away, away from
out, forth, away
bad, abnormal, inadequate
capable of, able to
process, act of doing
to act or possess
of, related to, connected with
act or process
one who performs
one who relates to or resembles
one who does a specific thing
~someone who believes there is no god
If neuro refers to the nerves or nervous system, an inflammation of the nerves would be called which of the following?
If bellum means “war,” when were antebellum houses built?
~after the war
Based only on its prefix and root, the word eulogy most closely means which of the following?
~a speech you give at someone’s funeral
If you had beauty in abundance, you would be called _____.
If you were full of courage, you would be called _____.
The prince refused to commit regicide against his father. What does the root reg or rex mean?
Word Elements Meanings
a- not, outside of
per- through, thoroughly
ex- out of, formerly
perfect, permission, pertain
anterior, antecedent, antebellum
eulogy, euphonious, eugenic
ex-president, exhume, excise
inhumane, indispensable, inadmissible
multicolored, multiform, multimillionaire
Word Elements Meanings
cide, cis to kill or cut
cosmos world, world system
log to study, the science of
logos word, reason, study
theo god or gods
anthropology, misanthropy, philanthropic
biology, biographical, autobiography
scissors, incisive, homicide
incorporate, corpse, corpuscle
cosmic, cosmonaut, cosmological
anthropology, biological, dermatology
logic, dialogue, prologue
theology, polytheism, atheism
Word Elements Meanings
-ful have in abundance
-ism doctrine or belief in
-ist one who believes
-ness quality or condition of
-ous possessing, full of
tonsillitis, appendicitis, sinusitis
plentiful, graceful, resentful
socialism, humanism, communism
Marxist, isolationist, optimist
weariness, loneliness, kindliness
contemptuous, advantageous, dubious
Word Element Meaning
arch ruler, beginning
cap to take, seize
cogn to know
gen race or kind
gest to bear
gnos to know
graph to write
ject to throw
metro to measure
mon to warn
nasci to be born
path sickness, feeling
pel, plus to drive
pli, plic to fold
pon, pos to put, place
port to carry
press to push
psych mind, behavior
rog to ask
scrib to write
sta, sti to stand
Word Element Meaning
de- down, away
dis- apart, not
hyper- above, very
hypo- under, below
iso- equal, similar
o-, ob- against, away from
per- through, thoroughly
pro- in favor of, before
re-, retro- back, again
sub- under, below
Word Element Meaning
-ance, -ence condition
-ant, -ent one who acts or believes
-ize to make similar to
-ship status, function
-ive tends toward an indicated action
vers, vert=to turn
ten, tain, tend=to hold
cap=to take, seize
sta, sti=to stand
pli, plic=to fold
The suffixes -able and -ible mean “able to.”
Spectator comes from the Latin specs meaning _____.
Biography comes from two Latin words: bio meaning “*life*” and graph meaning “to *write*.”
What does the suffix -logy in the word astrology mean?
EX: COBOL = COmmon Business Oriented Language (a computer term)
FORmula TRANslation in data processing
laser = Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation
radar = RAdio Detecting And Ranging
RSVP = Respondez S’il Vous Plait–French for “Please respond”
scuba = Self-Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus
TVA = Tennessee Valley Authority
ZIP = Zone Improvement Program–for speeding the mail
NOT: Mr., Mrs., Sat., Feb., Dr., Hon., and the like.
3. basso profundo
7. dome mountain
9. maitre d’
2. an instrument for measuring air pressure
3. a deep bass voice that extends to C below bass staff
4. percussion instruments consisting of metal bars or tubes
5. manner of preparing food
6. a concave brass plate that produces a brilliant clashing tone
7. a natural formation that resembles a dome
8. formed by solidification of molten magma
9. headwaiter, a shortened form of maitre d’ hotel, literally master of the house
10. referring to a pronounced change caused by pressure, heat, and water that results in a more compact and more highly crystalline condition
11. formed by or from deposits of sediment
12. the application of a plaster-like product over wallboard in a manner that produces a different look
13. an animal having a spinal column in contradistinction to an invertebrate, an animal that does not have a spinal column
EX: 1. construction – footing, stem wall, monolithic pour, mud, rebar, etc..
2. chefs – hors d’oeuvres (or dervz), bouillon, chef’s salad, entree, etc..
3. firefighting – catching a plug, turnouts, stinger, fog hog, surround and drown a fully-involved, etc..
4. medicine – heterotropia, stethoscope, heterotropia, morbilli rubeola, halitosis, etc..
5. geology – igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic, dome mountain, barometer, etc..
6. biology – invertebrates –> arthropods, arachnids, crustaceans, centipedes and millipedes
vertebrates –> birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish, mammals
7. literature – personification, onomatopoeia, foreshadowing, plot, dramatic conflict, theme, character delineation, immediacy, atmosphere, a point of view, limited focus, unity, etc..
8. music – soprano, mezzo soprano, contralto, alto, tenor, second tenor, baritone, bass, etc..
An ophthalmo-orhinolaryngololist is _____.
~an eye, ear, nose, and throat specialist
Heterotropia is _____.
Which is not a class of rock?
What is the study of weather is called?
When we speak of inanimate objects as if they were human, what are we using?
What is a type or classification of writing in literature called?
What is the main character in a short story called?
Who directs an orchestra?
~both conductor and maestro
1. classification/division – grouping a small selection of items into categories
2. causal analysis – describing cause and effect
3. process analysis – analyzing a process such as how to scramble eggs or how to play basketball
4. illustration or example – defining or clarifying a concept or type by use of examples/illustrations
5. comparison/contrast – considering similarities, differences, or both
6. extended definition – analyzing the term to be defined, its class, and various distinctive characteristics
Choose how the following paragraph could be best classified:
1. Movie rental stores offer great variety that appeals to even the choosiest of patrons. Action movies fill the need for adventure and adrenaline rush. Comedies help people to laugh and just have fun. Romantic movies offer a view into what matters to just about everyone–love. *classification/division*
2. Philip stayed up too late reading an exciting novel. The next morning, he overslept and arrived late at school. He stuttered while giving his history report and dozed off in his afternoon math class. Philip went to bed early the following evening, to be sure. *causal analysis*
Which of the following limited topics would be appropriate for a short paper?
