auto that non merely unite with great comfort and safety public presentation, but besides has alone manner. Now, with the aid of some computing machine plans such as Alias it would salvage much clip for car manufacturers to acquire autos to market quicker by cut downing the figure of clay theoretical accounts and paradigms[ 30 ].
. GPS and Car Navigation System
It is study that Garmin Ltd. , the largest GPS device shaper in the universe had sold around 5 million units in 2006 for personal pilotage equipment[ 31 ]. Presents, GPS becomes more and more of import to auto drivers in every twenty-four hours life. With the aid of GPS system information associated by mileometers, gyroscopes[ 32 ], a auto pilotage systems can acquire drivers wherever they want to travel. Information is transmitted by independent pilotage systems without the engagement of an external waiter by the usage of a bipartisan communicating between pilotage centre and the onboard vehicle detectors. The system can cipher the optimum path automatically and so give necessary ushers and some programmes even can supply users with extra information such as hotels and shopping promenades demoing on its digital maps. As GPS and auto pilotage system has widely accepted by many people, it will go an of import factor when people doing their consideration.
2.2 The Structural Analysis of Industries
Competition between houses is important to modern economic systems[ 33 ]. In competitory environment, there is a set of external influences which is able to impact administrations ‘ action[ 34 ]. Administrations have to to the full understand that environment in order to do attempt to make competitory advantage so that to accomplish success. In the undermentioned portion, Porter ‘s five-forces ‘ ( see appendix II ) attack will be used to analyzing the competitory environment.
2.2.1 The Menace of Entry
Johnson[ 34 ]suggest that the barriers to entry find the menace of entry. If the barriers are high so the menace of entry would be comparatively low[ 35 ].
The entryway barriers in planetary auto industry can be proposed as followers:
. Economies of Scale
Since the of all time falling auto monetary value[ 36 ], in order to cut down cost, many car manufacturers keep increasing their end product volume. For illustration, Toyota Motor Manufacturing had increased from 220,000 to 285,000 on Toyota Corolla and Avensis theoretical accounts in UK 2004 one-year production capacity and Mazda ‘s domestic production capacity has increased by 14 per centum in the same twelvemonth[ 37 ]. Therefore, new entrants who want to come in this industry have to come in with either at a big graduated table and hazard strong reaction from bing companies or they have to come in at a little graduated table and accept a cost disadvantage[ 35 ].
. Production Differentiation
For car manufacturers, it is ever hard to make typical merchandises, as the basic techniques of auto fabrication are no longer a secret for few industries. Now the focal point is bit by bit turning to safety[ 38 ], manner, comfort and new engineering for illustration a computing machine control panel such as supplying the driver with telematics, GPS[ 39 ]because of the quality spread among the different industry become narrower. As a consequence, it would evidently more clip consuming and would pass more money for those car manufacturers to plan a new theoretical account that is different from the rivals ‘ .
.Capital demand of Entry
To entry the automotive industry requires non merely advanced technological but besides tremendous capital[ 40 ]. It costs a batch on planing a new theoretical account, production, distribution and so on. And the larger the graduated table the company has the more capital would be spent. So entrants who want to come into this industry should foremost do certain if they have adequate money.
. Cost Disadvantages Independent of Scale
Porter[ 35 ]province that established companies may hold cost advantages such as proprietary merchandise engineering, favourable locations, favourable entree to raw stuffs. Many celebrated car manufacturers have already established their cost advantages. Take the illustration of Ford, it spend about 450 million on automotive research and development in Britain to maintain advanced engineering every twelvemonth. As a consequence, it is hard for a rival who does non hold cost advantages to interrupt into the industry.
To sum up, the entry barriers in universe car industry is comparative high, so it is non an easy work for new entrants to come in to this field.
2.2.2 Bargaining Power of Suppliers
Suppliers may hold strong power over the industry if the industry is dominated by few providers or the shift costs is high to alter one from another[ 34 ].
When sing the constituents section of car industry, it is now confronting a globalisation tendency. Rivals non merely exist in the domestic market, but besides rise from abroad, which means that the constituents section is full of competition and the bargaining power of providers would be reduced.
Beside, auto companies are now seeking constituent shapers and original equipment makers in some developing states such as India, China and Far East in order to salvage money[ 41 ]. Honda, which used to beginning major portion of its constituents from UK providers, for illustration, is now cut downing its UK seller base. As a consequence, this worldwide sourcing tendency has become a menace that limited the power of providers.
In add-on, in car industry there is a tendency of allying with other makers to portion design and development costs late. It is said that vehicle industries are working together much closer with their spouses and seek to develop vehicle platforms jointly. Most of big auto makers like Ford, GM, and Volkswagen have cut down their figure of platforms[ 42 ]and some theoretical accounts will utilize the same platform in order to cut down cost. Manufacturers can non merely cut down their fabrication cost to some extend by this manner, but besides would go more powerful when bargaining with constituents providers because increasing volumes of constituents may necessitate. And meanwhile it may assist makers cut down natural stuff costs.
In a word, the bargaining power of providers in planetary car industry is low. It is an chance for many auto makers that provide a opportunity of be aftering their buying scheme better and more profitable.
