English 3 SEM 2 – Globalization and The Information: Despondent and Nostalgic Tones

A Look at the Fast-Food Industry by Eric Schlosser
A Look at the Fast-Food Industry by Eric Schlosser
Which of the following pieces of evidence from Fast Food Nation best supports the author’s claim that teenagers are the ideal candidates for working in the fast food industry?
Since most teenagers still lived at home, they could afford to work for wages too low to support an adult, and until recently, their limited skills attracted few other employers.
Which excerpt from Fast Food Nation best illustrates the use of the rhetorical appeal pathos?
But the stance of the fast food industry on issues involving employee training, the minimum wage, labor unions, and overtime pay strongly suggests that its motives in hiring the young, the poor, and the handicapped are hardly altruistic.

Read the excerpt from Fast Food Nation.

The strict regimentation at fast food restaurants creates standardized products. It increases the throughput. And it gives fast food companies an enormous amount of power over their employees. “When management determines exactly how every task is to be done . . . and can impose its own rules about pace, output, quality, and technique,” the sociologist Robin Leidner has noted, “[it] makes workers increasingly interchangeable.”

Which type of evidence is Schlosser using in this excerpt?

testimonial
Which excerpt from Fast Food Nation best states a reason supporting the author’s claim that fast food restaurants follow the assembly line model?
At Burger King restaurants, frozen hamburger patties are placed on a conveyer belt and emerge from a broiler ninety seconds later fully cooked.
Which excerpt from Fast Food Nation best illustrates the author’s use of the rhetorical appeal logos?
English is now the second language of at least one-sixth of the nation’s restaurant workers, and about one-third of that group speaks no English at all.
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Read the excerpt from Fast Food Nation.

EVERY SATURDAY, ELISA ZAMOT gets up at 5:15 in the morning. It’s a struggle, and her head feels groggy as she steps into the shower. Her little sisters, Cookie and Sabrina, are fast asleep in their beds. By 5:30, Elisa’s showered, done her hair, and put on her McDonald’s uniform. She’s sixteen, bright-eyed and olive-skinned, pretty and petite, ready for another day of work. Elisa’s mother usually drives her the half-mile or so to the restaurant, but sometimes Elisa walks, leaving home before the sun rises.

Which of the following choices best describes the rhetorical appeal used in this excerpt?

The excerpt demonstrates pathos because the author presents a compelling story using emotional language.

Read the excerpt from Fast Food Nation.

At Taco Bell restaurants the food is “assembled,” not prepared. The guacamole isn’t made by workers in the kitchen; it’s made at a factory in Michoacán, Mexico, then frozen and shipped north. The chain’s taco meat arrives frozen and precooked in vacuum-sealed plastic bags. The beans are dehydrated and look like brownish corn flakes. The cooking process is fairly simple. “Everything’s add water,” a Taco Bell employee told me. “Just add hot water.”

The Taco Bell employee’s quote supports Schlosser’s argument in this excerpt because it

emphasizes the obsession with consistency and standardization in the fast food industry.

Read the excerpt from Fast Food Nation.

Cooking instructions are not only printed in the manual, they are often designed into the machines. A McDonald’s kitchen is full of buzzers and flashing lights that tell employees what to do.

The evidence presented in this excerpt best supports the author’s claim that

fast food restaurants use technology designed to reduce the need for skilled labor.
A Response to 9/11 by Jonathan Safran Foer
A Response to 9/11 by Jonathan Safran Foer

Read this excerpt from Extremely Loud and Incredibly Close.

I started inventing things, and then I couldn’t stop, like beavers, which I know about. People think they cut down trees so they can build dams, but in reality it’s because their teeth never stop growing, and if they didn’t constantly file them down by cutting through all of those trees, their teeth would start to grow into their own faces, which would kill them. That’s how my brain was.

Which line best reflects the ambiguity of this excerpt?

I started inventing things, and then I couldn’t stop, like beavers

Read this excerpt from Extremely Loud and Incredibly Close.

The next morning I told Mom that I couldn’t go to school, because I was too sick. It was the first lie that I had to tell. She put her hand on my forehead and said, “You do feel a bit hot.” I said, “I took my temperature and it’s one hundred point seven degrees.” That was the second lie. She turned around and asked me to zip up the back of her dress which she could have done herself, but she knew that I loved to do it.

What assumption does the narrator make in this excerpt?

that his mom will trust him

Read this excerpt from Extremely Loud and Incredibly Close.