~The influence of Elvis on Rock
~How Mia Hamm revolutionized soccer
~In most American homes, family time *is replaced with TV time.*
~Chuck *is a hard-working father.*
T/F: The subject of the topic sentence is called the controlling idea.
T/F: The controlling idea should be in the main clause of the topic sentence.
T/F: The subject of the topic sentence is called the controlling idea
-the complete verb by itself is called the simple predicate
-the complete predicate is the part of the sentence that says something about the subject and is made up of the verb and its complement with or without modifiers
EX: Jill ate the broken cookie.
2. *compound sentence* – sentence that has at least two main clauses or two simple sentences; these clauses are connected either by a comma and a coordinating conjunction–and, but, or, for, nor, yet–or by a semicolon. If any other connecting word is used, a semicolon is still required.
EX: I chose a blue bicycle, *but* my brother wanted a red one.
He dropped out of class early in the year; none of us knew why.
3. *complex sentence* – having a main clause and one or more subordinate clauses
4. *compound-complex sentence* – is one that has two or more main clauses and one or more dependent or subordinate clauses.
EX: When I saw the dark clouds in the distance, I left the picnic quickly, and I took Stephanie home in my car.
If it takes as long to explore the moon as it did to explore this continent, our generation will not live to see the job finished. – complex sentence
Making important decisions requires time for careful thinking and courage to take action. – simple sentence
When you can see both sides of an issue equally well, you find it difficult to take a stand, but some people insist that you take one side or the other. – compound-complex sentence
The first milestone in lighting may have occurred when early man lit a torch from his cooking fire. – complex sentence
He went up the stairs, and there he confronted the thief. – compound sentence
While I was standing in the doorway, I was protected from the rain. – complex
Informality is sometimes fine; however, it can be carried too far. – compound
They were lovely people, the kind you might meet anywhere. – complex
I love this study, and I am going to continue in it. – compound
EX: burned, burnt
-*past perfect tense* : action completed before a set time in the past (or before another past action)
EX: burned, burnt
-*present tense* : action happening now, this minute, today
EX: burn, burns
-*present perfect tense* : action completed during the present time (past action at any time before now)
-*future tense* : action expected to happen
EX: will burn
-*future perfect tense* : (seldom used) action completed before a set time in the future
EX: I will/shall have chosen
Present Participle: freezing
Past Participle: frozen
Present Participle: tearing
Past Participle: torn
Present Participle: kicking
Past Participle: kicked
~Italics are used with the titles of long works.
~Foreign words not in mainstream use in the English language (these words are indicated in many dictionaries with an asterisk (*).
EX: corpus juris, corrida
~names of ships, trains, aircraft, and titles of famous paintings
~Words, letters, or figures used as such and words used as words are italicized.
EX: The articles are *a, an,* and *the.*
– In England, a run in a stocking is called a *ladder.*
– In the English language a *q* is never used without a *u* in a word.
– You have four *and’s* in one sentence,
– My social security number has three *7’s* in it.
Using *quotation marks*:
~Titles of short works
~poetry, short stories, short plays, and chapter titles in books
~When writing a formal essay generally avoid abbreviations, with a few will-known exceptions:
Mr., Messrs., Mrs., Mmes., Dr., and St. (for saint, not street) These titles are spelled out when they are not followed by a proper name.
~The title Honorable may be abbreviated to Hon. only if the first name or initials are used
~In an essay the names of states, countries, months, days of the week, the words Road, Park, Street, or Company are abbreviated when they are part of a name, not otherwise. Using abbreviations in an address on an envelope is acceptable.
~Avoid the use of the abbreviation for and, the ampersand (&)
~Avoid abbreviations of people’s first names such as Wm., Jas., Chas., Geo., and any other first name abbreviation. Spell out such proper names.
~Acronyms may be used instead of writing out the entire title of an organization if the acronym is explained the first time it is used. GOP means Grand Old Party but refers to the Republican Party.
~After proper names, titles earned or awarded are expressed in abbreviations: Jr., Sr., Esq., and degrees such as Ph.D. (Doctor of Philosophy), M.A. (Master of Arts), M.D.(Doctor of Medicine), R.N.(Registered Nurse), D.O. (Doctor of Osteopathy), P.A. (Physician’s Assistant).
~Abbreviations may be used with dates or numerals:
A.D. (anno Domini or “in the year of our Lord”)
B.C. (before Christ)
A.M. and P.M. or a.m. and p.m.,
No. and $.
~The following sentence situations allow for abbreviations:
The manuscript was dated to 783 B.C.
He was to arrive at 10:30 A.M.
The detective found the gun in room No. 266.
I received a check for $585.00
~Some Latin abbreviations are used in formal writing, but one never makes a mistake by spelling out such expressions:
e.g. (for example)
i.e. (that is)
etc. (and so forth)
~Numbers that can be expressed in one word (including hyphenated words) are written out unless a series of numbers is to be used, and/or if some of the numbers require two or three words. In such cases use Arabic numerals for all of the numbers
EX: The house was 75 feet long and 30 feet wide; the lot upon which it sat was 205 feet wide and 80 feet deep.
~Ordinal numbers (those numbers which express position and end in -st, -rd, end, -th) may be written out or expressed in figures. However, such endings should not be added to the day of the month when the year follows.
EX: Acceptable: January first; the eighteenth of June, or the 18th of June
Unacceptable: January first, 1897; June 18th, 1978
~Use figures for street numbers, pages, decimals, percentages, and for the hour of the day when used with A.M. or P.M.
EX: 148 Westwood Drive; 232 Fancher Boulevard
The plane leaves at 4:55 P.M.
Canyon Savings pays 5 1/2 percent compounded daily.
The poem may be found on page 97.
The coat cost $79.95.
