English III

NONSTANDARD ENGLISH: UNGRAMMATICAL SPEECH
1. the language of a particular group, profession, or activity

2. words, phrases, and meanings that are new, flashy, and popular

3. English usage which has gained cultural, social and literary acceptance

4. speech that violates the rules of grammar

1 jargon

2 slang

3 standard English

4 ungrammatical speech

What two types of grammatical errors is a nonnative speaker of English likely to make?

substitution of a simple form of a verb for all tenses
use of ain’t in place of other contracted forms
substitution of one part of speech for another
omission of an article

substitution of a simple form of a verb for all tenses
omission of an article
Use of brang and brung are examples of errors in a child’s English.

True
False

False
Most speakers of nonstandard English are illiterate.

True
False

False
Read the sentence. Check the type of ungrammatical-sounding English that it illustrates.

He buy me good present, no?

child’s language
grammatical error
English as a second language
English from the past

English as a second language
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Read the sentence. Check the type of ungrammatical-sounding English that it illustrates.

We seed four horses today.

child’s language
grammatical error
second language
English from the past

child’s language
Read the sentence. Check the type of ungrammatical-sounding English that it illustrates.

Throw Papa down the stairs his hat.

child’s language
grammatical error
second language
careless construction

careless construction
Which of the following sentences is grammatically correct?

She sung the song.
I haven’t saw him since last Wednesday.
He brought flowers on his date.
He bring the books to class.

He brought flowers on his date.
The sentence Dad brought presents for her and me is grammatically correct.

True
False

True
The principal parts of to bring are bring, brought, brought.

True
False

True
Foreign speakers learning English often use dangling modifiers.

True
False

False
Which phrases do not represent reasons for ungrammatical speech discussed in this lesson? Select all that apply.

errors made by a speaker of English as a second language
errors made because of a lack of intelligence
errors made by a young child overusing rules
errors due to changes in grammatical structure of language
errors due to usage of nonstandard English

errors made because of a lack of intelligence
errors due to usage of nonstandard English
Read the sentence. Check the type of ungrammatical-sounding English that it illustrates.

Jane has swam the course several times.

child’s language
grammatical error
English of another place
English from the past

grammatical error
Read the sentence. Check the type of ungrammatical-sounding English that it illustrates.

Looking up at the birds, our car hit a tree.

child’s language
grammatical error
second language
careless construction

careless construction
Read the sentence. Check the type of ungrammatical-sounding English that it illustrates.

We put the boxes in the boot of the car.

child’s language
English of another place
second language
English from the past

English of another place
Read the sentence. Check the type of ungrammatical-sounding English that it illustrates.

Stand not upon the order of your going.

child’s language
grammatical error
second language
English from the past

English from the past
Read the sentence. Check the type of ungrammatical-sounding English that it illustrates.

I seen a duck.

child’s language
grammatical error
second language
English from the past

grammatical error
Read the sentence. Check the type of ungrammatical-sounding English that it illustrates.

Sara knowed him better than Jim.

child’s language
grammatical error
careless construction
English from the past

child’s language
NONSTANDARD ENGLISH: DIALECTS
Idioms are usually distinctive words or phrases used consistently in all parts of the country.

True
False

False
Which of the following is not a way that a dialect varies from the standard language?

vocabulary
community
pronunciations
idioms

community
Check your knowledge of dialects. Read the following prompt and decide what is being described. Then find the words that exist in various dialects to name the object.Select all that apply.

The large store where we buy food is called a _____.

mall
grocery store
supermarket
shopping center

grocery store
supermarket
Check your knowledge of dialects. Read the following prompt and decide what is being described. Then find the words that exist in various dialects to name the object. Select all that apply.

A divided highway with no streetlights is called a(n)_____.

road
street
freeway
expressway

freeway
expressway
What are four factors which influence the ways languages change?

influence by other languages
isolation
poetry
influence of social or religious groups
age of the person using language
educational system

influence by other languages
isolation
influence of social or religious groups
educational system
Select all of the ways by which dialects are affected.

education
occupation
communities
regions

education
occupation
communities
regions
Why is it so important to have a standard dialect?

so that people can communicate effectively
to aid in trade agreements
to help people from other regions
to eliminate different cultures

so that people can communicate effectively
What dialect do most people in the United States speak?

Standard English
Midwestern English
Southwestern English
General American

General American
Check your knowledge of dialects. Read the following prompt and decide what is being described. Then find the words that exist in various dialects to name the object. Select all that apply.

A large metal or plastic container used to carry water is called a _____.

pail
basket
bucket
lunchbox

pail
bucket
Check your knowledge of dialects. Read the following prompt and decide what is being described. Then find the words that exist in various dialects to name the object. Select all that apply.

The round, flat batter cakes cooked on a griddle and served with syrup are called _____.

bagels
flapjacks
pancakes
strudel

flapjacks
pancakes
Check your knowledge of dialects. Read the following prompt and decide what is being described. Then find the words that exist in various dialects to name the object. Select all that apply.

The container that most stores put purchases into is called a _____.

bag
box
sack
knapsack

bag
sack
NONSTANDARD ENGLISH: SLANG AND JARGON
Jargon is a specialized vocabulary of a particular group, trade, or profession.

True
False

True
Slang uses invented words and assigns new meanings to old ones.

True
False

True
A technician comes to your house to repair your refrigerator. He speaks to another technician on his cell phone, using unfamiliar words such as “blue-boy” and “eighty-six.” These terms could be considered examples of: _____. Select all that apply.

slang
jargon
standard English

slang
jargon
Which of the following is most likely not a jargon term in the field of journalism?

widow
lead
banner
paragraph
copy

paragraph
Which of these phrases is not a form of jargon used in the military?

The phrase of choice is a standard English equivalent of military jargon.

lifer
AWOL
absent without leave

absent without leave
Standard English
Select all that apply.

What kinds of acceptance has Standard English gained?

cultural
popular
social
foreign
literary

cultural
social
literary
Define this statement as standard, slang, jargon, dialect, or ungrammatical.

I catched a fish.

ungrammatical
standard
dialect
jargon
slang

ungrammatical
Define this statement as standard, slang, jargon, dialect, or ungrammatical.

What’s your ten-twenty?

standard
slang
jargon
ungrammatical
dialect

jargon
Define this statement as standard, slang, jargon, dialect, or ungrammatical.

Mother made sandwiches for her and me.

dialect
standard
ungrammatical
slang
jargon

standard
Define this statement as standard, slang, jargon, dialect, or ungrammatical.

The myocardial infarction resulted in the transposition of nerve impulses.

jargon
standard
slang
ungrammatical
dialect

jargon
Define this statement as standard, slang, jargon, dialect, or ungrammatical.

The store didn’t have no cheese.

slang
ungrammatical
standard
dialect
jargon

ungrammatical
Define this statement as standard, slang, jargon, dialect, or ungrammatical.

While talking on the telephone, the dog spilled his water dish.

standard
ungrammatical
slang
dialect
jargon

ungrammatical
Define this statement as standard, slang, jargon, dialect, or ungrammatical.

Twister is an awesome flick.

dialect
jargon
slang
standard
ungrammatical

slang
Define this statement as standard, slang, jargon, dialect, or ungrammatical.

Private Smith was AWOL at eighteen hundred hours.

jargon
standard
ungrammatical
dialect
slang

jargon
Define this statement as standard, slang, jargon, dialect, or ungrammatical.

The bream are bitin’ down at the crick.

ungrammatical
standard
dialect
slang
jargon

dialect
Define this statement as standard, slang, jargon, dialect, or ungrammatical.

For a week following the accident, we talked of nothing else.

ungrammatical
standard
dialect
slang
jargon

standard
Quiz 1: Nonstandard and Standard English
1. language spoken by educated Americans
dialect 3

2. street language that coins new words and new meanings
language 6

3. regional variation of the national language standard English 1

4. language of a skill, trade, or profession
writing 7

5. phrases and expressions unique to a language slang 2

6. sounds and sound patterns that are meaningful to people from the same culture idiom 5

7. graphic representation of sounds
ungrammatical speech 8

8. language spoken by a child learning to talk
jargon 4

Nonnative speakers make errors by not specifying the time of the action (tense).

True
False

True
The use of jargon may be encouraged by a speaker’s associates at work or school.

True
False

True
Linguistic change has been speeded in recent years by the efforts of educators.

True
False

False
The primary way children learn language is through books and school work.

True
False

False
The sentence, “We go to store Fridays,” is an example of _____.

English as a second language
English as a child’s language
English from the past
careless construction

English as a second language
The sentence, “While running around the track, a turtle was seen,” is an example of _____.

jargon
idiom
grammatical error
careless construction

careless construction
Which of the following items is not usually a factor in linguistic change?

geographic isolation
decision of government body
influence of other languages
education system

decision of government body
Nonstandard English is unacceptable for use in educated circles because _____.

it can be confusing and inaccurate
its users may be harshly judged by others
it is sometimes a barrier to communication
all of the above

all of the above
Clear communication in a government memorandum would most likely be hindered by _____.

slang
idioms
jargon
dialect

jargon
How might this sentence be best described?

Notify your OD of your ETA on TDY, ASAP.

dialect
jargon
slang
ungrammatical speech

jargon
How might this sentence be best described?

He’s one cool dude, man.

dialect
jargon
slang
ungrammatical speech

slang
How might this sentence be best described?

When you go marketing, bring the groceries home in a

paper sack instead of a box.
dialect
jargon
slang
ungrammatical speech

dialect
How might this sentence be best described?

You want I should bring load of bread on picnic?

dialect
jargon
slang
ungrammatical speech

ungrammatical speech
How might this sentence be best described?

We feel the psychological implications of the behavior
mode sequence have possible negative ramifications.

dialect
jargon
slang
ungrammatical speech

jargon
Give four characteristics of standard English.
Grammar, spelling, pronounciation and vocabulary.
Everyday English
A word or phrase used in informal conversation is called _____.

an idiom
a colloquialism
conversational English
none of the above

a colloquialism
What is the author’s attitude toward his subjects called?

tone
attitude
colloquialism
context

tone
Select all that apply.

Colloquialisms are appropriate for:

most written work
friendly letters
a public address
casual conversation

friendly letters
casual conversation
Identify the proper synonym for the expression in
italics.

I have to get at that term paper by Friday.
finish
find
begin

begin
Identify the proper synonym for the expression in italics.

Ellen has it in for Bob.
looking for
bears a grudge
seeing

bears a grudge
Identify the proper synonym for the expression in
italics.

Don’t worry about me; I’ll get by.
live
stay
survive

survive
Identify the proper synonym for the expression in italics.

I have an in with a member of city council who keeps me informed.
is on the council
proposal
influence

influence
Identify the proper synonym for the expression in italics.

Let’s get together and talk it over.
meet
phone
speak

meet
Identify the proper synonym for the expression in italics.

By January we will be out from under this pressure.
in the middle of
buried under
relieved of

relieved of
Identify the proper synonym for the expression in italics.

She is three hours over for the week.
on top
in excess of
short

in excess of
Identify the proper synonym for the expression in italics.

I did not want to play for keeps.
forever
permanently
fun

permanently
Identify the proper synonym for the expression in italics.

Bruce was fired for lying down on the job.
sleep
laziness
tired

laziness
Identify the proper synonym for the expression in italics.

Outside of algebra, I like all my classes.
In addition to
Besides
Except for

Except for
1. fat modicum 2
2. bit oration 6
3. distract divert 3
4. fake corpulent 1
5. garbage counterfeit 4
6. speech annihilate 7
7. destroy instructor 9
8. same missive 10
9. teacher identical 8
10. letter refuse 5
Professional English
An unproved conclusion drawn from known facts and used as a basis of further investigation is called _____.

evidence
a theory
a hypothesis
a method

a hypothesis
Doctors and lawyers use what kind of language?

scientific English
technical English
formal English
legal English

technical English
Technical English includes the common term along with the technical term.
True
False
False
1. under ultra- 2
2. beyond; exceed flect 3
3. bend omni 4
4. all, every tac 5
5. touch duct 7
6. within sub- 1
7. lead rupt 8
8. burst intra- 6
1. large, long endo- 4
2. fear eu- 5
3. above, over morph 8
4. within hyper- 3
5. good a-, an- 7
6. around, about macro- 1
7. without -phobia 2
8. form peri-6
1. cide ana 3
2. pepsia exo- 6
3. -tomy omni 5
4. less macro- 7
5. ferous bio- 1
6. dontia dys- 2
7. podian duct 4
Legal and Business English
The formal statement of a resolution always begins with the word whereas.