There was a lot of stuff that made me panicky, like suspension bridges, germs, airplanes, fireworks… A lot of the time I’d get that feeling like I was in the middle of a huge black ocean, or in deep space, but not in the fascinating way.

How does the narration affect Oskar’s credibility in this excerpt?

His attempt at self-reflection makes him seem honest.
Which line from Extremely Loud and Incredibly Close reveals a sentimental tone?
I couldn’t sleep, not after hours, and it made my boots lighter to be around his things, and to touch stuff that he had touched, and to make the hangers hang a little straighter, even though I knew it didn’t matter.

Read this excerpt from Extremely Loud and Incredibly Close.

The average person falls asleep in seven minutes, but I couldn’t sleep, not after hours, and it made my boots lighter to be around his things, and to touch stuff that he had touched, and to make the hangers hang a little straighter, even though I knew it didn’t matter.

How does the narration affect Oskar’s credibility in this excerpt?

His efforts to soothe himself render him earnest and genuine.

Read this excerpt from Extremely Loud and Incredibly Close.

It took me nine hours to make, and I had thought about giving it to Sonny, the homeless person who I sometimes see standing outside the Alliance Française, because he puts me in heavy boots, or maybe to Lindy, the neat old woman who volunteers to give tours at the Museum of Natural History, so I could be something special to her, or even just to someone in a wheelchair. But instead I gave it to Mom. She said it was the best gift she’d ever received.

Which word from this excerpt most reveals the tone?

heavy, because the narrator’s list of ideas is bizarre and a bit outrageous
Which line from Extremely Loud and Incredibly Close reveals a melancholy tone?
I wanted to tell her she shouldn’t be playing Scrabble yet. Or looking in the mirror. Or turning the stereo any louder than what you needed just to hear it. It wasn’t fair to Dad, and it wasn’t fair to me.
Which line from Extremely Loud and Incredibly Close reveals a nostalgic tone?
We used to Greco-Roman wrestle on the floor in there, and tell hilarious jokes, and once we hung a pendulum from the ceiling and put a circle of dominoes on the floor to prove that the earth rotated.
Which excerpt from Extremely Loud and Incredibly Close reveals a childish tone?
“Could be a safe-deposit box, actually. An old one. Or some kind of fire-retardant cabinet.” That made me crack up a little, even though I know there’s nothing funny about being a mental retard.

Read this excerpt from Extremely Loud and Incredibly Close.

“I didn’t do it!” I hollered, but they didn’t even hear me, because they were playing music too loud and cracking up too much. I zipped myself all the way into the sleeping bag of myself, not because I was hurt, and not because I had broken something, but because they were cracking up. Even though I knew I shouldn’t, I gave myself a bruise.

Which of these statements best describes the ambiguity in this excerpt?

The nature of the bruise is unclear.
Ordering the Chaos of the Contemporary World: An Introduction to Freakonomics
Ordering the Chaos of the Contemporary World: An Introduction to Freakonomics

Read the following excerpt from Levitt and Dubner’s Freakonomics.

As it happens, Feldman’s accidental study provides a window onto a form of cheating that has long stymied academics: white-collar crime. (Yes, shorting the bagel man is white-collar crime, writ however small.) It might seem ludicrous to address as large and intractable a problem as white-collar crime through the life of a bagel man. But often a small and simple question can help chisel away at the biggest problems.

Despite all the attention paid to rogue companies like Enron, academics know very little about the practicalities of white-collar crime. The reason? There are no good data. A key fact of white-collar crime is that we hear about only the very slim fraction of people who are caught cheating. Most embezzlers lead quiet and theoretically happy lives; employees who steal company property are rarely detected.

What purpose does the “bagel man” serve in this argument?

to show the seriousness of cheating
Which of the following statements support the claim in Freakonomics that “people are generally good even without enforcement”?
Many people enjoy using the honor system.

Read the following excerpt from Levitt and Dubner’s Freakonomics.

He also believes that employees further up the corporate ladder cheat more than those down below. He got this idea after delivering for years to one company spread out over three floors—an executive floor on top and two lower floors with sales, service, and administrative employees (Feldman wondered if perhaps the executives cheated out of an overdeveloped sense of entitlement. What he didn’t consider is that perhaps cheating was how they got to be executives.)

Which of the following best describes the type of the reasoning the excerpt uses?

Feldman uses inductive reasoning because he formulates a generalization based on specific examples.