2.2.3 Bargaining Power of Buyers
Harmonizing to Porter ‘s[ 35 ]theory, purchasers have the power of coercing down monetary values, dickering for higher quality and more service, and playing rivals against each other. In the undermentioned portion, the bargaining power of purchaser in planetary industry will be discussed from several different facets.
As in planetary auto market the merchandise distinction is non really obvious due to the car industry acknowledge is no longer a secret. There are tonss of car manufacturers in this market, and the basic maps of their merchandises are about the same and the lone differences would be the design and some other extra maps. So clients can ever happen alternate provider who offers a cheaper monetary value, gives the most satisfied merchandise, and provides the best client service.
. Importance of Buying
If the merchandise is really of import for the purchasers, the bargaining power of purchasers may relative high[ 35 ]. In car market, the importance of buying seems instead low. Statistic shows that in developed states, the mean ownership of autos is rather high, take Britain as an illustration, statistic shows that 3 in 4 families have entree to a auto and over half ( 52 % ) of all rural families had two or more autos in 2005[ 43 ]. So in those states to buying a new auto may non be so necessary for most of the households.
. Information Searching
If purchasers have full information about merchandise, demand, market monetary value, their bargaining power would be greater than those with less information[ 35 ]. We are now come ining a great new epoch of information. Peoples can seek merchandise information through assorted methods, such as friends, gross revenues assistant and different medias. And it is said that persons particularly those who are extremely involved with the purchase of a merchandise are thought to be more active on information searching[ 44 ]. Today ‘s mass media, no affair the newspapers, magazines, wireless, or telecasting, all contain a big sum of information. Besides, the entrance of Internet epoch has simplified the procedure of information seeking procedure to a great extend. All these factors mentioned supra have provided consumers with more information.
What it comes down to me is that in car industry, the auto makers ‘ selling scheme would be effected by the comparative high client bargaining power.
2.2.4 Pressure From Substitute Merchandises
Substitutes play a restriction function in industry[ 35 ], it provide the same map as the merchandise of the industry to restrains industry devising net income. There are several agencies would be the replacement merchandises of car.
. Public Transportation system
Public transit would come foremost to most of people when believing about the replacement of private autos. More and more people are willing to give up autos and utilize public transit particularly when the service of public transit is better.
Besides, since there are increasing figure of SOHO workers, many people choose to work at place by Internet. So they do non necessitate a auto to drive to work, therefore the significance of having a auto is decreased.
. Car rental and Car Sharing
Today, the ever-rising gasoline monetary value becomes another factor that forces many people cut down the use rate of their autos. Many people choose to lease a auto for travel or portion one auto between friends alternatively of driving entirely. As a consequence, demand of buying a auto would be decreased and there is increasing demand for auto rental particularly now some rental houses have provided more complete and customerizedservices[ 45 ].
To sum up, public transit, auto rental and auto sharing could be some of the replacement methods of having private autos. All of these agencies have pressed threaten on the universe car industry.
2.2.5 Intensity of Rivalry Among Existing Competitions
Porter[ 35 ]point out that competition occurs for the ground that one or more rivals feels force per unit area or sees the chance to better place. In planetary car industry, competition among the rivals is really strong and the major rivals are closely balanced so that the competition is increasing intense. Besides old challengers such as General Motors, Ford, Volkswagen, those Nipponese car manufacturer like Toyota and Honda now are deriving stronger power in this industry. Because there is small distinction among the merchandises, when make up one’s minding buying, one challenger is ever compared to another invariably in monetary value, quality, lastingness, and many other facets. As a consequence, in order to derive market portion in the car industry, company should supply better merchandise every bit good as better service so that it could take the market portion from their rivals.
2.3 Strategic Group Analysis
To place strategic groups which has similar strategic features, following similar schemes or viing on similar bases can assist to understand the most direct rivals and of any given organisation and besides can assist place possible chances and menaces[ 34 ].
Strategic groups in car industry can be identified harmonizing to the merchandise ‘s category and position such as those upper category industries such as BMW, Mercedes Benz, and up medium, medium and lower medium industries such as Honda, Ford and other market section such as rushing auto and so on. In different parts, each groups ‘ power are vary. It is indispensable to Ford Company to place different state of affairs in different topographic points all over the universe, so that the concern scheme can be chosen decently.
III. INTERNAL ANALYSIS
3.1 Resource Audit
Resource audit is utile in understanding strategic capableness harmonizing to Johnson[ 34 ]. To place the handiness of resource that can be used is of import for a concern. In the followers, the resource of Ford Company would be examined.
The Ford Motor Company controls the many auto trade names wouldwide, such as Jaguar, , Land Rover, Lincoln, Mazda, and Volvo[ 1 ].
Through acquisition, Ford Company got control of some celebrated trade names such as Land Rover, Jaguar and Volvo. Based on the client cognition and trust of those upper category trade names, the gross revenues of other sections and trade names of Ford auto had been promoted[ 46 ]. By constructing the image of Combining solid refined design and the best new engineerings available[ 2 ], the company becomes a powerful challenger in the market, and the trade name has widely accepted by many people.