~Capitalize proper nouns, which include names of specific people, places, regions, days of the week, historical periods, months (but not seasons), ships, organizations, and religions
~Copyrighted names of products should also be capitalized, however, in some cases a proper name has become a generic term
EX: India rubber, guinea pig, osterizer, vulcanize, pasteurized
~Titles are capitalized only when used with names:
EX: Captain Roberts, Nurse Renwick, Dean Joshua
~Names indicating family relationship when they are not accompanied by a *possessive* are capitalized: Mother made the pie.
EXCEPTIONS: my mother, his father, etc.
~Points of the compass are capitalized when referring to a place: the Southwest, the Near East…
~Always capitalize the names of languages and of specific classes: Humanities 101, Freshman Composition II…
~error concerning abbreviations
By 7: 20 P.M., only 7 tickets were left.
~error involving numbers
John is a Doctor who does not make house calls.
~error concerning capitalization
3 days of our holiday are left to enjoy.
~error involving numbers
Doctor White teaches literature 328, which is a very interesting course.
~error concerning capitalization (Literature, because it is a specific course)
Sue acts on the belief that a dollar earned is a dollar spent.
Dr. Thomas Jones lives on East Main Street.
Find the sentence with no capitalization errors.
-In high school, I’m learning English, speech, and Latin.
-Edgar Allan Poe, the American poet, was adopted.
-In New Hampshire, Mother starred in The Tempest.
-Is your aunt a professor of German at Penn State?
-We heard that Dr. Smith was the only physician to receive the Nobel Prize.
-Many people go to Page, Arizona, to ride a Colorado River raft.
One class’s attitude
the baby’s toy
the ox’s yoke
the bus’s emission
the man’s hat
the sheep’s wool
One exception governs proper names that end in s. Although it is not incorrect to add the ‘s, common practice simply adds the apostrophe to such names.
EX: Phyllis’ coat
Mr. Jones’ office
PLURAL POSSESSION has two rules:
-If the plural form of the noun ends in s, add the apostrophe behind the existing s.
-If the plural noun does not end in s, add ‘s.
the chairmen’s decision
the ladies’ club
the deer’s tails
the companies’ agreement
the oxen’s yokes
the Joneses’ house
The ” s verb” occurs in _____.
When a comma is used alone to combine two or more sentences, the error is called a comma splice
-Incorrect: It rained for two hours today, the children played in the puddles till dark.
-Correct: It rained for two hours today, and the children played in the puddles till dark.
-Incorrect: Come to see me soon, we need to talk.
-Correct: Come to see me soon; we need to talk.
*fused sentence or a fusion*
A second type of run-on sentence occurs when no punctuation appears between two main clauses.
-Incorrect: His parents are professional people they are both doctors.
-Correct: His parents are professional people; they are both doctors.
-Incorrect: Put the groceries on the kitchen table then come into the living room.
-Correct: Put the groceries on the kitchen table; then come into the living room.
occurs, for example, when you move from present tense to past and back to present again for no good reason.
EX: Mr. Firman *invited* his friend to come over and have dinner. The maid *fixes* a big dinner for them, and when they were ready for dessert, she *brings* a cake out for Mr. Nulty because it *was* his fifty-ninth birthday…
2. Shift in PERSON:
refers primarily to the use of the personal pronoun. You remember that:
~first person relates to the person speaking
~second person refers to the person being spoken to
~third person pertains to the person or persons being spoken about
As applied to writing, consistency in person is the principle that once a writer begins using one person, he or she will not shift to another person. Consider the following example, taken from the paragraph example discussed earlier in the lesson.
EX: Every step *you* make reminds *you your* life depends on surefootedness, not foolhardiness. Every climber must carefully check over *his and his* teammates’ equipment, inspecting it for faults which might later cause it to fail.
3. Shift in NUMBER:
1. “We find that in judging *people*, we overlook
most of the characteristics that draw us to *him*.”
2. “Conclusions about a person by misjudging *their* facial expressions…”
3. “They judge a *person* incorrectly because they fail to see *them* as *they* really are.”
All three sentences above contain problems of pronoun-antecedent agreement.
To summarize, a pronoun must agree in person, number, and gender with its antecedent.
4. Shift in VOICE:
not as noticeable as other shifts. Most writing is done in the active voice where the subject does the acting. In the passive voice, the subject receives the action of the verb.
The passive voice has two valid uses:
~When the actor is not known, he cannot very well be mentioned. If a bank has been robbed, and the robbers have not yet been apprehended, the newspaper cannot come out with an active voice statement. The best it can do is say that “The Calley National Bank on Poe and Wentworth was robbed of $75,000 at closing time yesterday.” That sentence construction represents the best possible method of telling what is known.
~When the actor is not important, a statement would read like this: “The new wing on the Community Hospital has been completed.” Surely the completion of the building is more important than the fact that Cominskey Brothers Contracting Company did the work.
A shift from active to passive voice, then, is unwise only when it is unnecessary. A report written in the passive voice is cumbersome and lacks sparkle because all of the subjects are acted upon.
The following piece of writing probably overdoes the point, but notice the deadening affect achieved by the passive voice:
EX: Vows were taken at St. James Cathedral by Bonnie Eager and Jerry Wrightman. The bride’s dress was made by the bride. At the reception, punch was drunk and cake was eaten while the bride and groom were greeted by their friends. The bride’s bouquet was thrown by the bride and was caught by her sister. Rice and confetti were thrown by the excited crowd as the bride and groom were whisked away by a well decorated car which was driven by the best man. Tears were shed by the mother of the bride while hats were thrown into the air by the brothers of the groom. A good time was had by all.
Which kinds of shifting upset the viewpoint in an essay?
shift in person
shift in tense
Four *score* and seven years ago, our forefathers brought *forth* *upon* this continent a new nation conceived in *liberty* and dedicated to the proposition *that* all men are created equal.
forth – adverb
upon – preposition
liberty – noun
that – pronoun
Nouns normally have a separate form for the singular and for the plural. They also take inflectional endings for showing ownership or possession.
Which sentence elements can be used as nouns or noun substitutes?