True
False

True
1. writ requiring a person be brought to court habeas corpus 1

2. facts which prove that a crime has been committed mandamus 4

3. written sworn testimony appeal 6

4. writ issued by a high court to a lower court corpus delecti 2

5. investigation before a judge hearing 5

6. rehearing in a higher court deposition 3

The last paragraph of a resolution begins with the words Be it resolved.

True
False

True
Actual legal forms are included in most law books.

True
False

True
The key to understanding any legal document is knowing the vocabulary and the form.

True
False

True
Legal English is simply jargon.

True
False

False
What are the three parts of a business report?

detailed findings and support material
nonessential information of interest to the reader
body of a letter
summary
headings

detailed findings and support material
nonessential information of interest to the reader
summary
The inverted funnel format states the main ideas first.

True
False

True
Legal and Business English
The formal statement of a resolution always begins with the word whereas.

True
False

True
The last paragraph of a resolution begins with the words Be it resolved.

True
False

True
Actual legal forms are included in most law books.

True
False

True
The key to understanding any legal document is knowing the vocabulary and the form.

True
False

True
Legal English is simply jargon.

True
False

False
What are the three parts of a business report?

detailed findings and support material
nonessential information of interest to the reader
body of a letter
summary
headings

detailed findings and support material
nonessential information of interest to the reader
summary
The inverted funnel format states the main ideas first.

True
False

True
Literary English
1. figurative. the coloring or feeling that pervades a work of literature
mood 3

2. nonfiction writing designed to inform, persuade, demonstrate, etc
atmosphere 1

3. a specific state of mind or feeling generated by a work of literature
expository prose 2

Select all that apply.

Style is determined by:
the amount of space available to the writer
the period in which the action is set
vocabulary
descriptive devices
kinds and lengths of sentences
the attitude of the writer
the target readers

vocabulary
descriptive devices
kinds and lengths of sentences
the attitude of the writer
Select all of the words which describe the mood or atmosphere created by the author.

apprehension
apathy
suspense
horror of war
joyful expectation

apprehension
suspense
horror of war
How is the body described in paragraph 3? Select all that apply.

a chalk-yellow face
gleaming eyes looking up at the sky,
a chalk-blue face
dull eyes staring at the sky

gleaming eyes looking up at the sky,
a chalk-blue face
In paragraph 17, what specific words or phrases contribute to the mood created for the story by the author? Select all that apply.

Adjutant
Croaked
Humorously
Mind
Nerves
Origin
Suddenly
Terrible
Weird

Croaked
Humorously
Nerves
Suddenly
Terrible
Weird
Which of the folowing paragraphs describe action increasing the reader’s awareness of dangerous situations? Select all that apply.

4
3
15
7
28
48

3
15
7
28
Elements of Crane’s theme include: _____. Select all that apply.

Man’s glorification of war is based on the false idea of courage in battle.
Some men fear nothing.
All men, whatever their rank, fear death.
War is terrible.
War is glamorous.

Man’s glorification of war is based on the false idea of courage in battle.
All men, whatever their rank, fear death.
War is terrible.
Poetry
1. poetic words and phrases with connotations a reader or listener is expected to recognize
stanza 3

2. the smallest section of a poem; determined by rhythm pattern, visual effects, and word relationships compressed meaning 1

3. a group of lines in a poem
line 2

How do poets compress their meaning in poems?

They use trick words.
They are more verbose about what they are trying to describe.
They carefully choose their words.
They use elaborate language to convey their meaning.

They carefully choose their words.
Poetry can mean whatever the reader thinks it means.

True
False

False
What is the poet describing?

grass
fear
a child
a snake

a snake
How many lines are in each stanza of the poem above?

4, 4, 4, 4, 4, 4
4, 4, 2, 4, 4, 6
4, 5, 8, 4, 4, 4
4, 4, 6, 4, 4, 4

4, 4, 4, 4, 4, 4
The second stanza creates an image of a comb dividing hair.

True
False

True
What does Dickinson mean when she says “zero at the bone”?

It means she dies.
It means she is frightened.
It means she is cold.
It means the snake is cold.

It means she is frightened.
Based on this poem, it can be concluded that Dickinson hates snakes.

True
False

False
What is the connotation of “fellow” in line 1?

lovable
adversarial
friendly
none of the above

friendly
In the fourth stanza, what does “unbraiding in the sun” mean?

The snake was shedding its skin.
The snake was playing dead.
The speaker was fixing her hair.
The snake was uncoiling itself.

The snake was uncoiling itself.
What rules of grammar does poetry often “break”?

spelling
punctuation
rhythm

punctuation
Quiz 2: Professional, Legal, and Literary English
1. theory resolution 2

2. type of proposal or petition prose 7

3. conversational speech pattern connotation 10

4. characteristic way of writing poetry 8

5. atmosphere hypothesis 1

6. expressions unique to a language style 4

7. literature arranged in sentences idiom 6

8. literature arranged in stanzas colloquialism 3

9. stressed or unstressed syllables mood 5

10. association of a word rhythm 9

An effective writer or speaker will adjust his/her language to the audience.

True
False

True
Secondary evidence is the basis for drawing scientific conclusions.

True
False

False
Technical English makes use of descriptive devices.

True
False

False
One of the characteristics of legal English is _____.

the formulation of hypotheses
the inverted funnel format
a stanza form
archaic English words

archaic English words
When writing a business letter you should begin by _____.

flattering the reader
commenting on the last letter
coming to the point
apologizing for the delay

coming to the point
Legal forms are most like _____.

multiple-choice questions
true-false questions
fill-in-the-blank questions
essay questions

fill-in-the-blank questions
Writing good business English means you _____.

should state your purpose first
use short sentences
use short words
all of these

all of these
Writing formal English means that you _____.

can write sentence fragments most of the time
can bend grammar rules
can be sarcastic or flippant
use a wide variety of words

use a wide variety of words
Characteristics of expository prose include _____.

sentences and paragraphs
stanzas and lines
technical terms
plot and characters

sentences and paragraphs
The inverted funnel format is used by _____.

legal secretaries
poets
reporters
doctors

reporters
The key characteristics of expository prose are _____.

style, organization, and appropriate vocabulary
style, plot, and characters
characters, style, and organization
appropriate vocabulary, plot, and characters

style, organization, and appropriate vocabulary
The key characteristics of poetry are _____.

style, language, rhythm, and rhyme
language, compressed meaning, unique form, and rhyme
language, lines, rhythm, and purpose
compressed meaning, purpose, and symbols

style, language, rhythm, and rhyme
The Dickinson poem describing a snake most illustrates _____.

a regular rhythm pattern
identical stanza forms
unconventional style
symbolism

unconventional style
The average sentence in a business letter is how long?

5-10 words
10-15 words
15-20 words
20-25 words

10-15 words
What is an author’s manner of writing called?

tone
mood
style
context

style
The line “And zero at the bone,” which includes many images and feeling in just a few words, is an example of _____.

poetic language
symbolism
rhythm pattern
compressed meaning

compressed meaning
A synonym for the word mood is _____.

atmosphere
tone
style
prose

atmosphere
The protagonist in “The Upturned Face” is _____.

the senior officer
Timothy Lean
the adjutant
Old Bill

Timothy Lean
Lexicography
1. a list of books about a particular subject or field of study, including a brief description of each book annotated bibliography 1

2. origin and development of a word; derivation thesaurus 5

3. a research method used in lexicography that traces a word’s development through its use in literature lexicography 4

4. the compilation of dictionaries
unabridged 6

5. a dictionary of synonyms and antonyms
etymology 2

6. not shortened or condensed; complete
historical method 3

Select the element which is not one of the three purposes of the dictionary discussed in this section.

information source
means of forcing language change
tool for language study
aid in language standardization

means of forcing language change
The historical method _____.

requires continuous updating since language is always changing
uses quotations from written sources to determine meaning
both of the above

both of the above
Select all that apply to Dr. Samuel Johnson’s Dictionary of the English Language.

first to use literary quotes
1755
1828
40,000 words
gave etymologies

first to use literary quotes
1755
40,000 words
Select all that apply to Noah Webster’s Compendious Dictionary of the English Language.

first to distinguish American and British Language
1828
1806
left out British words not used in U. S.
included British words not used in U. S.

first to distinguish American and British Language
1806
left out British words not used in U. S.
Select all that apply to Noah Webster’s An American Dictionary of the English Language.

first to distinguish American and British Language
1828
1806
included more American idioms
major contribution to lexicography

1828
included more American idioms
major contribution to lexicography
Select all that apply to the Oxford English Dictionary (O.E.D).

was the first complete dictionary.
1928
1858
quotations from literature beginning at 1150 A.D.
etymologies of words
compiled at Harvard University

was the first complete dictionary.
1928
quotations from literature beginning at 1150 A.D.
etymologies of words
Dr. Samuel Johnson’s Dictionary reflects today’s trend toward objectivity in lexicography.

True
False

False
1. The Shorter Oxford Dictionary dictionary of synonyms 2

2. Roget’s Thesaurus catalogs nonstandard American language 3

3. Dictionary of American Slang single volume; less extensive than the O.E.D. 1

4. Dictionary of Slang and Unconventional Language stresses standard usage 5

5. Dictionary of Modern English Usage catalogs nonstandard British English 4

Reading a Dictionary Entry
If a person does not practice reading dictionary entries, he or she will not learn the basic technical skills necessary for good comprehension.

True
False

True
A guide word may be found in the dictionary by means of its ___________.
spelling or sound
Syllable divisions are indicated by: _____. Select all that apply.

white spaces
hyphens
a dot

white spaces
a dot
As shown in the examples above, dictionaries often set foreign words (from which modern words originate) in _____.

italics
underlining
bold print

italics
The language background of a dictionary word entry is called its ___________.
etymology
Select all that apply.

Examples of usage include:

part of speech
colloquialism
slang
etymology
obsolete
archaic
dialect

colloquialism
slang
obsolete
archaic
dialect
Which of these special designations in a dictionary are part of the definition of a word? Select all that apply.

colloq.
sl.
obs.-
archaic
dial.

colloq.
sl.
obs.-
archaic
dial.
1. Indo-European L 3

2. Middle English Sp. 5

3. Latin AS 4

4. Anglo-Saxon Gr. 7

5. Spanish ME 2

6. German G. 6

7. Greek IE 1

1. that is cf. 2

2. compare pron. 6

3. pages obs. 7

4. past tense pt. 4

5. synonym i.e. 1

6. pronoun pp. 3

7. obsolete syn. 5

Quiz 3: Dictionary
1. compilation of dictionaries Dictionary of American English 10

2. first to use quoted literature in etymologies bibliography 6

3. dictionary of every English word and its origin Dr. Johnson 2

4. dictionary of synonyms part of speech 7

5. derivations etymology 5

6. booklist lexicography 1

7. grammatical function Roget’s Thesaurus 4

8. British dictionary stressing Standard English Dictionary of Modern English Usage 8

9. first to include American terms in a dictionary Noah Webster 9

10. D.A.E. O.E.D. 3

1. contraction pl. 5

2. obsolete G. 6

3. Greek colloq. 8

4. Anglo-Saxon ff. 9

5. plural pron. 10

6. German obs. 2

7. that is i.e. 7

8. colloquialism Gr. 3

9. following AS 4

10. pronoun contr. 1

Etymological dictionaries are the only dictionaries that provide word derivations.

True
False

False
A dictionary entry includes the part of speech of a word.

True
False

True
Most dictionaries include information on the history of the language.

True
False

True
The abbreviation L in the etymology of a word means that the word was derived from Latin.

True
False

True
If you cannot spell a word, you cannot look it up in the dictionary.

True
False

True
Most dictionaries divide syllables with a(n) _____.

dot
space
accent mark
dot or a space
space or an accent mark

dot or a space
Which of the following is not one of the parts of speech?

noun
verb
contraction
preposition

contraction
Which of the following is not an abbreviation for a level of usage?

sl.
Sp.
colloq.
dial.

Sp.
Which of the following is not a purpose of a dictionary?

to standardize the language
to provide information
to be a tool for language study
to eliminate dialect and slang

to eliminate dialect and slang
Which of these books would not be useful if you wanted a synonym for the word aggravate?