3.1.2 Merchandises and Market
Ford has legion locations where Ford vehicles are developed, manufactured, sold or distributed[ 47 ]. These works and office locations work to supply a footing of the company ‘s prima place in auto market for many old ages, which take duty in fabrication vehicles and power merchandises, technological development, buying and distribution its merchandises all around the universe. Although with high cost-efficient Ford theoretical accounts such as Transit, Fiesta and Focus that have become the best marketer for many old ages[ 82 ], there would be a job of shriveling of market and worsening in profitableness recent old ages.
Harmonizing to Ford Company 2006 one-year study[ 48 ], although the company is at loss during the twelvemonth for the unsated public presentation in North American market, the state of affairs in Europe market is still profitable with the gross revenues of vehicles that generated the major income and hard currency of the company ‘s automotive sectors ‘ gross. In add-on, the involvement on finance receivables generated the primary income of the company ‘s fiscal services sector ‘s gross. Based on its vehicles and fiscal service gross revenues, the company has the ability to back up some engineering development or hold some farther investing such as Diesel technology[ 49 ].
Ford invests to a great extent in new engineering. In Britain merely, it spends around 450 million on automotive research and development yearly. In Dunton Technical Centre, it has the largest automotive design and technology installation in the UK and one of the most advanced installations of its sort in Europe[ 47 ]. The accent on engineering enables the company have a solid footing of merchandise development. As a consequence, competitory advantage through new technique, programmes such as digital in-vehicle system called Sync created with Microsoft[ 50 ]that is turning out this summer is a good illustration.
In order to fit its employees with stronger capableness, Ford offers good equipped larning resource centres and developing programmes for all employees. These human resource direction actions has non merely trained sufficient qualified employees for the company, but besides provided a base for bring forthing conversations of company ‘s strategic alteration[ 51 ]. On the other manus, recent bad public presentation forced Ford Company to shear its employees. It is said that a downsized Ford would cast up to 30,000 occupations and 14 mills by 2012 in order to be more advanced[ 86 ].
3.2 Value Chain Analysis
Value concatenation ( see appendix III ) analysis has been widely adopted as a manner of understanding the relationship between strategic capableness and administration ‘s resources.
As to Ford Company, in its really early old ages, the company has controlled the full value concatenation[ 52 ], now it endeavors to incorporate its multi-tiered value concatenation which include main elements such as real-time quality feedback from the market to tier, stock list decrease, dealing decrease, collaborative ocular design studios, rapid client feedback, accelerated clip to market[ 53 ]. Through those actions, the resource use is enhanced so there would be less resource is wasted during the production and dealing. Besides, the cost efficiency has increased by constructing the economic systems of graduated table, cut downing supply cost and effectual communications between providers and purchasers. In add-on, a carefully planned selling mix and a better service would advance effectivity, such as the attempts that the Ford Company put on CarsDirect and online merchandising[ 54 ].
IV. GENERIC COMPETITIVE STRATEGIES
4.1 SWOT Analysis
Company ‘s Large Scale
Ford Company is one of the largest automotive makers in the universe. It manufactures and distributes cars in 200 markets across six continents[ 1 ]. The big size has brought the company economic systems of graduated table every bit good as name acknowledgment and client trust.
Through acquisition, Ford Company now has owned many universe celebrated trade names include Ford, Jaguar, Land Rover, Lincoln, Mazda, Mercury and Volvo[ 1 ]. The company ‘s merchandises has penetrated into every sections of car industry and each trade names has its ain strengthens in different section, such as Land Rover is celebrated of its 4X4 vehicle and Lincoln is a good know luxury auto.
Profitable Financial Services Division
The fiscal services division, Ford Motor Credit, plays a cardinal function in maintaining the company afloat. Even the automotive division are reported at loss[ 48 ], there is grounds that the fiscal services still remain net income. As a consequence, the gross made by fiscal services division would be a great aid when its automotive sector is non executing good.
By collaborating with some strategic confederation, the company can profit a batch from the advantages of their spouses ‘ . Ford has announced to get down offering Sony-branded audio systems in Ford and Mercury cars[ 55 ]and Microsoft package will be used for the Ford Sync wirelesss[ 56 ]. Besides, Ford Company besides support rushing squads such as NASCAR[ 57 ]and it besides participated in sport event such as expression one for many old ages and it is one of the taking maker in automotive racing[ 1 ]. This accomplishment has brought good repute to the company.
Bad Proformance in US market
As an American auto industry, Ford Company done severely in its domestic market recent old ages. The dissatisfactory public presentation in the US market has affect the company ‘s operations to a great extend.
Decline in Profitableness
The company ‘s profitableness has declined in recent old ages. The company recorded grosss of $ 160,123 million during the financial twelvemonth ended December 2006, a lessening of 9.5 % over 2005 harmonizing to the 2006 one-year study[ 48 ]. In add-on, the 2006 one-year study besides shows that the company ‘s mean gross growing during financial 2006 stood at negative of 9.5 % which is lower than the industry norm of 10.2 % during the same period.
Decline in Market Share
Though Ford is the 1 of the biggest car manufacturer, its public presentation is non that satisfied, as it has lost its market portion in the few old ages. Evidence shows that Ford may fall from 2nd to 4th topographic point in market portion in 2007 behind General Motors, Toyota, and Chrysler[ 60 ]. The diminution in overall market portion would chiefly due to worsen in company ‘s retail market portion in my sentiment. As a consequence, continued diminutions in company ‘s market portion would do a significant bad consequence on company fiscal status and its operations.