We will have to learn to think for ourselves. This process will be difficult, but without it, we will be little more than puppets. Nobody wants that.
~who, whom, whose, which, that
~function: to introduce dependent (adjective) clauses
~Who?, Whom?, Whose?, Which?, What?
~function: to ask questions
~this, that, these, those
~function: to point out
~myself, yourself, himself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves
~function: to reflect or intensify
~(singular) one, anyone, someone, no one, none, everyone, anybody, somebody, nobody, everybody, anything, something, nothing, everything, much, either, neither, another, (plural) many, all, others, few, several, some, most
~function: to stand for an unnamed antecedent (indicates an unspecified person or thing)
~function: to take the place of nouns naming people or things.
(singular 1st, 2nd, 3rd person, plural 1st, 2nd, 3rd person)
~cases of personal pronouns include nominative, objective, 2 possessive cases
Which of the following is not a function of an objective pronoun?
Pronominal adjectives include
*my, your, his, her, its, our, your, and their*
These words take the place of possessive nouns like Bill’s, the crowd’s, Mother’s, etc. and describe whatever the original possessive nouns describe.
EX: John’s keys are in Sally’s car. His keys are in her car.
Both his and her stand for possessive adjectives, in this case, the possessive words John’s and Sally’s. His and her also describe the nouns keys and car.
2. *independent possessives* : these words are “independent” because each can replace an entire possessive noun phrase, not just part of one. Inpendent possessives include
*mine, your, his, hers, its, ours, yours, and theirs*
EX: Those keys are my keys. Those keys are mine.
That car over there is her car. That car over there is hers.
mine replaces the possessive noun phrase my keys and takes on its function of subject complement. The same thing happens in the second example. Hers takes the place of the possessive noun phrase her car.
Notice that the possessive personal pronouns have no apostrophes because their only function is to indicate possession (i.e. their form never needs to change).
themselves – reflexive
this – demonstrative
those – demonstrative
what – interrogative
that (introduces dependent clause) – relative
we – personal
myself – reflexive
anybody – indefinite
When Ian proudly retrieved his Calculus 2 homework and saw that it was covered with glue and glitter, he was horrified. His mind raced as he wondered who could be guilty of this sabotage. Suddenly, he knew. It could be *nobody* else but Melissa, his two year-old sister. – indefinite
When Amanda picked up Rosario’s cell phone by accident, Rosario kindly said, “I think *that* is mine.” – demonstrative
Seth Earwig, *who* was a self-proclaimed expert, continued his career as an alligator wrestler until he was eaten one November morning. –
continue to be used today in the literary context of Shakespeare and other important 17th and 18th century works of literature.
The 6 tenses are: present, past, future, preset perfect, past perfect, future perfect (described in definition of “terms”)
Verbs form the tenses listed above using the four principal parts. Verbs are classified as regular or irregular by the way they form their principle parts.
-Regular verbs form their past and past participle by adding *-d, -red, or -t to the present part.*
-Irregular verbs have no pattern or set inflections for forming their past and past participles. Be is the most irregular form in the language and has eight forms: am, is, are, was, were, be, being, been.
1. *present part* : is used with will and shall to form the future tenses.
*Present* + will or shall = *future tense*
write + will or shall = will write
walk +will or shall = will walk
2. The *present participle part* is used with a “be verb” to form the progressive tense.
*Present participle* + “be verb” = *progressive tense*
writing + “be verb” = is writing, are writing, etc.
walking + “be verb” = is walking, are writing, etc.
3. *past part* : is used by itself to form the simple past tense.
4. The past participle part is *used with the auxiliaries* “have, has, or had” to form the present perfect and past perfect tenses. The past participle is also used with a “be verb” to form the passive voice.
*Past participle* + have, has, or had = *past/present perfect tense*
written + have, has, or had = has/had/have written
talked + have, has, or had = has/had/have talked
*Past participle* +”be verb”= *past/present perfect tense*
written + “be verb” = is/was/has been written
played + “be verb” = is/was/has been played
~Hearing the fire siren, I pulled over to the side of the road.
2. The lawyer asked many questions. *He was determined to get to the truth.* (past participial phrase)
~The lawyer asked many questions, determined to get to the truth.
3. *The police inspector looked for evidence.* He examined the apartment thoroughly. (present participial phrase)
~Looking for evidence, the police inspector examined the apartment thoroughly.
4. *The boardwalk is closed for the winter.* It is a depressing sight. (past participial phrase)
~Closed for the winter, the boardwalk is a depressing sight.
5. Nate is active in sports. *He plays both football and baseball.* (present participial phrase)
~Nate is active in sports, playing both football and baseball.
Participle/participial phrase: Hearing his name called
Noun or pronoun modified: Travis
2. Anything connected with basketball interests me.
Participle/participial phrase: connected with basketball
Noun or pronoun modified: Anything
3. Roasted in aluminum foil, meats remain juicy.
Participle/participial phrase: Roasted in aluminum foil
Noun or pronoun modified: meats
4. All people crossing into Arizona must prove they are not carrying fruits or plants.
Participle/participial phrase: crossing into Arizona
Noun or pronoun modified: people
5. Cradled in her mother’s arms, the baby slept.
Participle/participial phrase: Cradled in her mother’s arms
Noun or pronoun modified: baby
6. Storms, injuring crops and destroying property, pounded the California coast.
Participle/participial phrase: injuring crops and destroying property
Noun or pronoun modified: storms
7. The covered bridge was picturesque.
Participle/participial phrase: covered
Noun or pronoun modified: bridge
8. A person observing a crime should call Crime Stop.
Participle/participial phrase: observing a crime
Noun or pronoun modified: person
9. Seen by two women, the accident was reported immediately.
Participle/participial phrase: Seen by two women
Noun or pronoun modified: accident
am, are, is, was, were, be, been, being (the verb to be)
have, has, had (the verb to have)
do, does, did (the verb to do).
The other auxiliaries can be used only as auxiliaries and are called *modals*:
can, could, shall, should, will, would, may, might. must.