Roget’s Thesaurus
O.E.D.
a common dictionary
American Dialect Dictionary

American Dialect Dictionary
1. dictionary part of speech 3

2. (dik’ shun er’ i; Brit. Dik’ shun er i) definition 5

3. n. [pl. dictionaries (-iz)] etymology 4

4. [ML. dictionarium correct spelling 1

5. a book of alphabetically listed words in a language with definitions pronunciation 2

THE USES AND VARIETIES OF ENGLISH Test
Colloquial English is _____.

the language of technical reports
a regional variation of English
conversational idiom
the language of educated Americans

conversational idiom
The sentence “She don’t want to go,” is _____.

informal
ungrammatical
dialect
slang

ungrammatical
Compressed meaning is commonly used in _____.

expository prose
technical writing
fiction
poetry

poetry
Etymology means _____.

pronunciation
part of speech
derivation
definition

derivation
Dialects usually develop because a population _____.

is isolated from other cultures
is well educated
sticks to the standard variety
avoids jargon

is isolated from other cultures
Colloquialisms are acceptable in a research paper.

True
False

False
“And zero at the bone” is a slang expression.

True
False

False
The vocabulary of standard English is more limited than that of nonstandard English.

True
False

False
The author of “The Upturned Face” is Stephen Crane.

True
False

True
Colloquialisms are often listed in dictionaries.

True
False

True
A dangling modifier is an example of ___________.
careless construction
What term is used for a legal document which proposes a series of reasons, each beginning with Whereas…, for following a particular course of action?

a resolution
a law
a contract
a petition

a resolution
The manner in which a writer uses vocabulary and sentence structure is called the author’s _____.

connotation
mood
style
voice

style
Phrases unique to a particular language are called _____.

idioms
dialect
slang
jargon

idioms
Colloquial English allows: _____. Select all that apply.

contractions
nonstandard usage
idioms
slang

contractions
idioms
Poetry can make use of: _____. Select all that apply.

rhyme
prose
paragraphs
rhythm

rhyme
rhythm
Legal English uses: _____. Select all that apply.

common vocabulary
archaic words
simple sentences
Latin terminology

archaic words
Latin terminology
Business English uses _____. Select all that apply.

short sentences
long sentences
simple vocabulary

short sentences
simple vocabulary
Scientific English uses German elements.

True
False

False
1. stip yu la’ shun pronunciation 1

2. Right on, man. idiom 7

3. For a tear is an intellectual thing; And a sigh is the sword of an angel king. dialect 8

4. The integrated components facilitate a cognitive approach to learning. child’s English 10

5. Of L scorpio, -on is Gk. skorpios slang 2

6. To obtain or derive from some source; adopt or copy. definition 6

7. On the other hand rhyme 3

8. Think I’ll mosey on down to the general store. etymology 5

9. Glittering in the sky, the girl saw a shining star. careless construction 9

10. My dog runned away. jargon 4

Clauses
1. a group of words containing a subject and a predicate and used as part of a sentence
phrase 3

2. a clause whose meaning is incomplete and must depend on the main clause to complete the thought subordinate clause 2

3. a group of words not having a subject and predicate, used as a single part of speech
clause 1

Select the correct and entire main clause of the sentence.

My brother attends Notre Dame University.

The main clause is _____.

My brother attends Notre Dame University.
Select the correct and entire main clause of the sentence.

Have you seen my textbook, Rafael?

The main clause is _____.

Have you seen my textbook
Select the correct and entire main clause of the sentence.

Most of the juniors will be going on the field trip to the capitol.

The main clause is _____.

Most of the juniors will be going on the field trip to the capitol.
Select the correct and entire main clause of the sentence.

Cats make good house pets, although I like snakes better.

The main clause is _____.

Cats make good house pets
Select the correct and entire main clause of the sentence.

Cathy went to the store because we were out of milk.

The main clause is _____.

Cathy went to the store
Select the correct and entire main clause of the sentence.

Since the football team was good this year, the homecoming game was sold out.

The main clause is _____.

the homecoming game was sold out
Select the correct and entire main clause of the sentence.

We will meet at the Shakin’ Diner after the football game for a late dinner.

The main clause is _____.

We will meet at the Shakin’ Diner after the football game for a late dinner.
Select the correct and entire subordinate clause of the sentence.

Although the assignment was given early, Joe’s term paper was late.

The subordinate clause is ______.

Although the assignment was given early
Select the correct and entire subordinate clause of the sentence.

A survey revealed that over 80 percent of polluters meet the Federal regulations.

The subordinate clause is _____.

that over 80 percent of polluters meet the Federal regulations
Select the correct and entire subordinate clause of the sentence.

A huge quantity of toxic materials, which had been dumped into the city water system, contaminated a major waste treatment plant.

The subordinate clause is _____.

which had been dumped into the city water system
Select the correct and entire subordinate clause of the sentence.

Amateur sports must become better organized if the U.S. wishes to be more competitive internationally.

The subordinate clause is _____.

if the U.S. wishes to be more competitive internationally
Select the correct and entire subordinate clause of the sentence.

After the ceremony had concluded, the prom queen cried tears of joy.

The subordinate clause is _____.

After the ceremony had concluded
Select the correct and entire subordinate clause of the sentence.

If you want to attend the college of your choice, you must start researching now.

The subordinate clause is _____.

If you want to attend the college of your choice
Select the correct and entire subordinate clause of the sentence.

We all enjoyed ourselves when we went to the Fourth of July picnic.

The subordinate clause is _____.

when we went to the Fourth of July picnic
Noun and Adjective Clauses
A subject complement says something in praise of who – or whatever is the subject of the sentence.

True
False

False
Saying nice things about your favorite class in school is called a subject complement.

True
False

False
Select the abbreviation that tells how the italicized noun clause is used.

S-subject, DO-direct object, SC-subject complement, OP-object of preposition

What I wanted to do was to finish my work.

S
OP
SC
DO

S
Select the abbreviation that tells how the italicized noun clause is used.

S-subject, DO-direct object, SC-subject complement, OP-object of preposition

The valedictory prize will be awarded to whoever has the highest academic rating.

S
OP
SC
DO

OP
Select the abbreviation that tells how the italicized noun clause is used.

S-subject, DO-direct object, SC-subject complement, OP-object of preposition

The chairman heard what was said about the program.

S
OP
SC
DO

DO
Select the abbreviation that tells how the italicized noun clause is used.

S-subject, DO-direct object, SC-subject complement, OP-object of preposition

A good night’s sleep is what I need most.

S
OP
SC
DO

SC
Select the abbreviation that tells how the italicized noun clause is used.

S-subject, DO-direct object, SC-subject complement, OP-object of preposition

What I had been hoping for was a scholarship.

S
OP
SC
DO

S
Select the abbreviation that tells how the italicized noun clause is used.

S-subject, DO-direct object, SC-subject complement, OP-object of preposition

Our study efforts should focus on whatever subject is most in need of improvement.

S
OP
SC
DO

OP
Select the abbreviation that tells how the italicized noun clause is used.

S-subject, DO-direct object, SC-subject complement, OP-object of preposition

The company rules demanded that the monthly bills be paid before the end of the month.

S
OP
SC
DO

DO
Select the abbreviation that tells how the italicized noun clause is used.

S-subject, DO-direct object, SC-subject complement, OP-object of preposition

A lecture on cleanliness was not what the children wanted to hear.

S
OP
SC
DO

SC
Select the abbreviation that tells how the italicized noun clause is used.

S-subject, DO-direct object, SC-subject complement, OP-object of preposition

That you overslept is a serious matter.

S
OP
SC
DO

S
Select the abbreviation that tells how the italicized noun clause is used.

S-subject, DO-direct object, SC-subject complement, OP-object of preposition

Have you discovered where you left your books?
S
OP
SC
DO

DO
Select the abbreviation that tells how the italicized noun clause is used.

S-subject, DO-direct object, SC-subject complement, OP-object of preposition

The first thing to consider was how to find a paying job.
S
OP
SC
DO

SC
Select the abbreviation that tells how the italicized noun clause is used.

S-subject, DO-direct object, SC-subject complement, OP-object of preposition

I am optimistic enough to believe that young people will respond to a challenge.

S
OP
SC
DO

DO
Select the adjective clause and the word(s) it modifies in the appropriate boxes below.

The suggestions that she made were very helpful.

Adjective clause:

Word(s) modified:

that she made

suggestions

Select the adjective clause and the word(s) it modifies in the appropriate boxes below.

William Shakespeare, who was English, wrote Othello.

Adjective clause:

Word(s) modified:

who was English

William Shakespeare

Select the adjective clause and the word(s) it modifies in the appropriate boxes below.

The old brick house that sits on top of the hill was built during the Civil War.

Adjective clause:

Word(s) modified:

that sits on top of the hill

house

Select the adjective clause and the word(s) it modifies in the appropriate boxes below.

Some of my cousins, whom I had not seen for several years, came to the reunion.

Adjective clause:

Word(s) modified:

whom I had not seen for several years

cousins

Select the adjective clause and the word(s) it modifies in the appropriate boxes below.

The gentleman who was sitting close to them was the senator from their home state.

Adjective clause:

Word(s) modified:

who was sitting close to them

gentleman

Select the adjective clause and the word(s) it modifies in the appropriate boxes below.

Did you buy the CD that I recommended?

Adjective clause:

Word(s) modified:

that I recommended

CD

Select the adjective clause and the word(s) it modifies in the appropriate boxes below.

Amanda bought a prom dress which she considered the most beautiful dress ever made.

Adjective clause:

Word(s) modified:

which she considered the most beautiful dress ever made

dress

ADVERB CLAUSES
Writers should avoid using elliptical clauses because they will confuse readers.

True
False

False
In the sentence below, identify the adverb clause, subordinating conjunction, and the word(s) modified.

Although he spends much time playing tennis, he manages to get his studying done.

Adverb clause:

Subordinating conjunction:

Word(s) modified:

Although he spends much time playing tennis

although

manages

In the sentence below, identify the adverb clause, subordinating conjunction, and the word(s) modified.

Colleen went to bed early since she had a test tomorrow.

Adverb clause:

Subordinating conjunction:

Word(s) modified:

since she had a test tomorrow

since

went

In the sentence below, identify the adverb clause, subordinating conjunction, and the word(s) modified.

The girls greeted each other as though nothing had happened.

Adverb clause:

Subordinating conjunction:

Word(s) modified:

as though nothing had happened

as though

greeted

In the sentence below, identify the adverb clause, subordinating conjunction, and the word(s) modified.

Luther practiced running so that he could be a good wide receiver.

Adverb clause:

Subordinating conjunction:

Word(s) modified:

so that he could be a good wide receiver

so that

practiced

In the sentence below, identify the adverb clause, subordinating conjunction, and the word(s) modified.

Since advertisements are sometimes misleading, read labels carefully.

Adverb clause:

Subordinating conjunction:

Word(s) modified:

Since advertisements are sometimes misleading

since

read

In the sentence below, identify the adverb clause, subordinating conjunction, and the word(s) modified.

The green and greasy alligators would not wrestle Steve unless they were given the chicken first.

Adverb clause:

Subordinating conjunction:

Word(s) modified:

unless they were given the chicken first

unless

would wrestle

In the sentence below, identify the adverb clause, subordinating conjunction, and the word(s) modified.

When the Tigers won the state championship, they dumped the water jug on their coach.

Adverb clause:

Subordinating conjunction:

Word(s) modified:

When the Tigers won the state championship

when

dumped

In the sentence below, identify the adverb clause, subordinating conjunction, and the word(s) modified.

The red roosters squawked because all of the hens had been painted blue.

Adverb clause:

Subordinating conjunction:

Word(s) modified:

because all of the hens had been painted blue

because

squawked

In the sentence below, identify the adverb clause, subordinating conjunction, and the word(s) modified.

As soon as the bell rang, Mike was out of the classroom door.

Adverb clause:

Subordinating conjunction:

Word(s) modified:

As soon as the bell rang

as soon as

was

Identify each italicized subordinate clause as a noun clause, an adjective clause, or an adverb clause.

Washington played by the river when he was young.

noun clause
adjective clause
adverb clause

adverb clause
Identify each italicized subordinate clause as a noun clause, an adjective clause, or an adverb clause.

What the speaker said was not clear.

noun clause
adjective clause
adverb clause

noun clause
Identify each italicized subordinate clause as a noun clause, an adjective clause, or an adverb clause.