Ford has recalled a figure of vehicles in 2007 owing to assorted grounds. It is reported that 37,400 has been recalled 2008-model-year F-Series Super Duty trucks with 6.4-liter Diesel engines following studies of tailpipe fires[ 58 ]and recalled about 527,000 Ford Escape from the 2001-04 theoretical account old ages because the antilock brake system poses a safety jeopardy[ 59 ]. These merchandises recalls has influenced the gross revenues to some extent because clients would get down to doubt the quality and lastingness of the merchandises.
Environmental Friendly Merchandises
Nowadays, as a consequence of the increasing consciousness of environmental issues, authoritiess has issued many environment protection ordinances such as set more rigorous emanation criterion and consumers besides began to demo their willingness of buying environmental friendly merchandises. As a consequence, the clearer and more fuel-efficient autos would be an chance in the hereafter. Ford Company had set up a Centre to spearhead the development of intercrossed vehicles in Gothenburg, Sweden. The Centre is portion of a planetary enterprise to rush up the debut of fuel-efficient intercrossed vehicles[ 61 ].
Opportunities in China
China has a great market potency with a continuously developing economic system and based on a big population. In China, particularly those coastal metropoliss, the life criterion is increasing dramatically, and buying a auto has become a common issue for many in-between category households. With its spouses Changan Automotive Corp. and Mazda Motor Corp. , Ford is accomplishing more growing. It is said that the joint venture ‘s gross revenues more than doubled in 2006, and all Ford Motor trade names ( Ford, Lincoln, Land Rover, Jaguar and Volvo and the commercial Transit ) had posted gross revenues 86.6 % higher than in 2005[ 62 ]. The good impulse of Chinese market provides large chances to the company to do net income in this possible market.
Rising Raw Material Price
It is said that makers will pay more for natural stuffs[ 63 ]. The company ‘s natural stuff cost is increasing due to lift in monetary values of aluminium and steel and McKay[ 64 ]suggest that a combination of factors led it to believe most metals would be stronger in the short to medium term. As a consequence, the company may hold to pass more on those indispensable natural stuffs for its production.
Stricter Emission Standards
The European Union adopted Euro3 and Euro4 as comprehensive emanations ordinances for rider vehicles and heavy and light commercial vehicles in 1999 and In 2005, the European Union created a new emanation criterion ( Euro5 ) and is more rigorous on demands for gasolene vehicles and Diesel vehicles, which will go effectual get downing around 2009[ 65 ]. Because of the more and more rigorous emanation criterion, the company have to plan and bring forth more fuel-efficient vehicles in order to fit those criterions.
Ford ‘s market portion has declined thanks to fierce competition among its old challengers and the freshly coming Nipponese companies. Not merely its old challengers such as GM and VW are seeking their best to supply better merchandises and services to their clients, meanwhile, these Nipponese vehicle makers such as Toyota and Honda now have established a strong market place in the rider autos section, and even mean to process light trucks section[ 66 ]where Ford may used to be strong. This state of affairs has threaten the Ford Company ‘s market to a great extent.
4.2 Strategic Options
‘Specific strategic options for development ‘are most usefully considered in the context of the overall generic scheme which an organisation is prosecuting ‘ pointed by Johnson[ 34 ]. Depend on the pervious analyzing on the competitory environment ; the generic schemes of Ford Company will be discussed in the followers.
4.2.1 Porter ‘s Genetic Strategy
Porter[ 35 ]argues that cost leading scheme, distinction scheme and concentrate scheme are three cardinal methods that enable a house to accomplish sustainable competitory advantage.
18.104.22.168 Cost Leadership
Cost leading can assist a company to be an ‘above-average performing artist ‘ and enable the company the handiness of commanding monetary values suggested by Porter[ 35 ], and elements like economic systems of graduated table, experience, location, clocking all can be the cost drivers.
It reckons that the Ford Company ‘s labour costs account for merely about 9 % of its entire costs of production, and conveyance to clients that are largely moderately local or at least in the same continent, which are a farther 2 % . Based on these, once more with a heavy investing in mechanization, the company has the ability to vie with low-priced makers[ 67 ]. Besides, in order to command the overall cost, Ford had cut its provider to acquire lower costs by making concern with fewer, more capable providers[ 68 ].
Porter[ 35 ]defines distinction as ‘to be alone in its industry along some dimensions that are widely valued by purchasers. ‘ Differentiation can be achieved by alone merchandise, monetary value, distribution, publicity, service and so on.
Along with engineering invention such as the emerge of Ford Model U, merchandise distinction can be found in auto designing that alteration and grow with clients ‘ budget, demands, activities and personality. It is manufactured utilizing procedures and stuffs that are safe, productive and renewing, and it runs on clean, renewable energy[ 1 ]. Besides, services such as finance service and vehicle purchase programme besides make the company distinctive from others.
22.214.171.124 Focus Strategy
A focal point scheme is based on narrow competitory range within an industry. The focuser select a peculiar section or group of sections so tailor their merchandises to run into the demand of client better[ 35 ].