Certain auxiliaries can combine together and “stack” on the main verb to form a verb phrase.
EX: Dorothy should certainly have been found by now.
Notice that three auxiliaries should, have, and been work together with the main verb found to create the complete verb phrase.
A sample conjugation for the present progressive tense in *active voice*:
I am choosing, we are choosing
you are choosing
she is choosing, they are choosing
In the *passive voice* this conjugation would be:
I am being chosen, we are being chosen
you are being chosen
she is being chosen, they are being chosen
1. *transitive verbs* are verbs taking a *direct object*
Thick dust *covered* the desk. (“desk” is the receiver of the action “covered”)
They *designated* a hitter.
The clock *struck* one.
I *want* candy.
He *carried* the bag.
Jose *thanked* Wayne.
2. *intransitive verbs* are other action verbs *do not take a direct object*
Doris scowled. (Nothing in the sentence is being “scowled.”)
The dog *barked.*
Sentences containing transitive verbs are either in active or passive voice.
1. *Active voice* means that the subject is performing the action of the verb.
EX: John finished his mid-term report. (John is performing the action of “finish”)
2. *Passive Voice* means that the subject is receiving the action of the verb.
EX: The report was finished (by John)
In the examples above, notice that the passive sentence says the same thing as the active sentence. However, the direct object of the first sentence, report, has become the subject of the second sentence. In either case, report still receives the action of the verb.
T/F: A sentence containing an intransitive verb has a indirect object.
In the _____ voice the subject acts, but in the _____ voice, the subject receives the action.
~type of verb: active
Experiments were conducted to try to teach Chimpanzees sign language.
~type of verb: passive
One chimpanzee showed signs of learning by his imitations.
~type of verb: passive
No innovative communication signals were produced by the chimpanzees
~type of verb: passive
1. “to know” in the ACTIVE VOICE using the future perfect tense.
I – will have known
You – will have known
He/She – will have known
We – will have known
You (plural) – will have known
They – will have known
2. “to fly” in the PASSIVE VOICE using the present perfect tense.
I – have been flown
You – have been flown
He/She – has been flown
We – have been flown
You (plural) – have been flown
They – have been flown
-lie and lay
-sit and set
-rise and raise
To understand these verbs better, you need to remember that some verbs indicate action that must be received; these verbs are called transitive verbs. Others verbs do not indicate action because they are not action verbs or because they do not require a receiver. These verbs are called intransitive, not transitive. The dictionary indicates v.t. for verb transitive or v.i. for verb intransitive.
Infinitive Form / Present Participle / Past Participle / Present Participle / Past Participle
v.i. to lie / lie(s) / lay / lying / lain
v.t. to lay / lay (s) / laid / laying / laid
v.i. to sit / sit(s) / sat / sitting / sat
v.t. to set / set(s) / set / setting / set
v.i. to rise /rise(s) / rose / rising / risen
v.t. to raise / raise(s) / raised / raising / raised
The confusion with lie and lay results from the fact that the past tense of lie and the present tense of lay are the same form–lay.
*Intransitive* / *Transitive*(must have direct object)
Forms of lie / Forms of lay
Today I lie in bed. / Today I lay the book down.
Yesterday I lay there. / Yesterday I laid the book down.
I have lain in bed a week. / I have laid every book in place.
Forms of sit / Forms of set
I sit down to eat. / I usually set that book on the shelf.
We sat on the sofa. / You set it on the floor.
He has sat in that chair for years. / You have set that book there for the last time.
Forms of rise / Forms of raise
My mother rises at dawn. / I raise my right hand when I swear to tell the truth.
Yesterday, she rose later. / The boys raised their hands.
The price has risen. / He has raised the flag in honor of the veterans.
The key to avoiding confusion is *remembering which verb is transitive and which is intransitive. *This means that *you raise, set, or lay things to or in their proper places; however, you must lie, or sit, or rise somewhere or sometime.*
EX: Mr. Gray _____ his hat in the place where Don usually ___.
-Mary ___ down because her temperature had _____.
-Sally ___ the food on the counter to cool while she ______ the blinds.
*Indicative Mood* states an actuality or fact
-We will go to see a movie this Sunday.
-I’ll follow you.
All present tense, third person, singular, indicative verbs in the English language end in s and are called “s verbs.” Notice the pattern:
I go, you go, he goes;
I study, you study, he studies;
I build, you build, she builds;
I swim, you swim, she swims
*Imperative Mood* makes a request; deals with desires, wishes, or conditions that do not exist
-Let’s go to see a movie this weekend!
-Please stop bugging me!
*Subjunctive Mood* expresses a doubtful condition (contrary to fact) and is often used with an “if” clause.
-If I were you, I wouldn’t buy a house.
-I wish I were more organized.
~mood of verb: subjunctive
*Be* on time!
~mood of verb: imperative
All of the students *arrived* on time.
~mood of verb: indicative
If I were you, I would take advantage of the extra time you have.
Use your time wisely.
He uses his time wisely.
EX: Doris is a cosmetologist. (“Is” links “Doris,” the subject, to the predicate noun “cosmetologist.”)
Doris is very busy. (“Is” links “Doris,” the subject, to the predicate adjective “busy.”)
become, seem, appear, remain,
stay, turn, prove, grown,
emerge, continue, get, smell,
taste, sound, look, feel
The subjective complement comes after a(n) ______ verb.
~type of verb: intransitive
The snow covered the stacks of hay bales.
~type of verb: transitive
The old barn timbers creaked under a weight of snow.
~type of verb: intransitive
The winter scene was mysterious.
~type of verb: linking
-Complements are completers of thought. They serve as words or groups of words that complete the sense of the verb, the subject, or the object
-Possible complements include direct objects, indirect objects, subject complements (predicate nouns/adjectives), and object(ive) complements. The direct object and the subject complement are completers of the sense of the sentence. The direct object receives the action of the verb while the subject complement restates or describes the subject.
Which sentence elements can be used as modifiers?