I will not repeat the story, since it is not true.

noun clause
adjective clause
adverb clause

adverb clause
Identify each italicized subordinate clause as a noun clause, an adjective clause, or an adverb clause.

Bryan, who played the part of Prospero, was the star of the play The Tempest.

noun clause
adjective clause
adverb clause

adjective clause
Identify each italicized subordinate clause as a noun clause, an adjective clause, or an adverb clause.

The exhibition could not begin until Phineas Barnum appeared.

noun clause
adjective clause
adverb clause

adverb clause
Identify each italicized subordinate clause as a noun clause, an adjective clause, or an adverb clause.

What will happen is anyone’s guess.

noun clause
adjective clause
adverb clause

noun clause
Identify each italicized subordinate clause as a noun clause, an adjective clause, or an adverb clause.

The gardener put in a pinch of grass seed wherever he pulled out a weed.

noun clause
adjective clause
adverb clause

adverb clause
In the sentence below, identify the adverb clause, subordinating conjunction, and the word(s) modified.

Since her grades were bad, Allie’s coach told her to go to tutoring instead of practice.

Adverb clause:

Subordinating conjunction:

Word(s) modified:

Since her grades were bad

since

told

Identify each italicized subordinate clause as a noun clause, an adjective clause, or an adverb clause.

While talking, he waved his arms.

noun clause
adjective clause
adverb clause

adverb clause
Quiz 1: Using Subordinate Clauses
RELATIVE PRONOUNS
The word, phrase, or clause to which a pronoun refers is called the __________.
antecedent
A ___________ pronoun usually introduces an adjective clause.
relative
Relative pronouns are related to their antecedents kind of like grandkids are related to their ancestors that have gone before them.

True
False

True
Few people knew the woman _____ directed the play.

who
whom

who
Mrs. Eggelson tells _____ will listen about her health problems.

whoever
whomever

whoever
I have great respect for _____ accepted that responsibility.

whoever
whomever

whoever
The children argued about the actor _____ should receive the award.

who
whom

who
Give the package to _____ opens the door.

whoever
whomever

whoever
The journalist must consider _____ an article might offend.

who
whom

whom
_____ the seniors elect will serve as president of the class.

Whoever
Whomever

Whomever
The teacher selected the student _____ she could trust.

who
whom

whom
The candidate _____ the mayor would select was not present at the meeting.

who
whom

whom
The trucking company wants a driver _____ they can depend upon.

who
whom

whom
SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS
1. a circumstance which is dependent or contingent upon some other

2 subordinating conjunction

2. a conjunction that joins clauses of minor rank to the main clause

1 condition

_________________introduce adverb clauses.
Subordinating conjunctions
A circumstance which is contingent or dependent upon some other is a ______________.
condition
Identify the subordinating conjunction in the sentence and select the type of relationship it demonstrates.

After you finish reading that book, I’d like to read it.

Subordinating Conjunction:

Relationship:

after

time

Identify the subordinating conjunction in the sentence and select the type of relationship it demonstrates.

I’ve heard of the author, although I haven’t read his books.

Subordinating Conjunction:

Relationship:

although

condition

Identify the subordinating conjunction in the sentence and select the type of relationship it demonstrates.

If you have finished washing dishes, I will help you with your homework.

Subordinating Conjunction:

Relationship:

If

condition

Identify the subordinating conjunction in the sentence and select the type of relationship it demonstrates.

We cannot order the banner for the gym unless everyone contributes.

Subordinating Conjunction:

Relationship:

unless

condition

Identify the subordinating conjunction in the sentence and select the type of relationship it demonstrates.

I can throw the ball as far as you can.

Subordinating Conjunction:

Relationship:

as far as

comparison

Identify the subordinating conjunction in the sentence and select the type of relationship it demonstrates.

My mother gave me a key so that I would not be locked out of the house.

Subordinating Conjunction:

Relationship:

so that

purpose

Identify the subordinating conjunction in the sentence and select the type of relationship it demonstrates.

You don’t have to go just because I asked you to do it.

Subordinating Conjunction:

Relationship:

because

reason

Identify the subordinating conjunction in the sentence and select the type of relationship it demonstrates.

You can work faster than Jack can.

Subordinating Conjunction:

Relationship:

than

comparison

Identify the subordinating conjunction in the sentence and select the type of relationship it demonstrates.

I will come to the picnic when I get home from soccer.

Subordinating Conjunction:

Relationship:

when

time

Identify the subordinating conjunction in the sentence and select the type of relationship it demonstrates.

She can never remember where she left her glasses.

Subordinating Conjunction:

Relationship:

where

place

QUIZ 2: USING SUBORDINATING DEVICES
Pronouns that introduce adjective clauses and relate to words or ideas which precede them are called _____.

antecedents
personal pronouns
relative pronouns

relative pronouns
Subordinating conjunctions introduce _____.

adjective clauses
adverb clauses
noun clauses
prepositional phrases

adverb clauses
1. who

3 possessive

2. whom

2 objective

3. whose

1 subjective

For the sentence below, determine how the word in italics is used. Is it a relative pronoun, a subordinating conjunction, or neither?

Be sure to tell me which you prefer.

relative pronoun
subordinating conjunction
neither

relative pronoun
For the sentence below, determine how the word in italics is used. Is it a relative pronoun, a subordinating conjunction, or neither?

She will not leave the party until you come for her.

relative pronoun
subordinating conjunction
neither

subordinating conjunction
For the sentence below, determine how the word in italics is used. Is it a relative pronoun, a subordinating conjunction, or neither?

Although it was warm, we did not use the air conditioner.

relative pronoun
subordinating conjunction
neither

subordinating conjunction
For the sentence below, determine how the word in italics is used. Is it a relative pronoun, a subordinating conjunction, or neither?

The man whose car I borrowed filled it with gasoline.

relative pronoun
subordinating conjunction
neither

relative pronoun
For the sentence below, determine how the word in italics is used. Is it a relative pronoun, a subordinating conjunction, or neither?

It was Mr. Adams who told me about the fire drill.

relative pronoun
subordinating conjunction
neither

neither
Which of the following may be used as relative pronouns? Select all that apply.

before
which
who
where

which
who
Which of the following words may be used to introduce an adverb clause? Select all that apply.

if
though
while
who

if
though
while
Select the correct pronoun.

_____ did you invite to the game?

Who
Whom
Whose

Whom
Select the correct pronoun.

The new doctor _____ I met today has a pleasing personality.

who
whom
whose

whom
Select the correct pronoun.

That girl is one _____ I believe will succeed.

who
whom
whose

who
Select the correct pronoun.

Since I did not know _____ the package was for, I did not sign for it.

who
whom
whose

whom
Select the correct pronoun.

The people _____ arrived late had difficulty finding seats.

which
who

who
Choose the correct relative pronoun.

I scolded the boy _____ shouting disturbed me.

who
whose
whom
what

whose
Choose the correct relative pronoun.

To _____ do you pay your rent?

who
whose
whom
what

whom
Choose the correct relative pronoun.

This is the man _____ helped fight the fire.

who
whose
whom
what

who
Choose the correct relative pronoun.

Our president is a man _____ people respect.

who
whose
whom
what

whom
Choose the correct relative pronoun.

That trick is _____ I expected.

who
whose
whom
what

what
A subordinating conjunction usually introduces a(n) _____.

adjective clause
adverb clause
noun clause
prepositional phrase

adverb clause
A relative pronoun usually introduces a(n) _____.

adjective clause
adverb clause
noun clause
prepositional phrase

adjective clause
VERBALS: PARTICIPLES
1. a word or phrase used after a verb to complete the predicate

infinitive 3

2. a word ending in -ing which has characteristics of both a verb and a noun

complement 1

3. to plus a verb; usually used as a noun but occasionally used as an adjective or an adverb

gerund 2

4. a word that has characteristics of both a verb and an adjective

participle 4

All three kinds of verbals, participles, gerunds, and infinitives, may all be used as nouns, adjectives, or adverbs.

True
False

False
Click on the blue box to choose the correct present and past participles of the verb given.

feel

Present participle:
Past participle:

feeling
felt
Click on the blue box to choose the correct present and past participles of the verb given.

ride

Present participle:
Past participle:

riding
ridden
Click on the blue box to choose the correct present and past participles of the verb given.

break

Present participle:
Past participle:

breaking
broken
Click on the blue box to choose the correct present and past participles of the verb given.

play

Present participle:
Past participle:

playing
played
Click on the blue box to choose the correct present and past participles of the verb given.

kneel

Present participle:
Past participle:

kneeling
knelt
Click on the blue box to choose the correct present and past participles of the verb given.

teach

Present participle:
Past participle:

teaching
taught
Click on the blue box to choose the correct present and past participles of the verb given.

steal

Present participle:
Past participle:

stealing
stolen
Click on the blue box to choose the correct present and past participles of the verb given.

talk

Present participle:
Past participle:

talking
talked
Click on the blue box to choose the correct present and past participles of the verb given.

hit

Present participle:
Past participle:

hitting
hit
Click on the blue box to choose the correct present and past participles of the verb given.

freeze

Present participle:
Past participle:

freezing
frozen
VERBALS: GERUNDS
Select all that apply.

A gerund may function as a:

verb
subject
predicate
direct object
object of a preposition
compliment
subject complement

subject
direct object
object of a preposition
subject complement
Locate the gerund or gerund phrase and identify its noun function in the sentence.

Thinking is hard work.

Gerund or gerund phrase:
Noun function:

Thinking
subject
Locate the gerund or gerund phrase and identify its noun function in the sentence.

The greatest pleasure is giving.

Gerund or gerund phrase:
Noun function:

giving
subject complement
Locate the gerund or gerund phrase and identify its noun function in the sentence.

I helped by preparing dinner.

Gerund or gerund phrase:
Noun function:

preparing dinner
object of the preposition
Locate the gerund or gerund phrase and identify its noun function in the sentence.

Her daughter likes climbing trees.

Gerund or gerund phrase:
Noun function:

climbing trees
direct object
Locate the gerund or gerund phrase and identify its noun function in the sentence.

Going for the gold was the team’s motto.

Gerund or gerund phrase:
Noun function:

Going for the gold
subject
Locate the gerund or gerund phrase and identify its noun function in the sentence.

By preparing, Justin was able to pass the test with flying colors.

Gerund or gerund phrase:
Noun function:

preparing
object of the preposition
Locate the gerund or gerund phrase and identify its noun function in the sentence.

Nicole is loving dancing.

Gerund or gerund phrase:
Noun function:

dancing
direct object
VERBALS: INFINITIVES
An infinitive phrase has much the same form as a prepositional phrase beginning with the preposition to and serves much the same function.

True
False

False
Choose the sentence that correctly combines the sentences or sentence elements by changing the italicized clause to an infinitive. Indicate whether the infinitive phrase is used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb.

Kimberly touched the flowers. She saw that they were real.

The infinitive is used as a(n)

Kimberly touched the flowers to see if they were real.

adverb

Choose the sentence that correctly combines the sentences or sentence elements by changing the italicized clause to an infinitive. Indicate whether the infinitive phrase is used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb.

We sprayed our yard. This eliminated all the mosquitoes.

The infinitive is used as a(n)

We sprayed our yard to eliminate all the mosquitoes.

adverb

Choose the sentence that correctly combines the sentences or sentence elements by changing the italicized clause to an infinitive. Indicate whether the infinitive phrase is used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb.

Don’t put your elbows on the table. It is bad manners.

The infinitive is used as a(n)

To put your elbows on the table is bad manners.

noun

Choose the sentence that correctly combines the sentences or sentence elements by changing the italicized clause to an infinitive. Indicate whether the infinitive phrase is used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb.

I have a job and I must complete it before I can draw my pay.

The infinitive is used as a(n)

I have a job to complete before I can draw my pay.

adjective

Choose the sentence that correctly combines the sentences or sentence elements by changing the italicized clause to an infinitive. Indicate whether the infinitive phrase is used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb.

We are planning a party. It will honor our seniors.

The infinitive is used as a(n)

We are planning a party to honor our seniors.

adjective

Identify the infinitive phrase and the subject of the infinitive in the sentence below.

Mr. Hutton asked me to erase the boards.

Infinitive phrase:

Subject of the infinitive :

to erase the boards

me

Identify the infinitive phrase and its use in the sentence below.

To speak clearly is essential to being understood.

Infinitive phrase:

Being used as a(n) _______.