As there are so many trade names under the Ford Company, each trade name may concentrate on a certain section so that the clients would non be dispersed, and it is easier to fulfill those peculiar demands of their mark clients. For illustration, Land Rover is celebrated of its off-road vehicles ; Lincoln is the representative of luxury autos and Ford is executing better in average category section.
4.2.2 Alternate Directions for Strategy Development
In this subdivision, the strategic waies that Ford Company would used will be set out based on the Ansoff Matrix ( see appendix IV ) . By usage this model, the manner that can accomplish growing through merchandise scheme can be identified[ 6 ].
126.96.36.199 Market Penetration
Market incursion in bing markets with present merchandises is through winning rival ‘s clients by more effectual publicity or distribution, or cutting monetary values[ 6 ].
Cutting monetary value would pull more clients. The cost-effective orientation can be found in Ford trade name such as the cost-saving advantages of the new Mondeo is the cardinal sell point that from cheaper insurance to take down fuel ingestion[ 69 ].
Ford ‘s more luxury trade names such as Land Rover prefer the utilizing of publicity instead than price-cutting in order to maintain its trade name image in their clients ‘ head. Take Land Rover as an illustration, for the publicity of its latest Freelander 2 in Great Britain it use heavy Television advertizement every bit good as direct mail battalion related to the ads[ 70 ].
Besides, Ford now has focused on the value pricing, which accomplished chiefly by cutting the spine monetary value. Through value pricing, dealing monetary values ( the figure really paid ( or financed ) by the purchaser ) is closer to sticker monetary values and consequently clients would experience more valuable and the immense discounts paid to clients would be reduced as good, which creates a cost advantage[ 71 ].
188.8.131.52 Market Development
A market development method the organisation maintains its present merchandises and at the same clip embarking into new market countries, which include come ining new market sections, working new merchandise maps and distributing into new geographical countries[ 34 ].
The switch to bring forth other merchandise is non easy for car manufacturers, so develop new market is a wise pick when present market is going saturated. As the unsated gross revenues public presentation on the US market in recent old ages, Ford is now ready to develop its market in South Africa and Asia ( particularly in China and India ) .Ford is be aftering to extinguish its old corporate constructions which known as the independent concern units, and unify its automotive operations worldwide. The company established Western markets which offer merely limited growing possibilities and have an effort to turn outside its traditional markets where tend to be more market potency[ 72 ]. Ford has ready set up assembly operations in such states as China, India, Vietnam, Poland and Belarus and South Africa every bit good as an of import portion of its planetary enlargement programme.
184.108.40.206 Product Development
Harmonizing to Jobber[ 6 ], merchandise development involves the development of new merchandises for bing markets, including widening bing merchandise lines to offer greater pick and merchandise replacing that offers new theoretical accounts or trade names.
Ford is ever seeking a manner of developing its merchandises. This twelvemonth, with the Ford Flex that introduced in March, the Ford ‘s planetary merchandise development system comes to the market. The system uses computer-created practical tools alternatively of expensive and time-consuming physical paradigm testing and the company hopes that up to 80 per centum will come under the practical umbrella in the following few old ages[ 73 ]. With the aid of the new system, new theoretical accounts would more easy designed and face to the populace in less clip.
Besides, Ford besides endeavored to seek some environmental friendly merchandises alternatively of the old 1s to accommodate to the worldwide environment protection issues. It was the first American car shaper to establish a intercrossed vehicle. It is study that Its Escape loanblend athleticss public-service corporation vehicle produces 80 % less smog than ordinary vehicles[ 74 ].
Through merchandise development, the Ford would better its merchandises in order to fulfill clients ‘ demand and wants better, so that the public presentation of the company can be enhanced.
Diversification is the option that concerns the development of new merchandises in new markets. It is suggested as the most hazardous option, but besides can be the most rewarding 1[ 6 ].
Ford ‘s fiscal service sector is a trade name new merchandise in its un-reached market. However, when the company ‘s automotive division is describing at loss, the fiscal service division is still reported net income[ 48 ]. Now the fiscal services division is considered as a chief factor that ‘keeps debt ball turn overing ‘[ 75 ]. As a consequence, in order to maintain the company afloat, it is of import to maintain the good public presentation of the fiscal service sector.
4.2.3 BCG Matrix
In the followers, the portfolio planning of Ford Company would be examined through BCG Matrix ( see appendix V ) . By utilizing BCG Matrix, determinations sing the pick of which brands to construct, keep, harvest or divest would be decided.
The Ford Company BCG Matrix can be identified as the undermentioned manner ( see table 1 ) :
Ford Company ‘s chief trade name Ford performs good in the medium/lower market, particularly in the European market and in China. Several theoretical accounts have become the best marketer in the market recent old ages. As a consequence, it is possible to put more on them in order to accomplish farther development. Bill Ford had point out that Chinese market has big potency[ 83 ], so Ford Company now has wage more attending on Chinese market. Besides, as a wider credence of Nipponese autos, Mazda besides becomes a star trade name. Some people believe that Ford should enlarge the portion in Mazda in order to increase the capableness to vie with other trade names such as Toyota or Honda[ 84 ].