Read the following excerpt from Levitt and Dubner’s Freakonomics.

The bagel data also reflect how much personal mood seems to affect honesty. Weather, for instance, is a major factor. Unseasonably pleasant weather inspires people to pay at a higher rate. Unseasonably cold weather, meanwhile, makes people cheat prolifically; so do heavy rain and wind. Worst are the holidays. The week of Christmas produces a 2 percent drop in payment rates—again, a 15 percent increase in theft, an effect on the same magnitude, in reverse, as that of 9/11. Thanksgiving is nearly as bad; the week of Valentine’s Day is also lousy, as is the week straddling April 15. There are, however, a few good holidays: the weeks that include the Fourth of July, Labor Day, and Columbus Day. The difference in the two sets of holidays? The low-cheating holidays represent little more than an extra day off from work. The high-cheating holidays are fraught with miscellaneous anxieties and the high expectations of loved ones.

Based on the excerpt, the conclusion that “personal mood seems to affect honesty” is best supported by which of the following statements?

Stressful fall and winter holidays generally cause payment rates to drop.

Read the following excerpt from Levitt and Dubner’s Freakonomics.

He had also—quite without meaning to—designed a beautiful economic experiment. From the beginning, Feldman kept rigorous data on his business. So by measuring the money collected against the bagels taken, he found it possible to tell, down to the penny, just how honest his customers were. Did they steal from him? If so, what were the characteristics of a company that stole versus a company that did not? Under what circumstances did people tend to steal more, or less?

Based on the excerpt, which of the following best explains why the authors included Feldman in their study?

Feldman kept rigorous data on his business.

Read the following excerpt from Levitt and Dubner’s Freakonomics.

Driving around the parks that encircle Washington, he solicited customers with a simple pitch: early in the morning, he would deliver some bagels and a cash basket to company’s snack room; he would return before lunch to pick up the money and the leftovers. It was an honor-system commerce scheme, and it worked. Within a few years, Feldman was delivering 8,400 bagels a week to 140 companies and earning as much as he had ever made as a research analyst. He had thrown off the shackles of cubicle life and made himself happy.

Based on the excerpt, which statement best strengthens Feldman’s claim that people are mostly honest?

Feldman’s payment system was largely successful.

Read the following excerpt from Levitt and Dubner’s Freakonomics.

A key fact of white-collar crime is that we hear about only the very slim fraction of people who are caught cheating. Most embezzlers lead quiet and theoretically happy lives; employees who steal company property are rarely detected.

With street crime, meanwhile, that is not the case. A mugging or a burglary or a murder is usually tallied whether or not the criminal is caught. A street crime has a victim, who typically reports the crime to the police, who generate data, which in turn generate thousands of academic papers by criminologists, sociologists, and economists. But white-collar crime presents no obvious victim.

In this excerpt, the authors present

a contrast between different types of crime.

Read the following excerpt from Levitt and Dubner’s Freakonomics.

In the beginning, Feldman left behind an open basket for the cash, but too often the money vanished. Then he tried a coffee can with a money slot in its plastic lid, which also proved too tempting. In the end, he resorted to making small plywood boxes with a slot cut into the top. The wooden box has worked well. Each year he drops off about seven thousand boxes and loses, on average, just one to theft. This is an intriguing statistic: the same people who routinely steal more than 10 percent of his bagels almost never stoop to stealing his money box—a tribute to the nuanced social calculus of theft. From Feldman’s perspective, an office worker who eats a bagel without paying is committing a crime; the office worker probably doesn’t think so. This distinction probably has less to do with the admittedly small amount of money involved (Feldman’s bagels cost one dollar each, cream cheese included) than with the context of the “crime.” The same office worker who fails to pay for his bagel might also help himself to a long slurp of soda while filling a glass in a self-serve restaurant, but he is very unlikely to leave the restaurant without paying.

Which of the following best summarizes the main idea of this paragraph?

The definition of crime is subjective and depends on who commits the crime and what type is committed.

Read the excerpt from Levitt and Dubner’s Freakonomics.

Driving around the parks that encircle Washington, he solicited customers with a simple pitch: early in the morning, he would deliver some bagels and a cash basket to company’s snack room; he would return before lunch to pick up the money and the leftovers. It was an honor-system commerce scheme, and it worked. Within a few years, Feldman was delivering 8,400 bagels a week to 140 companies and earning as much as he had ever made as a research analyst. He had thrown off the shackles of cubicle life and made himself happy.