To speak clearly

subject noun

Identify the infinitive phrase and the object of the infinitive in the sentence below.

To do one’s best is the ultimate goal.

Infinitive phrase _____.

Object of the infinitive _____.

To do one’s best

best

In the sentence below, find the verbal and tell what kind it is.

He waits at the bus stop to catch the bus.

Verbal _____.

Kind _____.

to catch

infinitive

In the sentence below, find the verbal and tell what kind it is.

When you sit down to eat with guests, pay attention to your manners.

Verbal ______.

Kind _____.

to eat

infinitive

APPOSITIVES
With an appositive, a modifying phrase right next to the noun or pronoun it describes, a writer can take two short, choppy sentences and turn them into one sentence that’s more interesting.

True
False

True
In the following sentence identify the appositive or appositive phrase and the noun or pronoun renamed by the appositive.

Mr. Murray, the Scoutmaster, likes to hike.

Appositive:

Noun or pronoun renamed:

the Scoutmaster

Mr. Murray

In the following sentence identify the appositive or appositive phrase and the noun or pronoun renamed by the appositive.

Mother gave a birthday gift to Mary, my youngest sister.

Appositive:

Noun or pronoun renamed:

my youngest sister

Mary

In the following sentence identify the appositive or appositive phrase and the noun or pronoun renamed by the appositive.

The student council president, a popular senior, led the parade.

Appositive:

Noun or pronoun renamed:

a popular senior

The student council president

In the following sentence identify the appositive or appositive phrase and the noun or pronoun renamed by the appositive.

We often contribute to Habitat for Humanity, one of our favorite charities.

Appositive:

Noun or pronoun renamed:

one of our favorite charities

Habitat for Humanity

In the following sentence identify the appositive or appositive phrase and the noun or pronoun renamed by the appositive.

Charlotte’s Web, the book by E.B. White, is widely read.

Appositive:

Noun or pronoun renamed:

the book by E.B. White

Charlotte’s Web

An appositive may be a ____ or ____ , and may include modifiers.

noun
verb
pronoun
adjective

noun
pronoun
If an appositive is omitted from a sentence, it destroys the whole sentence.

True
False

False
An appositive is set apart from the rest of the sentence with _____.

italics
commas
parentheses

commas
An appositive explains or identifies _____.

the verb
the noun or pronoun that follows it
the noun or pronoun that comes just before it

the noun or pronoun that comes just before it
An appositive phrase never contains a subject and predicate.

True
False

True
QUIZ 3: USING VERBALS AND APPOSITIVES
A pronoun preceding a gerund is in the ______________ case.
possessive
Identify the participial phrase and the word it modifies.

Running up the stairs, he glanced apprehensively behind him.

Participial phrase:

Word modified:

Running up the stairs

he

Identify the participial phrase and the word it modifies.

Brandon’s mother found him standing near the cookie jar.

Participial phrase:

Word modified:

standing near the cookie jar

him

Identify the participial phrase and the word it modifies.

The neighbors found their house destroyed by fire.

Participial phrase:

Word modified:

destroyed by fire

house

Identify the participial phrase and the word it modifies.

Seizing the weapon from the intruder, he ran quickly from the house.

Participial phrase:

Word modified:

Seizing the weapon from the intruder

he

Identify the gerund phrase and its noun use.

Driving carelessly increases the likelihood of an accident.

Gerund phrase:

Noun use:

driving carelessly

subject

Identify the gerund phrase and its noun use.

Olivia anticipated flying to Bermuda for vacation.

Gerund phrase:

Noun use:

flying to Bermuda for vacation

direct object

Identify the gerund phrase and its noun use.

The little boy left home without telling his mother.

Gerund phrase:

Noun use:

telling his mother

object of the preposition

Identify the infinitive phrase and its use.

To win an argument is seldom a desirable goal.

Infinitive phrase:

Use:

to win an argument

noun

Identify the infinitive phrase and its use.

The scientist tried to learn new ideas from his experiments.

Infinitive phrase:

Use:

to learn new ideas from his experiments

noun

Identify the infinitive phrase and its use.

I wish to point out your responsibilities as a dedicated student.

Infinitive phrase:

Use:

to point out your responsibilities as a dedicated student

noun

Identify the italicized phrase.

Charmed by her gracious manner, the producer offered her a contract.

participle
gerund
infinitive
appositive

participle
Identify the italicized phrase.

Mervin, the circus animal trainer, directed the elephant by tapping her trunk.

participle
gerund
infinitive
appositive

appositive
Sentence Workshop
Analyze the sentence to determine the main clause and the subordinate clause. Then choose the function of the subordinate clause.

It is not right to make a promise unless you are sure you can fulfill the promise.

Main clause:

Subordinate clause:

Subordinate clause functions as a(n):

it is not right to make a promise

unless you are sure you can fulfill the promise

adverb

Analyze the sentence to determine the main clause and the subordinate clause. Then choose the function of the subordinate clause.

The Mason-Dixon Line, which is perhaps the most famous border ever established by surveying methods, has been designated a National Historic Civil Engineering Landmark.

Main clause:

Subordinate clause:

Subordinate clause functions as a(n):

The Mason-Dixon Line has been designated a National Historic Civil Engineering Landmark

which is perhaps the most famous border ever established by surveying methods

adjective

Analyze the sentence to determine the main clause and the subordinate clause. Then choose the function of the subordinate clause.

The man who wrote this new and popular book autographed copies of it at the bookstore.

Main clause:

Subordinate clause:

Subordinate clause functions as a(n):

The man autographed copies of it at the bookstore

who wrote this new and popular book

adjective

Tell how the italicized noun clause is used.

The thief confessed that he had stolen the bricks from the site.

subject
subject complement
direct object
object of the preposition

direct object
Tell how the italicized noun clause is used.

The fresh air is what I like best about the farm.

subject
subject complement
direct object
object of the preposition

subject complement
Tell how the italicized noun clause is used.

Whatever you tell me will remain our secret.

subject
subject complement
direct object
object of the preposition

subject
Identify the adjective clause and the word it modifies.

Any student who received a good grade was invited to an ice cream social.

Adjective clause:

Word modified:

who received a good grade

student

Identify the adjective clause and the word it modifies.

The tree whose branches had died had to be cut down.

Adjective clause:

Word modified:

whose branches had died

tree

Identify the adverb clause and the word it modifies.

Mary comes to school unless she is ill.

Adverb clause:

Word modified:

unless she is ill

comes

Identify the adverb clause and the word or words it modifies.

The artwork was displayed after the artist had unveiled it.

Adverb clause:

Word(s) modified:

after the artist had unveiled it

was displayed

Identify the adverb clause and the word it modifies.

Gary plays the trombone better than he did last year.

Adverb clause:

Word modified:

than he did last year

better

Select ten subordinating conjunctions.

while
who
which
than
wherever
whose
if
before
as soon as
until
after
whom
since
whoever
although

while
than
wherever
if
before
as soon as
until
after
since
although
Identify the relative pronoun and the noun or pronoun to which it relates.

The unlikely story that he told proved to be true.

Relative pronoun:

Noun or pronoun to which it relates:

that

sorry

Identify the relative pronoun and the noun or pronoun to which it relates.

The child whose shoes were untied will probably trip over his shoelaces and fall down.

Relative pronoun:

Noun or pronoun to which it relates:

whose

child

Identify the present participle and past participle for the verb.

hide

Present participle:

Past participle:

hiding

hidden

Identify the present participle and past participle for the verb.

begin

Present participle:

Past participle:

beginning

begun

Identify the italicized word as gerund or participle.

By paying his bills promptly the man had acquired a good credit rating.

gerund
Identify the italicized word as gerund or participle.

Wishing to remain anonymous, he asked the florist to deliver the flowers to the orphanage.

participle
Identify the italicized word as gerund or participle

The dog, trained to do tricks, entertained the children for an hour.

participle
Analyze the sentence to complete each statement below.

Camping outdoors is one of the joys of summer for the family.

The verbal phrase in this sentence is

.
The verbal phrase is a(n)

.
The verbal phrase functions as a(n)

.

camping outdoors

gerund

noun

Analyze the sentence to complete each statement below.

Alice, frightened by the siren, covered her ears.

The verbal phrase in this sentence is

.
The verbal phrase is a(n)

.
The verbal phrase functions as a(n)

.

frightened by the siren

participle

adjective

Identify the appositive phrase in the following sentence.

The kit fox, a nocturnal hunter, is rarely seen by day.

the kit fox
a nocturnal hunter
is rarely seen by day
a nocturnal hunter, is rarely seen by day

a nocturnal hunter
Identify the appositive phrase in the following sentence.

The word paper comes from papyrus, the giant water reed which Egyptians used to manufacture writing material.

the giant water reed
which Egyptians used to manufacture
which Egyptians used to manufacture writing material
to manufacture writing material
writing material
the giant water reed which Egyptians used to manufacture writing material

the giant water reed which Egyptians used to manufacture writing material
Read the sentence. Choose the correct answers for the questions that follow it.

Wishing to be heard, the speaker used a microphone.

Are the italicized words a phrase or a clause?

What word do they modify?

phrase

speaker

Read the sentence. Choose the correct answers for the questions that follow it.

Dr. Black, who is the chief surgeon, will operate.

What kind of clause is italicized?

What does it modify?

adjective

Dr.Black

Read the sentence. Choose the correct answers for the questions that follow it.

The judge, believing the boy to be innocent, acquitted him.

What kind of phrase is italicized?

What does it modify?

participial

judge

Analyze the sentence to choose the correct answer for each space.

An antecedent is a noun or pronoun to which another pronoun refers.

Subordinate clause:
What type of clause is it?

to which another pronoun refers
adjective
PERSONAL PRONOUNS: NOMINATIVE CASE
1. a form of noun, pronoun, or adjective used to show its relation to other words
1 case

2. the grouping of nouns into the classes masculine, feminine, and neuter
2 gender

3. an inflection or word form that shows whether one or more than one is meant
4 person

4. a change in pronouns or verbs used to show the person speaking, the person spoken to, or the person or thing spoken about
3 number

5. a pronoun that shows by its form whether it refers to first person, second person, or third person
5 personal pronoun

What is the objective form of the second person plural pronoun?

you
me
us
them

you
Select all of the third person singular nominative pronouns.

I
me
we
us
you
he
him
she
her
they
them
it

he
she
it
Which pronoun changes its form least as its case changes?

you
I
they
she

you
What is the plural form of me?

I
we
me
us

us
What is the feminine singular form of they?

them
she
he
her
him

she
Select all of the nominative pronouns.

I
their
she
it
we
him
he
they
you

I
she
it
we
he
they
you
Select the correct pronoun.

Bob, Peter, and ___________ are going to join the swim team.

I
Select the correct pronoun.

The members of the quiz team are Jean, Joan, Elliot, and_____________.

I
Select the correct pronoun.

The trio—Roberta, Megan, and____________ —is touring Ohio this summer.

she
Select the correct pronoun.

After seeing my schedule, she said she would not want to be ______________.

I
Select the correct pronoun.

The choices for student teacher are Gretchen, Bruce, and _____________.

he
Select the correct pronoun.

Don’t be alarmed, Rita. It is ____________.

I
PERSONAL PRONOUNS: OBJECTIVE CASE
In English, only pronouns retain any case forms that make nominative and objective different from each other.

True
False

True
Which sentence uses an objective case pronoun as a direct object?

I e-mailed him yesterday.
I sent him an attachment that included photos of the picnic.
He wrote back to Bob and me with an answer to our questions.

I e-mailed him yesterday.
Which sentence uses an objective case pronoun as an indirect object?

I e-mailed him yesterday.
I sent him an attachment that included photos of the picnic.
He wrote back to Bob and I with an answer to our questions.

I sent him an attachment that included photos of the picnic.
Which sentence uses an objective case pronoun incorrectly?

I e-mailed him yesterday.
I sent him an attachment that included photos of the picnic.
He wrote back to Bob and I with an answer to our questions.

He wrote back to Bob and I with an answer to our questions.
Use the correct pronoun.

Bring Jan and ___________ a newspaper.

me
Use the correct pronoun.

I wanted Sue to ask Bob and ___________ to the meeting.

him
Use the correct pronoun.

The community elected Mr. Russell, Mr. West, and ___________ to the city council.

her
Use the correct pronoun.

The mayor instructed___________ scouts to control the pedestrian traffic during the parade.

us
Use the correct pronoun.