However, in the turning non-luxury market, Volvo and Mercury may have fewer market portion comparison with Ford and Mazda. The profitableness may non so satisfy with these two trade names, so they become inquiry Markss and necessitate farther consideration on investing. Ford Company choose non to deprive these trade names but seek to construct them and try to turn the inquiry marks into stars to obtain more portion in upper medium market.
In the shrinkage higher car market, Ford ‘s Lincoln and Land Rover have comparative high market portion. Customer trueness towards these trade names is high, so in the section they still have their power to be the hard currency cow to supply liquid financess. It is wise to keep the gross revenues and market portion of hard currency cattles so that extra hard currency would be used to fund the development of stars or inquiry Markss.
On the other manus, another luxury trade name Jaguar may be the dog merchandise of the company that needs to reap or divest. Ford Company eventually decides to sell the Jaguar trade name[ 85 ]in order to bring forth a positive hard currency flow to fund other trade names and operation.
V. EVALUATION AND CONTROL
5.1 Strategic Evaluation
It is of import to measure corporate schemes to guarantee that a company is accomplishing its ends through right way. To analyze if the concern aims, programs and policies are appropriate is indispensable for the organisation development. There are three major standards of measuring concern schemes: suitableness, acceptableness and feasibleness[ 34 ].
Suitability concerned about if the schemes fit the environment and the organisation capableness and to see if the schemes can run into the outlooks of stakeholders[ 34 ].
In footings of business-level schemes, Ford Company takes the advantage of its big graduated table and makes the best of its diverseness of trade names to heighten its concern profile and enlarge its concern country. Each trade name under the Ford Company can hold their ain mark market and clients, and at the same clip different selling scheme can be used to hike gross revenues. This scheme is suiting good with the corporate development that guarantee a solid footing of its growing. Besides, Ford Company ‘s generic schemes can be considered successful for the perfect public presentation in its concerns particularly in its star trade names such as Ford and Mazda.
As to the merchandise development and international enlargement schemes, Ford Company ‘s different growing scheme through that used on different mark market can be considered in the right way. By utilizing market incursion scheme through mooing the cost and supply a cost-effective Ford trade name merchandises and increasing the publicity of its luxury car trade names, the market place would be good protected. Besides, by working market in some underdeveloped state and new merchandises development, market development and merchandise development scheme is good received. In add-on, the variegation is found effectual in its fiscal service sector where conveying tonss of net income every twelvemonth.
And for portfolio direction, it is sensible for Ford Company to keep its stars and sell several trade names that has limited hereafter development potency in order to obtain adequate money to fund other trade names.
Acceptability is concerned with the expected public presentation results of a scheme in footings of return, hazard and stakeholder reactions[ 34 ]. As Ford Company ‘s fiscal public presentation can be found now on the downward, harmonizing to company ‘s one-year study ( 2006 )[ 48 ], the company ‘s developing scheme should be carefully examined to see the market chance. For illustration, although the intercrossed vehicle may hold potency in the hereafter, the right clip to set to much attempt on this sort of merchandise may non yet come. If the company spends excessively much money on it, there would be a fiscal hazard. So, in order to guarantee a solid enlargement in the hereafter, market incursion scheme would foremost be considered. In add-on, as the fiscal service sector is public presentation good, it is the right clip to beef up this market in order to win more net income to back up the company ‘s operation.
Feasibility is concerned with whether an organisation has the resources and competencies to present a scheme[ 34 ].
Ford Company ‘s fiscal public presentation can be found now non such satisfied. Harmonizing to company ‘s one-year study ( 2006 )[ 48 ], the company is seen a downward tendency. Both the gross revenues and the market portion are found declined. As a consequence of this, the company ‘s developing scheme may face troubles. The company would non hold sufficient financess to back up its merchandise development schemes every bit good as the international enlargement scheme.
Besides, The rival ‘s state of affairs is an of import factor that would impact the company ‘s scheme. Although most of Ford ‘s chief challengers such as Volkswagen, Renault and Peugeot have besides found diminution, the Nipponese car manufacturer Toyota still in growing[ 76 ]. And Toyota is the major challenger that compete with Ford on its most possible intercrossed vehicle market[ 77 ]. This state of affairs would consequence the merchandise development of the Ford Company, as a consequence, the company should take action to forestall farther diminution in order to keep strength to vie with its challengers.
5.2 Strategic Control
After critical evaluating of the company scheme and comparing the existent public presentation with coveted consequences, feedback would be bring forth for direction in order to make up one’s mind how to take disciplinary actions[ 52 ].
After experienced a hard twelvemonth in 2006, Ford Company is taking dramatic stairss to transform its concern by bettering cost construction, raising merchandise quality, obtaining funding and replenishing merchandise line with new vehicles[ 48 ]. The company hoped that good consequences could be seen through these strategic controls.
Besides, Ford ‘s regional operations that run as mostly independent concern units in the yesteryear are considered to be changed due to inefficiencies past systems. In December 2006, the company announced an organisational realignment that purpose to better operation effectivity had puts extra focal point on markets and clients and accent on better leveraging its planetary assets and capablenesss[ 48 ]. By sharing vehicle architectures and constituents globally, and taking full advantage of planetary economic systems of graduated table, the company will leverage its resources worldwide more expeditiously[ 48 ].