The authors prove Feldman’s success by describing

the size of his business

Read the following excerpt from Levitt and Dubner’s Freakonomics.

There is a tale, “The Ring of Gyges,” that Feldman sometimes tells his economist friends. It comes from Plato’s Republic. A student named Glaucon offered the story in response to a lesson by Socrates—who, like Adam Smith, argued that people are generally good even without enforcement. Glaucon, like Feldman’s economist friends, disagreed. He told of a shepherd named Gyges who stumbled upon a secret cavern with a corpse inside that wore a ring. When Gyges put on the ring, he found that it made him invisible. With no one able to monitor his behavior, Gyges proceeded to do woeful things—seduce the queen, murder the king, and so on. Glaucon’s story posed a moral question: could any man resist the temptation of evil if he knew his acts could not be witnessed? Glaucon seemed to think the answer was no. But Paul Feldman sides with Socrates and Adam Smith—for he knows the answer, at least 87 percent of the time, is yes.

Compared with Feldman’s argument, the tale of “The Ring of Gyges” is best described as a

counterclaim.
Research Workshop: Writing an Argumentative Essay
Research Workshop: Writing an Argumentative Essay

Read this claim from an argumentative essay about zoos.

Zoos help to protect endangered animals, and they are necessary for animal conservation.

Which statement best represents a counterclaim to this claim?

Removing animals from the wild and placing them in zoos can contribute to the endangerment of their species.
Which citation format is correct if a student is quoting a line on page 45 of a book titled Prison by Horace Gardener?
(Gardener 45)

Read the sentence from an argumentative essay about homelessness.

There should be services to give homeless people a break from the stuff they have to deal with in their everyday lives.

Which is the best revision of the underlined portion of the sentence?

to give homeless people relief from their everyday hardships.
Which of the following parts of an argumentative essay belongs in the introduction?
thesis
Evidence to support a claim in an argumentative essay should be part of the
body paragraphs.

Read this claim from an argumentative essay about high-sugar foods.

High-sugar foods should have the same sales restrictions as other harmful substances, such as alcohol and tobacco.

Which piece of evidence, if true, would best support this claim?

Consuming too much sugar over time can lead to diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

Read the sentence that appears in an argumentative essay about American public education.

If education is so important to American society, then why is funding for American public schools so pathetic?

Which revision exhibits the best word choice for the underlined portion of the sentence?

why is the funding for American public schools so inadequate?
Word choice in an argumentative essay should be
formal and precise.

Read this claim from an argumentative essay about zoos.

Zoos help to protect endangered animals, so they are necessary for animal conservation.

Which piece of evidence, if true, would best support this claim?

Specialists can breed animals at zoos to help increase their population.
Unit Test Review
Unit Test Review

Read the following excerpt from Levitt and Dubner’s Freakonomics.

There is a tale, “The Ring of Gyges,” that Feldman sometimes tells his economist friends. It comes from Plato’s Republic. A student named Glaucon offered the story in response to a lesson by Socrates—who, like Adam Smith, argued that people are generally good even without enforcement. Glaucon, like Feldman’s economist friends, disagreed. He told of a shepherd named Gyges who stumbled upon a secret cavern with a corpse inside that wore a ring. When Gyges put on the ring, he found that it made him invisible. With no one able to monitor his behavior, Gyges proceeded to do woeful things—seduce the queen, murder the king, and so on. Glaucon’s story posed a moral question: could any man resist the temptation of evil if he knew his acts could not be witnessed? Glaucon seemed to think the answer was no. But Paul Feldman sides with Socrates and Adam Smith—for he knows the answer, at least 87 percent of the time, is yes.

Feldman reaches the conclusion that most people are honest without receiving an incentive by

studying his individual experiences and arriving at a broad generalization.
Having a counterclaim in an argumentative essay allows the author of the essay to
address any opposition to his or her claim.

Read this claim from an argumentative essay about high-sugar foods.

High-sugar foods should have the same sales restrictions as other harmful substances, such as alcohol and tobacco.

Which statement best represents a counterclaim to this claim?

Sugar is a nutrient that the body uses as a source of energy; alcohol and tobacco are not.

Read the following excerpt from Levitt and Dubner’s Freakonomics.