Greeting __________ warmly, the usher showed them to their seats.

him
Use the correct pronoun.

We enjoy being with Alice, Laura, and ____________.

her
Select all of the grammatical structures which require objective pronouns.

subject of a sentence
direct object
indirect object
object of a preposition
object of a verbal
appositives of nouns used as subjects
appositives of nouns used as objects
predicate noun

direct object
indirect object
object of a preposition
object of a verbal
appositives of nouns used as objects
Select all of the objective pronouns.

me
she
us
their
your
him
them
you
her
hers
it
I

me
us
him
them
you
her
it
Analyze the sentence. Select the object of a preposition, direct object, and indirect object. Note that all three may not be present in the sentence.

The director sent me an invitation to an anniversary party.

Object of a preposition:
Direct object:
Indirect object:

party
invitation
me
Analyze the sentence. Select an object of a preposition, direct object, and indirect object. Note that all three may not be present in the sentence.

Jill asked us to go to the soccer field.

Object of a preposition:
Direct object:
Indirect object:

field
us
none found
Analyze the sentence. Select an object of a preposition, direct object, and indirect object. Note that all three may not be present in the sentence.

Rita and I wrote John a letter of support.

Object of a preposition:
Direct object:
Indirect object:

support
letter
John
Use the correct pronoun.

We called our teachers, Mr. Rose, Mrs. Murphy, and_____________ , to tell them we had been accepted by the college.

him
PERSONAL PRONOUNS: POSSESSIVE CASE
1. a possessive personal pronoun that represents both the possessor and the thing possessed
1 absolute possessive pronouns

2. any word, phrase, or clause to which a pronoun, occurring later in a sentence, refers
2 antecedent

3. a class of pronouns that points out which thing, person, idea, etc. is referred to.
4 possessive adjectives

4. a possessive pronoun used as an adjective.
3 demonstrative pronoun

Select all of the possessive pronouns.

my
it’s
our
him
mine
me
ours
hers
us
your
it
their
you
yours
theirs
them
his
its

my
our
mine
ours
hers
your
their
yours
theirs
his
its
Select all of the possessive pronouns that can be used as predicate nouns.

my
mine
our
ours
your
yours
his
her
hers
its
their
theirs

mine
ours
yours
his
hers
its
theirs
Select the correct pronoun.

Because the program was____________ , we agreed to help.

theirs
Select the correct pronoun.

The puppy chewed on____________ bone.

its
Select the correct pronoun.

I wanted _____________ approval.

their
Select the correct pronoun.

We requested _____________ volunteering to stay with his grandfather at the hospital.

his
Select the correct pronoun.

______________finding the lost child was a matter of duty, not heroism.

Our
Select the correct pronoun.

The overall plan—______________ completing his accounting degree—should take one more year.

his
Select the correct pronoun.

Do you know that ____________ objecting to the plans has postponed the banquet?

their
Select the correct pronoun.

Cassandra was pleased by ___________ attending the graduation exercises.

our
Select the correct pronoun.

We requested to observe_______________ spinning through the lens.

its
Select the correct pronoun.

Graciously, our host encouraged ____________ lazy relaxing.

our
OTHER PRONOUN CLASSES
Choose the correct pronoun.

Bruce was the candidate ____________ the eleventh grade supported.

whom
Choose the correct pronoun.

We will consider___________ applies for the scholarship regardless of race, creed, or sex.

whoever
Choose the correct pronoun.

It was she ____________ was elected to choir office.

who
Choose the correct pronoun.

That classical music,____________ was written by Bach, is beautiful.

which
Choose the correct pronoun.

The teacher knew it was Sam___________ was passing notes.

who
Choose the correct pronoun.

Those people are the ones___________ I invited to the meeting.

whom
Choose the correct pronoun.

Jane’s problems are a few of the hardest____________ Mr. Johnson assigned.

that
Determine the class of the italicized pronoun.

Any of us could be the winner.

personal
relative
interrogative
demonstrative
indefinite
reciprocal
intensive
reflexive

indefinite
Determine the class of the italicized pronoun.

Everyone will receive his own invitation.

personal
relative
interrogative
demonstrative
indefinite
reciprocal
intensive
reflexive

indefinite
Tell everyone to bring _________ own lunch.
his
All of us__________ going to the school picnic.
are
No one wants _____________ science project to place last in the science fair.
his
QUIZ 1: PRONOUN CLASSES
1. the class of pronouns that usually introduces an adjective clause
reflexive 4

2. the class of pronouns that does not need a specific antecedent
relative 1

3. the class of pronouns used as an adjective to point out which person or thing is being discussed
indefinite 2

4. the class of pronouns which turns the action back on the subject
interrogative 5

5. the class of pronouns used to ask questions
demonstrative 3

6. the class of pronouns used for emphasis
reciprocal 7
7. the class of pronouns made up of two-word pronouns
personal 8

8. the class of pronouns that changes form for nominative, objective, and possessive cases
intensive 6

The pronouns some, none, and all are__________ pronouns. For each of these pronouns, number (singular or plural) is determined by the_________ .
indefinite
antecedent
How can you determine whether to use who or whom in a relative clause? Select all that apply.

Whom is used as a subject.
Who is used as a subject.
Whom is used as an object.
Who is used as an object.

Who is used as a subject.
Whom is used as an object.
Why is the italicized pronoun used correctly in the sentence below?

It is important for us choir members to take individual responsibility for learning our parts.

It is a possessive.
It is the object of the preposition for.
It is the subject of the sentence.
It is the objective form of we.

It is the object of the preposition for.
Why are the italicized pronouns used correctly in the sentence below? Select all that apply.

If you ask Amelia and her to help plan the picnic, it’s sure to be an enjoyable time for you and me.

Her is the predicate noun of ask.
Her is the direct object of the action verb ask.
Me is the object of the preposition for.
Amelia is the antecedent for me.

Her is the direct object of the action verb ask.
Me is the object of the preposition for.
Why are the italicized pronouns used correctly in the sentence below? Select all that apply.

You honored Grace and me when you and she invited us out to dinner.

The verb honored takes the objective case me.
The pronoun me is an indirect object.
The pronoun she is the object of the verb invited.
The pronoun she is the subject of the verb invited.

The verb honored takes the objective case me.
The pronoun she is the subject of the verb invited.
Identify the sentence in which the italicized pronoun is used correctly.

She can direct the choir as well as him.
It was I who answered the telephone.
The principal objected to the families’ accusing Bob and he behind their backs.

It was I who answered the telephone.
Identify the sentence in which the italicized pronoun is used correctly.

Us boys should do the cooking so the girls will know we can.
Between you and I, I wonder if we are going to succeed.
All of us—Josh, Luke, you, and me—should give her a surprise birthday party.

All of us—Josh, Luke, you, and me—should give her a surprise birthday party.
Identify the sentence in which the italicized pronoun is used correctly.

John and I enjoy reading as much as him.
That must be either her brother or she at the door now.
Us teens passed out books during a summer beach literacy project.

That must be either her brother or she at the door now.
Identify the sentence using the indicated pronoun correctly.

an interrogative pronoun

Who are you?
Whom are you?

Who are you?
Identify the sentence using the indicated pronoun correctly.

an indefinite pronoun as an antecedent of a possessive pronoun

Everyone forgot their book.
Everyone forgot his book.

Everyone forgot his book.
Identify the sentence using the indicated pronoun correctly.

a third person reflexive pronoun

The class treated themselves to a pizza party.
The class treated itself to a pizza party.

The class treated themselves to a pizza party.
Identify the sentence using the indicated pronoun correctly.

that as a demonstrative pronoun

John wants that record.
John wants the record that was in the box.

John wants that record.
Identify the sentence using the indicated pronoun correctly.

that as a relative pronoun

That green dress is the one I want.
The green dress is the one that I want.

The green dress is the one that I want.
Identify the sentence using the indicated pronoun correctly.

whom as an interrogative pronoun

Whom did you forget to call?
Whom is your friend?

Whom did you forget to call?
Identify the sentence using the indicated pronoun correctly.

none as an indefinite singular pronoun

None of the sugar is left.
None of the stars is shining.

None of the sugar is left.
Identify the sentence using the indicated pronoun correctly.

most as an indefinite singular pronoun

Most of the salt is gone, too.
Most of the stars is hidden.

Most of the salt is gone, too.
Identify the sentence using the indicated pronoun correctly.

second person reflexive plural pronoun

When did we buy ourselves a new car?
When did you buy yourselves a new car?

When did you buy yourselves a new car?
Identify the sentence using the indicated pronoun correctly.

who as a relative pronoun

The salesman who sold it to me was effective.
Who was he?

The salesman who sold it to me was effective.
Identify the sentence using the indicated pronoun correctly.

a reciprocal pronoun

We were laughing at one another.
We were laughing at ourselves.

We were laughing at one another.
Identify the sentence using the indicated pronoun correctly.

an absolute possessive pronoun

The blue shirt belongs to me.
The blue shirt is mine.

The blue shirt is mine.
1. used as subject
possessive case 5

2. represents possessor and possessed
gender 8

3. determined by function
case 3

4. shows possession by modifying a noun or pronoun
appositive 9

5. shows ownership
possessive adjective 4

6. two-word pronoun
absolute possessive pronoun 2

7. one
reciprocal 6

8. masculine, feminine, or neuter
demonstrative pronoun 10

9. clarifies or renames a noun
nominative case 1

10. points out which person or thing is being discussed
singular 7

In the sentence, I took the books, the direct object can be replaced with an absolute possessive pronoun.

True
False

False
In the sentence I gave Ellen and Jane the card, the word Jane can be replaced with the objective pronoun her.

True
False

True
The sentence You handed the test results to Joan can be made into the question To whom did you hand the test results?

True
False

True
In the sentence I brought Jane herself to the party, herself is used as a reflexive pronoun.

True
False

False
The indefinite pronoun everyone is singular.

True
False

True
Correct the sentence by selecting the proper pronoun usage.

Ellen, Jan, her, and me finished the test early.

she, and me
her, and I
she, and I
correct as is

she, and I
Correct the sentence by selecting the proper pronoun usage.

None of us wanted him and her to leave.

he and her
he and she
him and she
correct as is

correct as is
Correct the sentence by selecting the proper pronoun usage.

I would not want to be Jane or him.

Jane or he
her or him
she or him
correct as is

correct as is
Correct the sentence by selecting the proper pronoun usage.

Them boys were going to school.

Us boys
Those boys
They boys
correct as is

Those boys
Correct the sentence by selecting the proper pronoun usage.

Two of the best singers were he and she.

he and her
them
him and she
correct as is

correct as is
Correct the sentence by selecting the proper pronoun usage.

Four boys–Bob, Pete, Joe, and him–were selected for the job.

Joe, and he
him, and Joe
and them
correct as is

Joe, and he
Correct the sentence by selecting the proper pronoun usage.

The coach chose us girls and him to attend the track meet.

we girls and he
him and we girls
them and I
correct as is

correct as is
Correct the sentence by selecting the proper pronoun usage.

Beatrice can expect her aunt and uncle and I to help her move.

us
her and him and I
them and I
correct as is

us
Correct the sentence by selecting the proper pronoun usage.

They assigned the solo parts to Ellen and her themselves.

she themselves
her theirselves
she herself
correct as is

correct as is
Correct the sentence by selecting the proper pronoun usage.

We boys, Bonnie, and her are writing a play for the program.

Us boys, Bonnie, and she
Us boys, Bonnie and her
We boys, Bonnie, and she
correct as is

We boys, Bonnie, and she
PRONOUN REFERENCE, PART 1
Ambiguous pronoun reference can be corrected by _____.

not using a pronoun at all
repeating the pronoun
inserting an intensive pronoun after the ambiguous pronoun
placing the pronoun further from the ambiguous element

inserting an intensive pronoun after the ambiguous pronoun
Where should a pronoun be placed?

anywhere in the sentence
somewhere before the antecedent
as close to the antecedent as possible
anywhere after the antecedent

as close to the antecedent as possible
Which methods may be used to correct ambiguous pronoun references? Select all that apply.

repeat the antecedent
place the pronoun nearer the antecedent
italicize the correct antecedent
rewrite the entire sentence
insert an intensive pronoun after the ambiguous pronoun

repeat the antecedent
place the pronoun nearer the antecedent
rewrite the entire sentence
insert an intensive pronoun after the ambiguous pronoun
Identify the method used to correct the ambiguous pronoun reference. If the revised sentence does not improve the pronoun reference, choose “No improvement was made.”