In add-on, because of the bad public presentation in the North America Market, the company has decided to repair its concern in that country. A $ 5 billion decrease in one-year operating costs by 2008 would be put into consequence. At the same clip, the company is speed uping new merchandise development, it is said that it will rush up the clip it takes new merchandises to market by 30 to 50 per centum[ 48 ]. And the most recent determination made by Ford Company that to sell Jaguar and Land Rover is another methods to do money which can used to reconstitute the company ‘s North American operation because it conveying the company one million millions of financess if they successfully sell the two trade names.
Based from pervious analysis and rating of Ford Company ‘s schemes, here comes some recommendations.
On business-level scheme, it should maintain on prehending chances of new concern and by utilizing its advantages on corporate graduated table to spread out concern country. Opportunities exist non merely in its traditional markets in those western states, large potency can be found in other part such as Latin America and Asia. Besides, the fiscal service sector is found full of possible, so accent could be put in this country in order to bring forth more financess to back up its car sector.
Besides, the company should beef up its nucleus concern, new merchandises that are more cost-efficient and typical could be concentrated on in order to hike the gross revenues and grosss by get the better ofing challengers ‘ . Besides, some star concern of the company should still be paid attending to, such as to maintain Ford ‘s market place in China, strengthen the gross revenues of 2006 best marketer such as Ford Fiesta, Mondeo, Focus in the European market[ 82 ], do attempt to maintain these theoretical accounts being the market leader. Meanwhile, production cost should be purely controlled to accomplish higher border. Some programs that focus on a comparatively little market such as the intercrossed vehicles would be postponed after the company ‘s public presentation is turnaround to positive.
In add-on, if the merchandising of Land Rover and Jaguar still can non obtain adequate capital to carry through the deficient financess to reconstitute the North America operation, the company would hold to take to sell Volvo in order to buoy up the load of operate such a large company and bring forth adequate money to go on its concern.
After a elaborate analysis of the Ford Motor Company, decision may pull at that the transnational company adheres its mission and vision, through consistent schemes every bit good as the go oning planetary development to accomplish its concern ends and aims. Although its recent old ages ‘ bad public presentation had brought some troubles to the company, strategic alterations ‘start with a solid foundation of squad work and an firm focal point on client ‘[ 48 ]would hopefully convey dramatic consequences. The overall development of Ford Company ‘s scheme and the manner of commanding its concern can be learned from many facets.
II. Porter ‘s 5 Forces Critique
Porter[ 35 ]provinces that the cardinal facet of a company ‘s environment is the industry it competes because of industry construction has a strong influence on finding the competitory regulations and the company ‘s schemes. He besides points out that outside forces normally affect all the houses in the industry, which depends on five basic competitory forces ( figure 2 ) .
Beginning: Porter, M. ( 1980 ) Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Rivals, MacMillan.
Harmonizing to this model, the strength of competition determines a house ‘s profitableness potency whereas the possible net incomes are determined by the comparative bargaining power of the houses and their clients and providers in the industry[ 80 ]. Harmonizing to McGee ‘s[ 81 ]thought, these are five cardinal forces that influence the attraction of the industry and impact its profitableness.
A value concatenation ( see figure 3 ) links a set of value-creating activities that begin with natural stuffs, and from providers so move on to some valued-added bring forthing and selling activities, and at the terminal the distributers get the concluding goods so pass to the manus of the consumer[ 52 ].
A systematic analysis of single value activities can take to a better apprehension of a administration ‘s capableness[ 52 ].
IV. Ansoff Matrix
Harmonizing to Jobber[ 6 ], Anosoff Matrix is a utile method to analyze growing chances. By uniting present and new merchandises, and present and new market into a 2×2 matrix, four merchandise schemes known as market incursion or enlargement, market development, merchandise development and variegation are revealed ( see figure 4 ) .
V. The Boston Consulting Group Growth-Share Matrix
Harmonizing to Jobber[ 6 ], BCG matrix ( see figure 5 ) provides guidelines for strategic thought. By measuring the place of a concern in its industry, a company can get down to see the appropriate strategic aim for each line every bit good as the investing precedences.
Figure 5 The Boston Consulting Group Growth-Share Matrix
Beginning[ 78 ]: Johnson, G. and Scholes, K. ( 1999 )Researching Corporate Strategy, 5th edition, Harlow: Fiscal Times-Prentice Hallway
[ 1 ] Ford Motor Company website
& lt ; www.ford.com & gt ; ( entree on 20 July )
[ 2 ] Ford Motor Company UK web site
& lt ; www.ford.co.uk & gt ; ( entree on 20 July )
[ 3 ] Gu, Y. ( 2002 ) ‘Overview of universe car industry ‘ inWorld Manufacturing Engineering & A ; Market,04/2002, p42-43.
[ 4 ] Zhang, Z. ( 2003 ) ‘Developing tendencies on universe car industry in the early old ages of the twenty-first century ‘ inWorld Manufacturing Engineering & A ; Market,04/2003, p35-36.
[ 5 ] Finlay, P. ( 2000 )Strategic Management: an debut to Business and Corporate scheme, Harlow: Fiscal Times-Prentice Hall.
[ 6 ] Jobber, D. ( 2004 )Principles and Practice of Marketing, 4th edition, Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill.