They are formed when you add suffixes like -al, -ish, -ive, -ly, -like, and -ous to nouns.
The most common adjectives are *the articles a, an, and the.* Sometimes called determiners, these words predictably “point out” nouns.
Although adjectives usually precede the nouns they modify, an adjective can be used after a linking verb as a *predicate adjective* (subject complement).
He is a delightful companion. (pre-noun modifier)
He is delightful. (predicate adjective)
In rare instances, adjectives can modify pronouns:
-Jody knew one day she would find that *special* someone in whom she could confide.
-Jody knew one day she would find someone *special* in whom she could confide.
In both examples, special modifies the indefinite pronoun someone even though the second example shows the adjective following the pronoun.
T/F: The suffixes -al, -ly, and -ous , when added to nouns, turn those nouns into adjectives.
They are formed when you add -ly to adjectives
-No modifiers: Sadie wrote letters.
-Adjective modifiers: Sadie wrote *several long* letters.
-Adverb modifiers: Sadie *carefully* wrote several *extremely* long letters.
Adverbs can be divided into three basic types, based on their meanings:
1. *Manner* – tells how, how much, or to what degree something is done (-ly adverbs)
2. *Place* – tells where something is done
3. *Time* – tells when something is done
Adverbs can answer the questions:
To what degree?
To use these questions, simply find the main verb and then use the verb with a question word.
T/F: Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs.
T/F: Adverbs ending in -ly indicate how or how much.
T/F: Adverbs tell when, where, how, and why.
COMMON PREPOSITIONAL WORDS
against, before, down, on, to,
about, behind, during, over, until,
above, between, except, out, up,
across, beside, for, onto, unto,
along, besides, from, of, upon,
as, but, in, off, under,
at, below, into, since, underneath,
around, beneath, inside, through, with,
among, by, like, throughout, within,
amid, concerning, near, toward, without,
A prepositional phrase is *almost always used as a modifier*–either an *adjective phrase* modifying a noun or pronoun or an *adverb phrase* modifying a verb or an adjective. A prepositional phrase usually follows the word it modifies.
ex: The tiny mouse crept (*through* the round hole) (*in* the wall).
The example above contains both kinds of phrases. “Through the round hole” is an adverb phrase describing where the mouse crept. “In the wall” is an adjective phrase describing which hole the mouse crept through.
One group of conjunctions are called the *coordinating conjunction* which includes:
and, but, or, for, nor, yet, and sometimes so.
These conjunctions connect words, phrases, or clauses of same type.
*Subordinating conjunctions* include:
after, although, when, where, while, since, because, until, and many others–are used to connect subordinate clauses to main clauses
Ouch! Oh! Stop! Wait! (verbs)
Ugh! Yow! Eek! (words representing sounds)
An interjection may be a single word or a phrase. In either case, an interjection is punctuated like a sentence.
1. Declarative Sentence – indicative statement
2. Imperative Sentence – request or command
3. Exclamatory Sentence – exclamation
4. Interrogative Sentence – question
Most basic sentence pattern indicating word order.
EX: S-V: The drowning man was rescued (by the lifeguard).
S-V: Jessie scowled at the pestering salesman.
The verb in the S-V pattern is intransitive-active because there is no object. There is a prepositional phrase following the verb, but its pattern is still S-V. In the sentence, Joe ran, Joe, obviously the subject, is in the nominative case.
2. *Subject-Verb-Direct Object pattern*
EX: S-V-DO: John sees Mary.
expanded: My brother John sees his cousin Mary.
S-V-DO variation: subject-verb-direct object-objective complement (S-V-DO-OC): We elected John president.
The verb in the S-V-DO pattern is transitive-active because the sentence has a direct object.
3. *Subject-Verb-Indirect Object-Direct Object pattern*
EX:S-V-IO-DO: Mr. Miller bought his wife flowers.
S-V-IO-DO: (You) Give me the ticket for the show.
Again, the presence of a direct object in this sentence causes the verb to be transitive-active.
4. *Subject-Linking Verb-Predicate Noun pattern*
EX: S-LV-PN: Most (of my friends) have become teachers.
Because there is a linking verb in this sentence, teachers is the predicate noun.
5. *Subject-Linking Verb-Predicate Adjective pattern*
EX: S-LV-PA: The mountain retreat is extremely peaceful.
This sentence also contains a linking verb, but it has an adjective in the predicate, peaceful
6. *Inverted Sentence pattern: expletive-verb-subject*
EX: E-V-S: There are many people in the audience.
E-V-S: Here is my answer to your question.
Remember that here and there are never subjects in a sentence, even when they begin the sentence.
EX: Does Bill know that?
Are your problems produced by your own mistakes?
EX: Are there any questions?
Is there a doctor in the house?
EX: Can there be any peace?
Could there be any hope?
Direct Object-Auxiliary-Subject-Action Verb
EX: What did your mother plan (for your birthday party)?
Which plan (of mine) will you accept?
EX: Where are you going?
Why did Marcie wear that odd shirt?
The waterfall rushed down the steep hillside. – S-V
Snow skiing is a very exciting sport. – S-LV-PN
The President sent the ambassador an invitation to the meeting. – S-V-IO-DO
There is good reason to be thankful. – E-V-S
-A direct object is a noun or noun substitute that comes after an action verb
-a subject complement may also be a noun or noun substitute (predicate noun), or it may be an adjective (predicate adjective). Subject complements follow linking verbs.
The direct object comes after a(n) _____
The objective complement comes ____ the direct object.
The ________ answers the question “to or for whom?”
*Sleeping quietly in its crib*, the baby twitched as though dreaming.(participial phrase–used as an adjective)
*Sleeping at least eight hours per night* is an essential part of maintaining the body’s health. (gerund phrase– used as a noun subject).
I need *to sleep for six hours without waking.* (infinitive phrase–marked by “to.”)
~Type of verbal: gerund
The puppy, Charlie, wanted to play with everyone around him.
~Verbal: to play
~Type of verbal: infinitive
Thinking himself to be a regular Adonis, Jonathan soon found his pride to be his Achilles heel.