Original sentence: Roger told David that he had to work Monday.

Revised sentence: Roger told David that he himself had to work Monday.

The antecedent was repeated.
The pronoun was placed nearer the antecedent.
The sentence was rewritten.
An intensive pronoun was inserted after the ambiguous pronoun.
No improvement was made.

An intensive pronoun was inserted after the ambiguous pronoun.
Identify the method used to correct the ambiguous pronoun reference. If the revised sentence does not improve the pronoun reference, choose “No improvement was made.”

Original sentence: The dishes were piled on the table that needed washing.

Revised sentence: The dishes that were piled on the table needed washing.

The antecedent was repeated.
The pronoun was placed nearer the antecedent.
The sentence was rewritten.
An intensive pronoun was inserted after the ambiguous pronoun.
No improvement was made.

The pronoun was placed nearer the antecedent.
Identify the method used to correct the ambiguous pronoun reference. If the revised sentence does not improve the pronoun reference, choose “No improvement was made.”

Original sentence: The clock on the shelf that was broken needed to be fixed.

Revised sentence: The broken clock on the shelf needed to be fixed.

The antecedent was repeated.
The pronoun was placed nearer the antecedent.
The sentence was rewritten.
An intensive pronoun was inserted after the ambiguous pronoun.
No improvement was made.

The sentence was rewritten.
Identify the method used to correct the ambiguous pronoun reference. If the revised sentence does not improve the pronoun reference, choose “No improvement was made.”

Original sentence: Hunter talked to Tanner while he was waiting for his guitar lesson.

Revised sentence: Hunter talked to Tanner while Tanner was waiting for his guitar lesson.

The antecedent was repeated.
The pronoun was placed nearer the antecedent.
The sentence was rewritten.
An intensive pronoun was inserted after the ambiguous pronoun.
No improvement was made.

The antecedent was repeated.
A remote reference occurs when a pronoun is placed too ___________ its ___________.
far from
antecedent
One type of remote reference occurs when a pronoun is used to refer to a(n) ___________ noun such as Howard’s.
possessive
Which sentence contains a remote reference?

After Waldo’s lawn had been mowed, he cooled off in the swimming pool.
After his lawn had been mowed, Waldo cooled off in the swimming pool.
After Waldo mowed his lawn, he cooled off in the swimming pool.

After Waldo’s lawn had been mowed, he cooled off in the swimming pool.
PRONOUN REFERENCE, PART 2
Select all that apply.

Each pronoun should refer to a specific:

pronoun
place
idea
verb
person
preposition
thing

place
idea
person
thing
Which choice contains a broad pronoun reference?

Voting on Election Day is the most direct way for people to express their opinions.
People should vote on Election Day because it is the most direct way to express their opinions.
People should vote on Election Day because voting is the most direct way to express their opinions.
The most direct way for people to express their opinions is voting; therefore, people should vote on Election Day.

People should vote on Election Day because it is the most direct way to express their opinions.
Which choice contains a broad pronoun reference?

We need rain. This would clear the dust from the sky and end the drought.
We need rain to clear the dust from the sky and end the drought.
We need rain that would clear the dust from the sky and end the drought.
To clear dust from the sky and end the drought, we need rain.

We need rain. This would clear the dust from the sky and end the drought.
Which choice contains a broad pronoun reference?

When you have written a paper, go back. Revising it will result in a more effective presentation.
When you have written a paper, go back and revise it, resulting in a more effective presentation.
When you have written a paper, go back and revise it, which will result in a more effective presentation.
When you have written a paper, go back and revise it. This will result in a more effective presentation.
When you have written a paper, go back and revise it. The result will be a more effective presentation.

When you have written a paper, go back and revise it. This will result in a more effective presentation.
Which sentence avoids using a pronoun reference error?

After hearing a series of lectures on supply-side economics, my father had great respect for him.
Jordan joined the band, which was a surprise.
Grace gave my little sister a book of illustrated children’s stories that was her favorite present.
James wants to study medicine because his brother is a doctor.

James wants to study medicine because his brother is a doctor.
Which sentence avoids using a pronoun reference error?

They say it’s going to rain this weekend.
It’s going to rain this weekend.
Pick your coat up off the floor and vacuum it.
none of the above

It’s going to rain this weekend.
Which sentence avoids using a pronoun reference error?

Al had a dog with fleas, which he was always scratching.
When I called the college, they said they were still accepting applications.
When Kara went to help her sister fix supper, she was very angry.
none of the above

none of the above
Identify what is wrong with each italicized pronoun reference.

If the driver hits another car in a moving violation, the cost of your insurance will go up.

indefinite pronoun
ambiguous reference
no specific antecedent

indefinite pronoun
Identify what is wrong with each italicized pronoun reference.

It may rain and flood the basement, so it should be cleaned out.

no definite antecedent
use as an indefinite pronoun and personal pronoun in same sentence
implied antecedent ambiguous

use as an indefinite pronoun and personal pronoun in same sentence
Identify what is wrong with each italicized pronoun reference.

Sam sat by the window all day, trying to finish the novel. It was too small to give much light.

too far removed from the antecedent
no definite antecedent
indefinite pronoun

too far removed from the antecedent
Identify what is wrong with each italicized pronoun reference.

Carolyn sang higher than the other sopranos but she didn’t support it properly.

placed too far from antecedent
no specific antecedent
ambiguous reference

no specific antecedent
Identify what is wrong with each italicized pronoun reference.

If you park by the fire hydrant, they will give you a ticket.

indefinite pronoun: replace with a specific noun
placed too far from antecedent
remote reference

indefinite pronoun: replace with a specific noun
Identify what is wrong with each italicized pronoun reference.

My worst problem is the inability to speak clearly in public. This is not true when I am with my family.

possessive pronoun misuse
too far from antecedent
no specific antecedent

no specific antecedent
Identify what is wrong with each italicized pronoun reference.

When chicken eggs are hatched, they are weak and barely able to move around.

ambiguous reference
implied antecedent; needs to be stated
indefinite pronoun

implied antecedent; needs to be stated
Identify what is wrong with each italicized pronoun reference.

Muriel showed Joyce that she had not made a mistake.

ambiguous reference
implied antecedent; needs to be stated
indefinite pronoun

ambiguous reference
PRONOUN AGREEMENT
1. consistency in case, gender, number, and person
2 collective noun

2. a noun that is singular in form but plural in meaning, as group or committee
3 compound antecedent

3. an antecedent composed of two or more nouns, pronouns, or both
1 agreement

Complete the sentence by using a pronoun that agrees with its antecedent.

Each of the drama members has memorized _________ lines.

his
Complete the sentence by using a pronoun that agrees with its antecedent.

Students who want to compete in the science fair must have______________ exhibits here by 7:00 a.m.

their
Complete the sentence by using a pronoun that agrees with its antecedent.

Heddy and Janice made the costumes __________ .

themselves
Complete the sentence by using a pronoun that agrees with its antecedent.

Neither Craig nor Roberto has eaten__________ chocolate cake yet.

his
Complete the sentence by using a pronoun that agrees with its antecedent.

Each of my sisters has _________ own hobby.

her
Which sentence demonstrates correct pronoun-antecedent agreement?

A unique feature of man is their thumbs, which are unlike those of other creatures.
Everyone should bring their own money.
Each student wrote his name on his paper.

Each student wrote his name on his paper.
Which sentence does not show correct pronoun agreement?

Either Patricia or Janet left her music on the piano.
Either Patricia or Janet left their music on the piano.
Both Patricia and Janet left their music on the piano.

Either Patricia or Janet left their music on the piano.
The demonstrative pronouns this and that are sometimes singular and sometimes plural.

True
False

False
Choose the sentence which has a subject and verb that agree.

The clouds that cover the moon dissipate quickly.
Harry and Joe ran quickly to the bleacher that were without empty seats.

The clouds that cover the moon dissipate quickly.
Quiz 2: Pronoun Reference and Agreement
The pronoun those is an interrogative pronoun used with singular nouns.

True
False

False
The demonstrative pronouns this and that are misused when they are not supplied with a specific antecedent or with a specific noun to modify.

True
False

True
Identify the type of pronoun error in the sentence.

Neither of we boys was going to the ball game.

reference
case
agreement

case
Identify the type of pronoun error in the sentence.

The papers are on the desk that I corrected.

reference
case
agreement

reference
Identify the type of pronoun error in the sentence.

The traffic pattern on the new road is slowed down by too many traffic lights and left turns. It has to be improved.

reference
case
agreement

reference
Identify the type of pronoun error in the sentence.

If anyone accepts his challenge he will be sorry.

reference
case
agreement

reference
Identify the type of pronoun error in the sentence.

No one is expressing their opinion.

reference
case
agreement

agreement
Identify the type of pronoun error in the sentence.

They say we will not be able to afford to own houses in a few years.

reference
case
agreement

reference
Improving Sentence Structure, Part 1
The basic sentence structure in English is SUV, meaning ‘Subject, Utility section, Verb.’

True
False

False
Identify the awkward or illogical part of the following sentence.

The funniest part of her speech was when she mimicked a chicken.

The funniest part of her speech
was when
she mimicked a chicken

was when
The following sentence has been revised in several ways. Which of the revisions does not improve the awkward or illogical construction?

The funniest part of her speech was when she mimicked a chicken.

The funniest part of her speech was her imitation of a chicken.
When she mimicked a chicken was the funniest part of the speech.
Her speech was funniest when she mimicked a chicken.

When she mimicked a chicken was the funniest part of the speech.
Identify the awkward or illogical part of the following sentence.

The reason Mr. Green was late is because he had a flat tire.

The reason Mr. Green
Mr. Green was late
because he had a flat tire
The reason…is because

The reason…is because
The following sentence has been revised in several ways. Which of the revisions does not improve the awkward or illogical construction?

The reason Mr. Green was late is because he had a flat tire.

The reason Mr. Green was late was his flat tire.
Mr. Green was late because he had a flat tire.
The reason for Mr. Green’s being late was his flat tire.

The reason Mr. Green was late was his flat tire.
Identify the awkward or illogical part of the following sentence.

Idiosyncrasies are where a person has peculiar mannerisms and habits.

Idiosyncrasies are
a person has peculiar mannerisms and habits
Idiosyncrasies are where

Idiosyncrasies are where
The following sentence has been revised in several ways. Which of the revisions does not improve the awkward or illogical construction?

Idiosyncrasies are where a person has peculiar mannerisms and habits.

Idiosyncrasies are when someone has peculiar mannerisms and habits.
Idiosyncrasies are a person’s peculiar mannerisms and habits.
A person’s peculiar mannerisms and habits are his idiosyncrasies.

Idiosyncrasies are when someone has peculiar mannerisms and habits.
Identify the awkward or illogical part of the following sentence.

Harmony is when two or more tones fit together in a pleasing combination of sounds.

Harmony is
is when
two or more tones fit together
in a pleasing combination of sounds

is when
The following sentence has been revised in several ways. Which of the revisions does not improve the awkward or illogical construction?

Harmony is when two or more tones fit together in a pleasing combination of sounds.

Harmony occurs when two or more tones fit together in a pleasing combination of sounds.
When two or more tones fit together in a pleasing combination of sounds, harmony occurs.
The definition of harmony is when two or more tones fit together in a pleasing combination of sounds.

The definition of harmony is when two or more tones fit together in a pleasing combination of sounds.
Identify the awkward or illogical part of the following sentence.

Fustian writing is where you write pompous, bombastic
nonsense.

Fustian writing
is where you write
pompous, bombastic nonsense.

is where you write
The following sentence has been revised in several ways. Which of the revisions does not improve the awkward or illogical construction?

Fustian writing is where you write pompous, bombastic nonsense.

Fustian writing is pompous, bombastic nonsense.
Pompous, bombastic nonsense is described as Fustian writing.
Where you write pompous, bombastic nonsense is Fustian writing.

Where you write pompous, bombastic nonsense is Fustian writing.
The following sentence has been revised in several ways. Which of the revisions does not improve the awkward or illogical construction?

The reason Mr. Green was late is because he had a flat tire.

The reason Mr. Green was late was his flat tire.
Mr. Green was late because he had a flat tire.
The reason for Mr. Green’s being late was his flat tire.