[ 7 ] Crowhurst, G. ( 2006 ) ‘The Environmental Liability Directive: A UK Perspective. ‘ in European Environmental Law Review, Vol.15, Issue 10, p266-276.
[ 8 ] DieselNet web site, ‘Emission Standard ‘
& lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www.dieselnet.com/standards/eu/ld.php & gt ; ( accessed on 24 March 2007 )
[ 9 ] Yin, T. ( 2005 ) ‘An Introduction to the American Emission Regulation for Motorcycles Runing on Expressway ‘ inMotorcycle Technology, 07/2005, p24-25.
[ 10 ] ‘The UK authorities ‘s Ultra Low Carbon Car Challenge. ‘ inAutomotive Engineer, Vol.29, Issue 2, Feb 2004, p34-34.
[ 11 ] Petrolprices web site, ‘fuel revenue enhancement ‘
& lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www.petrolprices.com/fuel-tax.html & gt ; ( accessed on 24 March 2007 )
[ 12 ] GTZ study: International Fuel Prices 2007
[ 13 ] Beams, N. ( 2007 ) After strong growing, universe economic system at a turning point
& lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www.wsws.org/articles/2007/apr2007/grow-a24.shtml & gt ; ( entree on 24 July )
[ 14 ] Counihan, G.. ( 2006 ) ‘COMMENT ‘ in Finweek, 6/29/2006, p110.
[ 15 ] ‘Global trading — planetary funding. ‘ in Works Management, Vol.60, Issue 5, May2007, p10.
[ 16 ] Stokes, B. ( 2006 ) ‘Jobless Globalization ‘ in National Journal, Vol.38, Issue 23, 6/10/2006, p58.
[ 17 ] Pogge, T. ( 2005 ) ‘Real World Justice. ‘ in Journal of Ethics, Vol.9, Issue 1/2, Jan2005, p29-5.
[ 18 ] Jackson, S. ( 2007 ) ‘Empires of the MIND. ‘ in Presidency, Vol.10, Issue 1, Winter2007, p14-19.
[ 19 ] Francis, D. ( 1998 ) ‘Population Growth Slows, and Aged Ranks Rise. ‘ in Christian Science Monitor, Vol.90, Issue 234, 10/28/98, p6.
[ 20 ] Potts, M. ( 2007 ) ‘Population and environment in the 21st century. ‘ in Population & A ; Environment, Vol.28, Issue 4/5, Mar2007, p204-211.
[ 21 ] Geerlings, H. , Klementschitz, R. and Mulley, C. ( 2006 ) ‘Development of a methodological analysis for benchmarking public transit administrations: a practical tool based on an industry sound methodological analysis. ‘ in Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol.14, Issue 2, Jan2006, p113-123.
[ 22 ] European Environment Agency ( 2003 ) ‘Europe ‘s environment: the 3rd appraisal ‘ inEnvironmental assessment study No.10,Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.
[ 23 ] BBC web site, ‘parking ‘
& lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www.bbc.co.uk/dna/actionnetwork/C2332 & gt ; ( accessed on 26 March 2007 )
[ 24 ] Department of conveyance, ‘Road Casualties Great Britain: 2005 one-year study ‘ .
[ 25 ] Brad, A. and Jonathan, F. ( 2005 ) ‘Toward Inherently Secure and Resilient Societies ‘ . inScience, Vol.309, Issue 5737, p1034-1036.
[ 26 ] ‘Consider the options ‘ , in Economist, Vol.375, Issue 8424, Particular subdivision, 4/30/2005, p21-24.
[ 27 ] Di Pascoli, S. , Femia, A. and Luzzati, T. ( 2001 ) ‘Natural gas, autos and the environment. A comparatively ‘clean ‘ and inexpensive fuel looking for users ‘ , in Ecological Economicss, Vol.38, Issue 2, p179.
[ 28 ] Lewin, T. ( 2006 ) ‘Hydrogen inches toward mass market ‘ . in Automotive News, Vol.81, Issue 6227, p22.
[ 29 ] ‘VW marks foremost solar power trade. ‘ in Automotive Engineer, Vol.31, Issue 2, Feb2006, p10.
[ 30 ] Wernle, B. and Bolduc, D. ( 2004 ) ‘Auto design enters a new aureate age ‘ , in Automotive News, Vol.78, Issue 6099, p20.
[ 31 ] Frank, R. ( 2004 ) ‘Safety Rules the Road ‘ , in Design News, Vol.60, Issue 14, p73-76.
[ 32 ] Obradovic, D. , Lenz, H. and Schupfner, M. ( 2007 ) ‘Fusion of Sensor Data in Siemens Car Navigation System ‘ , in IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol.56, Issue 1, p43-50.
[ 33 ] Hooley, G.. , Saunders, J.and Piercy, N. ( 1998 ) Marketing Strategy & A ; Competitive Positioning, Second edition, Harlow: Prentice Hall.
[ 34 ] Johnson, G. and Scholes, K. ( 1993 ) Researching Corporate Strategy, 3rd edition, Hemel Hempstead: Prentice Hall.
[ 35 ] Poter, M. ( 1980 ) Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Rivals, MacMillan.
[ 36 ] Automotive Fore