~Type of verbal: participle
Encouraged by the ovation, the conductor led the orchestra in an encore performance.
~Type of verbal: participle
He will not allow the table to be moved.
~Verbal: to be moved
~Type of verbal: infinitive
The *sleeping* baby breathed noisily. (participle–used as an adjective)
*Sleeping* is an essential part of maintaining the body’s health. (gerund–used as a noun)
I need to *sleep* now. (infinitive–used as a noun and marked by “to”)
T/F: A participle, a gerund, or an infinitive may be used as a noun substitute.
false; participle is an adjective
EX: *Because horses tend to be high-strung,* they must be treated gently.
“because” introduces an adverb clause and demonstrates a cause/effect relationship.
EX: *After* *the farmer finished harvesting the hay*, he stacked the bales in the barn.
The farmer stacked the bales in the barn *after he finished harvesting the hay.*
An adverb clause that comes in front of the main clause (see above) is called the introductory adverb clause; it is set off from the main clause by a comma, and it modifies the verb.
The adverb clause tells much more than when, where, how, and how much. The following common subordinating conjunctions introduce adverb clauses and describe the relationship between the adverb clause and the main verb of the main clause or the entire main clause.
Time: when, whenever, before, after, since, while, until, as
EX: She went *before I could speak to her.*
Don’t talk *while you eat.*
You may come *when (whenever) you are ready.*
*While you’re waiting*, help me in the kitchen.
He called me *as I left the house.*
Manner: as, as if, as though
EX: They talk *as if (as though)* they have new information.
Make the salad *as I have taught you.*
Place: where, wherever
EX: We lived *where we could see Mt. St. Helens.*
I will go *wherever you say.*
Result: that, so that
EX: She was so early *that she helped set the table.*
He moved over *so that I could see better.*
Cause: because, since, as, for
EX: *Since we moved here*, I’ve no trouble with asthma.
She worked *because her father was out of a job.*
Purpose: that, in order that
Brave men have died *that America might live.*
They fought *in order that their wives and children could be free.*
Condition: if, in as much as, lest, in case, much as, provided that, on condition that, unless
EX: *If you’ve heard this story*, stop me.
I’ll come *provided that you’ll let me help.*
*If I were you*, I’d buy the house now.
*Much as I’d like to help*, I can’t.
*Lest anyone misunderstand*, I voted for the bill.
Concession: although, even though, though, even if
EX: *Although it is raining*, I will go.
*Even if I am late*, I’ll go in and sit down.
Comparison: than, as, as . . . as
EX: Work is more rewarding *than pleasure (is).*
Your essay is *as good as hers (is).*
Some adverb clauses can be shortened or changed slightly and still be adverb clauses.
EX: *If I were you* can be shortened to *were I you*;
*If you had told me earlier* can be shortened to *had you told me earlier*;
*When you leave* can become *once you leave.*
Adverb clauses can become *elliptical clauses* by simply eliminating the subject and auxiliary or auxiliaries. Such clauses must be used with caution.
EX: Adverb: Don’t change the horses *while you are crossing a stream.*
Elliptical: Don’t change horses *while crossing a stream.*
Adverb: A piano will deteriorate *if it is not played occasionally.*
Elliptical: A piano will deteriorate *if not played occasionally.*
Using Adverb Clauses as a Method of Subordination
The following example illustrates how an adverb clause can be used to combine sentences.
EX: Original sentences: Horses tend to be high-strung. Horses must be treated gently.
Combined sentence: Because horses tend to be high-strung, they must be treated gently.
The first sentence was reduced to a dependent clause with the addition of the subordinating conjunction. That dependent clause was then combined with the independent clause to form the sentence in the example above. Choice of subordinating conjunctions depends on the meaning relationship between the main and dependent clauses. Thus, changing the subordinating conjunction often changes the meaning of the sentence.
EX: *Because horses tend to be high-strung*, they must be treated gently.
*If horses tend to be high-strung*, they must be treated gently.
*Although horses tend to be high-strung*, they must be treated gently.
Normally, the adjective clause will come immediately after the noun or pronoun it modifies; only a prepositional phrase can come between the clause and the word it modifies. In the examples below, the adjective clauses are italicized.
EX: The man or woman *who tries* will succeed.
The car *that I borrowed* is in good condition.
The fellow in the green jacket is the man *to whom I spoke.*
The subordinating words (in italics, above) that introduce adjective clauses and connect them to main clauses are classified in two groups:
Relative Pronouns: who, whose, whom, which, that
Note: who, whose, and whom are used in reference to people. Which is used in reference to animals or things. That can be used for either.
Relative Adverbs: when, where, why
In addition to introducing adjective clauses, relative pronouns function as noun substitutes. They function within adjective clauses as subjects, complements, or objects of prepositions. Relative adverbs function as modifiers.
Relative clauses are not difficult to locate in a sentence. Relative pronouns or adverbs are obvious signals. In addition, an adjective clause can be removed from a sentence, leaving a complete main clause, as the example below shows.
EX: The coat *that I am wearing* is my father’s.
If we remove the adjective clause, we are left with the following:
EX: The coat is my father’s. (complete main clause)
preposition such as to, for, in, into, or of, may be needed for the proper construction of the sentence. This preposition will precede the relative pronoun and will be considered as part of the adjective clause.
EX: She is the child for whom I am responsible.
Some adjective clauses are expressed without the introductory word. In such cases you can supply that or which and be assured that the clause is an adjective clause.
EX: The first car (that) Bob owned was a 1965 Chevy.
Adjective clauses may be *restrictive* or *nonrestrictive.* A restrictive clause is a clause which is necessary to identify or limit the possibilities to the thing that is meant. A nonrestrictive clause adds additional information but is not necessary to identify the thing that is meant. A nonrestrictive clause is set off from the rest of the sentence by commas.
Nonrestrictive: Dr. Ruskin, who took out Mother’s appendix, is speaking at our club this Tuesday.