The bagel data also reflect how much personal mood seems to affect honesty. Weather, for instance, is a major factor. Unseasonably pleasant weather inspires people to pay at a higher rate. Unseasonably cold weather, meanwhile, makes people cheat prolifically; so do heavy rain and wind. Worst are the holidays. The week of Christmas produces a 2 percent drop in payment rates—again, a 15 percent increase in theft, an effect on the same magnitude, in reverse, as that of 9/11. Thanksgiving is nearly as bad; the week of Valentine’s Day is also lousy, as is the week straddling April 15. There are, however, a few good holidays: the weeks that include the Fourth of July, Labor Day, and Columbus Day. The difference in the two sets of holidays? The low-cheating holidays represent little more than an extra day off from work. The high-cheating holidays are fraught with miscellaneous anxieties and the high expectations of loved ones.

Which of the following best summarizes the main idea of this paragraph?

Different emotional states affect people’s honesty.

Read this excerpt from Extremely Loud and Incredibly Close.

I knew I could never let Mom hear the messages, because protecting her is one of my most important raisons d’être, so what I did was I took Dad’s emergency money from on top of his dresser, and I went to the Radio Shack on Amsterdam. It was on a TV there that I saw that the first building had fallen. I bought the exact same phone and ran home and recorded our greeting from the first phone onto it. I wrapped up the old phone in the scarf that Grandma was never able to finish because of my privacy, and I put that in a grocery bag, and I put that in a box, and I put that in another box, and I put that under a bunch of stuff in my closet, like my jewelry workbench and albums of foreign currencies.

Which word best describes the tone of this excerpt?

methodical

Read the sentence from an argumentative essay about chemical waste.

The chemical waste produced by factories is out of hand, and factory owners should get in trouble.

Which revision offers the most improvement in word choice?

The chemical waste produced by factories is dangerous, and factory owners should be held accountable.

Read this excerpt from Extremely Loud and Incredibly Close.

I stood on all of that and it worked for a second. But then I had the tips of my fingers on the vase, and the tragedies started to wobble, and the tuxedo was incredibly distracting, and the next thing was that everything was on the floor, including me, and including the vase, which had shattered. “I didn’t do it!” I hollered, but they didn’t even hear me, because they were playing music too loud and cracking up too much.

How does the narration shape Oskar’s characterization in this excerpt?

It shows his youth and inexperience.
Which citation format is correct if a student is quoting from an article entitled “Making Healthier Food Choices” that appears on a website and is written by author Lindsay Metcalf?
(Metcalf)
Which of the following excerpts from Fast Food Nation best provides evidence that fast food restaurants are designed for using unskilled labor?
The ovens at Pizza Hut and at Domino’s also use conveyer belts to ensure standardized cooking times.

Read this excerpt from Extremely Loud and Incredibly Close.

She said, “Ron is a great person,” which was an answer to a question I didn’t ask. So I asked again. “True or false: you are in love with Ron.” She put her hand with the ring on it in her hair and said, “Oskar, Ron is my friend.”

Which of these statements best describes the ambiguity in this excerpt?

It is unclear whether the ring is from Ron or from Oskar’s dad.

Read the excerpt from Fast Food Nation.

English is now the second language of at least one-sixth of the nation’s restaurant workers, and about one-third of that group speaks no English at all. The proportion of fast food workers who cannot speak English is even higher.

Which type of evidence does the author use in this excerpt?

statistical

Read the following excerpt from Levitt and Dubner’s Freakonomics.

In the real world, Feldman learned to settle for less than 95 percent. He came to consider a company “honest” if its payment rate was above 90 percent. He considered a rate between 80 and 90 percent “annoying but tolerable.” If a company habitually paid below 80 percent, Feldman might post a hectoring note, like this one:

The cost of bagels has gone up dramatically since the beginning of the year. Unfortunately, the number of bagels that disappear without being paid for has also gone up. Don’t let that continue. I don’t imagine that you would teach your children to cheat, so why do it yourselves?

The excerpt serves as which type of support for the authors’ argument?

an example

Read the excerpt from Fast Food Nation.

Up and down Academy Boulevard, along South Nevada, Circle Drive, and Woodman Road, teenagers like Elisa run the fast food restaurants of Colorado Springs. Fast food kitchens often seem like a scene from Bugsy Malone, a film in which all the actors are children pretending to be adults. No other industry in the United States has a workforce so dominated by adolescents.

How does Schlosser effectively build his argument in this excerpt?

He uses analogical evidence to help the reader visualize his point about the workers.