The reason Mr. Green was late was his flat tire.
Improving Sentence Structure, Part 2
The following sentence is correctly constructed:

To improperly place modification in an infinitive phrase produces an awkward construction.
True
False

False
Which sentence is constructed correctly and clearly?

Because we wanted at long last to be finished with the project, we forgot the conclusion.
Because we wanted to at long last be finished with the project, we forgot the conclusion.

Because we wanted at long last to be finished with the project, we forgot the conclusion.
Which sentence is constructed most correctly and clearly?

I hung new drapes in the west windows that I had recently made.
I hung new drapes that I had recently made in the west windows.
In the west windows, I hung new drapes that I had recently made.

In the west windows, I hung new drapes that I had recently made.
Which sentence is constructed correctly and clearly?

I agreed every Thursday night to attend the scout meeting.
I agreed to attend the scout meeting every Thursday night.

I agreed to attend the scout meeting every Thursday night.
Which sentence is constructed correctly and clearly?

You should begin now to apply for college if you hope to be accepted.
You should begin now to, if you hope to be accepted, apply for college.

You should begin now to apply for college if you hope to be accepted.
Which sentence is constructed correctly and clearly to indicate that David did not meet the requirements for reading ten books?

David only read one book.
David read only one book.

David read only one book.
Which sentence is constructed so that the modifier clearly describes the words for which it was intended?

I saw the car that had passed us screech to a halt at the red light.
I saw the car screech to a halt at the red light that had passed us.

I saw the car that had passed us screech to a halt at the red light.
Which sentence is constructed correctly and clearly?

The team lost almost by three points.
The team almost lost by three points.

The team almost lost by three points.
Which sentence is constructed so that the modifier clearly describes the words for which it was intended?

The teacher designed a new workbook for students who failed three tests for a very good reason.
For a very good reason, the teacher designed a new workbook for students who failed three tests.

For a very good reason, the teacher designed a new workbook for students who failed three tests.
Which sentence is constructed to emphasize that Burt stuck to his jogging routine?

Burt even jogged during the heat wave.
Burt jogged even during the heat wave.

Burt jogged even during the heat wave.
Which sentence is constructed so that the modifier clearly describes the words for which it was intended?

Josie polished the desk until it looked almost new.
Josie polished the desk almost until it looked new.

Josie polished the desk until it looked almost new.
Which sentence is constructed so that the modifier clearly describes the words for which it was intended?

The soup was the saltiest in the green bowl.
The soup in the green bowl was the saltiest.

The soup in the green bowl was the saltiest.
Which sentence is constructed so that the modifier clearly indicates that John works seven days a week?

John even works on weekends.
John works even on weekends.
Even John works on weekends.

John works even on weekends.
Improving Sentence Structure, Part 3
Select all that apply.

Dangling constructions may be repaired by:

expanding the dangling phrase into a subordinate clause
changing the adjective into an adverb
supplying a word for the modifier to describe
placing the modifier close to the noun it modifies

expanding the dangling phrase into a subordinate
supplying a word for the modifier to describe
placing the modifier close to the noun it modifies
Analyze the sentence to determine whether it contains a dangling construction or is written correctly.

While driving to school, the front tire blew out.

dangling construction
Analyze the sentence to determine whether it contains a dangling construction or is written correctly.

Driving through Yosemite, we passed several fine campsites.

correctly written
Analyze the sentence to determine whether it contains a dangling construction or is written correctly.

To write well, practice is essential.

dangling construction
Analyze the sentence to determine whether it contains a dangling construction or is written correctly.

My tooth ached while hurrying to the dentist.

dangling construction
Analyze the sentence to determine whether it contains a dangling construction or is written correctly.

If found, we will reward anyone returning the wallet.

dangling construction
Analyze the sentence to determine whether it contains a dangling construction or is written correctly.

Upon opening the door, the puppies rushed out and tripped me.

dangling construction
Analyze the sentence to determine whether it contains a dangling construction or is written correctly.

As soon as Sheila put the worm on her hook, the fish began to bite.

correctly written
Analyze the sentence to determine whether it contains a dangling construction or is written correctly.

Roaming free and uncaged, visitors are told to stay in their cars once inside the animal game preserve.

dangling construction
Analyze the sentence to determine whether it contains a dangling construction or is written correctly.

Because he was a foreigner, his ignorance of our customs made him feel self-conscious.

correctly written
Analyze the sentence to determine whether it contains a dangling construction or is written correctly.

As a student, I thought of the prom as the most important social event.

correctly written
Analyze the sentence to determine whether it contains a dangling construction or is written correctly.

Tripping on the threshold of the bank entrance, the money was dropped by the robber before he left the scene of the crime.

dangling construction
Analyze the sentence to determine whether it contains a dangling construction or is written correctly.

Tripping on the threshold of the bank entrance, the money was dropped by the robber before he left the scene of the crime.

correctly written
Improving Sentence Structure, Part 4
The terms ‘coordinating conjunction’ and ‘correlative conjunction’ are pretty much synonymous.

True
False

False
Read the sentence to determine if it contains an error in parallel structure. If the sentence contains an error, choose “not parallel”; if it does not contain an error, choose “correct.”

The illustrations will help you to discern the difference between sentences that are carefully constructed and sentences that are thrown together.

correct
Read the sentence to determine if it contains an error in parallel structure. If the sentence contains an error, choose “not parallel”; if it does not contain an error, choose “correct.”

Most of the difficulties in learning parallel structure arise not from the lack of comprehension of the theory but because examples of good writing are uncommon.

not parallel
Read the sentence to determine if it contains an error in parallel structure. If the sentence contains an error, choose “not parallel”; if it does not contain an error, choose “correct.”

A popular American meal consists of a hamburger, some french fries, and a milkshake.

correct
Read the sentence to determine if it contains an error in parallel structure. If the sentence contains an error, choose “not parallel”; if it does not contain an error, choose “correct.”

The test of a person’s honesty is in the way he lives, not how we talk.

not parallel
Read the sentence to determine if it contains an error in parallel structure. If the sentence contains an error, choose “not parallel”; if it does not contain an error, choose “correct.”

The activities planned for the city picnic include softball, relay races, volleyball, and a campfire sing-along.

correct
Read the sentence to determine if it contains an error in parallel structure. If the sentence contains an error, choose “not parallel”; if it does not contain an error, choose “correct.”

Tomorrow’s schedule includes studying for two tests, attending band practice, and to visit my grandmother.

not parallel
Read the sentence to determine if it contains an error in parallel structure. If the sentence contains an error, choose “not parallel”; if it does not contain an error, choose “correct.”

Outlining the chapter, reading the assignment twice, and memorizing new vocabulary words helps me to earn an A average.

correct
Which sentence demonstrates correct parallel structure?

To be highly skilled, even if you are temporarily unemployed, is better than to lack training.
Being highly skilled, even if you are temporarily unemployed, is better than to lack training.

To be highly skilled, even if you are temporarily unemployed, is better than to lack training.
Find the sentence which contains an error in parallel structure.

In driver’s education classes, we learned that we should reduce the speed of the automobile after dark and to pump the brakes when stopping on wet pavement.
In driver’s education classes, we learned that we should reduce the speed of the automobile after dark and that we should pump the brakes when stopping on wet pavement.
In driver’s education classes, we learned to reduce the speed of the automobile after dark and to pump the brakes when stopping on wet pavement.

In driver’s education classes, we learned that we should reduce the speed of the automobile after dark and to pump the brakes when stopping on wet pavement.
Which sentence demonstrates correct parallel structure?

We are looking for a new apartment with air conditioning and a fireplace.
We are looking for a new apartment with air conditioning and having a fireplace.

We are looking for a new apartment with air conditioning and a fireplace.
Select the correct sentence.

I debated whether to join the choir or should I baby-sit for the children.
I debated whether to join the choir or to baby-sit for the children.

I debated whether to join the choir or to baby-sit for the children.
Read the sentence to determine if it contains an error in parallel structure. If the sentence contains an error, choose “not parallel”; if it does not contain an error, choose “correct.”

I did not know whether I should go to a trade school, college, or to enter the military.

not parallel
Which sentence demonstrates correct parallel structure?

The meal was not only delicious but very filling as well.
The meal was not only delicious but also very filling.
The meal was not only delicious and also filled you up.

The meal was not only delicious but also very filling.
Which sentence demonstrates correct parallel structure?

Melville was both a good writer and he developed symbolism in American literature.
Melville was both a good writer and a developer of symbolism in American literature.

Melville was both a good writer and a developer of symbolism in American literature.
Which sentence demonstrates correct parallel structure?

Running a small repair shop, to act as the president of the Chamber of Commerce, as well as serving on our Board of Trustees keeps my brother busy.
Running a small repair shop and acting as the president of the Chamber of Commerce, as well as serving on our Board of Trustees, keeps my brother busy.

Running a small repair shop and acting as the president of the Chamber of Commerce, as well as serving on our Board of Trustees, keeps my brother busy.
Quiz 3: Sentence Structure
Check the item that is not one of the four kinds of misplaced modifiers studied in this section.

definition structure
improperly placed adverbs
split infinitive
misplaced phrases and clauses

definition structure
Identify the type of error in the sentence. If the sentence contains no error, select C.

A symphony is where many kinds of instruments play a
long piece of classical music.

definition structure
explanation structure
parallel structure
dangling construction
C

definition structure
Identify the type of error in the sentence. If the sentence contains no error, select C.

A dog bit the jogger who was running around the block.

definition structure
explanation structure
parallel structure
dangling construction
C

C
Identify the type of error in the sentence. If the sentence contains no error, select C.

The reason we are early is because my watch is fast.

definition structure
explanation structure
parallel structure
dangling construction
C

explanation structure
Identify the type of error in the sentence. If the sentence contains no error, select C.

After school we planned to do homework and swimming.

definition structure
explanation structure
parallel structure
dangling construction
C

parallel structure
Identify the type of error in the sentence. If the sentence contains no error, select C.

Jane was not only beautiful but was known as a humble person.

definition structure
explanation structure
parallel structure
dangling construction
C

parallel structure
Identify the type of error in the sentence. If the sentence contains no error, select C.

The children asked about the electric train and how to use it.

definition structure
explanation structure
parallel structure
dangling construction
C

parallel structure
Identify the type of error in the sentence. If the sentence contains no error, select C.

By calling every hour, my mother received Jamie’s call.

definition structure
explanation structure
parallel structure
dangling construction
C

dangling construction
Identify the type of error in the sentence. If the sentence contains no error, select C.

To enter college, an admission exam must be passed.

definition structure
explanation structure
parallel structure
dangling construction
C

dangling construction
Identify the type of error in the sentence. If the sentence contains no error, select C.

Sliding down the hill, my arm was broken.

definition structure
explanation structure
parallel structure
dangling construction
C

dangling construction
Identify the type of error in the sentence. If the sentence contains no error, select C.

A catalyst is where a chemical begins the reaction but does not participate in it.

definition structure
explanation structure
parallel structure
dangling construction
C

definition structure
Identify the type of error in the sentence. If the sentence contains no error, select C.

When an old woman, the boy visited Mrs. Jones in the
nursing home.

definition structure
explanation structure
parallel structure
dangling construction
C

dangling construction
Identify the type of error in the sentence. If the sentence contains no error, select C.

Satisfaction, enjoyment, and feeling victorious are the results of doing your best.

definition structure
explanation structure
parallel structure
dangling construction
C

parallel structure
Identify the type of error in the sentence. If the sentence contains no error, select C.

My reluctance to join your group is because I do not know your activities.

definition structure
explanation structure
parallel structure
dangling construction
C

explanation structure
Identify the type of error in the sentence. If the sentence contains no error, select C.

She is my favorite teacher because she is a woman who has a good sense of humor and who knows how to explain the textbooks.

definition structure
explanation structure
parallel structure
dangling construction
C

explanation structure
Identify the type of error in the sentence. If the sentence contains no error, select C.

To prepare for the game, many warm-up exercises are necessary.

definition structure
explanation structure
parallel structure
dangling construction
C

dangling construction
Identify the type of error in the sentence. If the sentence contains no error, select C.

My singing the song was because Brittany was ill.

definition structure
explanation structure
parallel structure
dangling construction
C

explanation structure
Identify the type of error in the sentence. If the sentence contains no error, select C.

I enjoy listening to classical records, playing the piano, and writing songs.

definition structure
explanation structure
parallel structure
dangling construction
C

C