Restrictive: The doctor who took out Mother’s appendix is speaking at our club Tuesday,
Dr. Ruskin is Dr. Ruskin whatever he does. Therefore, in the first sentence, we don’t need to know that he removed Mother’s appendix to know which doctor is speaking at the club. Since, however, the second sentence does not name the doctor to be speaking, the information in the adjective clause is necessary (or restrictive) to point out which doctor is speaking.
When a group of words is necessary, or restrictive, no commas surround it; when a group of words is not necessary, or nonrestrictive, commas surround it.
Restrictive: The girl who is leading the graduates down the aisle is my cousin.
Nonrestrictive: My cousin, who is leading the graduates down the aisle, is the valedictorian.
It usually takes the place of the subject, direct object, indirect object, predicate noun, or object of the preposition.
Subject: *Where I study* is my problem.
Direct Object: I wonder *what she sees in him.*
Predicate Noun: The fact is *that you promised to be there.*
Object of the Preposition: This plan is available *to whoever registers in time.*
Delayed Subject: It is fortunate *that you were in the building.* (*That you were in the building* is fortunate.)
The following list includes most of the words which introduce noun clauses:
that, whether, if, what (subordinating conjunctions)
whoever, whomever, whatever, whichever (indefinite relative pronouns)
how, when, where, why (relative adverbs)
These words always stand near the beginning of the clause and signal a dependent clause; the relative pronouns and adverbs also serve some function within the clause. When that is the introductory word, it is sometimes not stated.
EX: I think (that) you are mistaken.
Although an appositive gives the information another sentence might give, it does so with great economy of words. Because it does not restrict the meaning of the noun it renames, an appositive is set off by commas. Any noun can be followed by an appositive. An appositive phrase includes the appositive and its modifiers:
-After a subject: Darrell, *the new superintendent*, called a meeting.
-After a direct object: We drove our new car, *a Saturn.*
-After a subject complement: I am Mary Trout, *your Avon lady.*
-After the Object of the Preposition: They came into Denver, *the mile-high city.*
Since an appositive is a noun, a noun clause or a gerund or an infinitive can be an appositive.
-Noun clause as an appositive: *Your statement, that the town is dying*, is not diplomatic.
-Gerund as an appositive: Sally’s newest hobby, photographing birds, is bringing her great satisfaction.
-Infinitive as an appositive: His idea, *to form a Norway Club*, will attract many people to this area.
~the famous etymologist
His mission, to climb Mt. McKinley, was yet to be accomplished.
~to climb Mt. McKinley
The building, a tall, gray structure, sat abandoned near the freeway.
~a tall, gray structure
She looked forward to her favorite activity, jogging on the beach, after she finished her work.
~jogging on the beach
When the child reached for his great grandmother’s candy dish, he remembered his mother’s instructions, that he should only choose one piece.
~that he should only choose one piece
It is not linked to the main clause by any conjunction or relative pronoun. The nominative absolute usually results when an adverb clause is reduced from clause to phrase level.
Original sentence: *Because ideas proliferated abundantly*, the committee had a very successful meeting.
Nominative Absolute: *Ideas proliferating abundantly*, the committee had a very successful meeting.
Original sentence: *Since work was scarce*, most young people went to junior college.
Nominative Absolute: *Work being scarce*, most young people went to junior college.
In both sentences in the example above, the main verb of the adverb clause transforms into a present participle. Also, since, in this transformation, the adverb clause loses its “clause status,” the introductory words disappear.
My most valuable coin, *one from Spain*, is worth more than $100.00. – appositive
*The weather remaining turbulent*, we will postpone our canoe trip. – nominative absolute
The hero falls in love with a countess *who is very beautiful.* – adjective clause
*Although her personality had not changed at all*, Megan looked quite different. – adverb clause
Put the sizes on the uniforms *while sorting them out.* – elliptical clause
*By serving as a popcorn vendor*, Don saw many good games. – prepositional phrase with a gerund
We walked along the mountain path *looking for unusual flowers.* – present participial phrase
By mistake I opened a package *addressed to my sister.* – past participial phrase
*Headed by a senior*, the group drew up rules for School Spirit Week. – past participial phrase
The driver, *confused by the sign*, made a wrong turn. – past participial phrase
We hit a snag *while rowing to shore.* – elliptical clause
The play, *a three-act farce*, amused everyone. – appositive
Frances has plenty of time *to devote to her painting.* – infinitive
The two waiters exchanged a look *whose meaning was clear to me.* – adjective clause
*Even though Darla recommended the course*, I decided not to take it. – adverb clause
*Jumping across the ditch*, the fire threatened our house. – present participial phrase
*The fishing having become so poor*, we packed up camp and moved to another lake. – nominative absolute
*Whenever I can come* will be soon enough for the race. – noun clause
(useful when you don’t need a precise definition)
2. *Identify the Part of Speech* – By determining whether your unknown word functions as a noun, verb, adjective, or adverb, you move a long way toward figuring out its meaning. You can begin to see the word’s relationship to other words in the sentence.
3. *Pronounce the word* – Figuring out a word’s pronunciation is a big part of understanding what it might mean. Sometimes, reading the word out loud is enough to make you remember: “I’ve heard that word before.”
All A’s are B’s. (universal affirmative)
No A’s are B’s. (universal negative)
Some A’s are B’s. (particular affirmative)
Some A’s are not B’s. (particular negative)
One frequently heard advertisement states that nine out of ten Americans use toothpaste with fluoride to protect their teeth from decay. What about that tenth American? Surely, his teeth will all be filled with cavities.
The term bandwagon refers to the elaborately decorated wagon that carried the band in an old-time parade. Often these parades were associated with elections; therefore, to jump on the band wagon came to mean join the winning side. Presumably, those not on the bandwagon are losers. Since everyone wants to be a winner, being one who is not on the bandwagon may be difficult.
The bandwagon technique, however, may lead a person to make a decision for the wrong reason. A decision should never be based on the fact that everyone else is doing it. A good way to counteract bandwagon pressure is to ask yourself a couple of questions.
If everyone else were doing the opposite, what would I do? If no one else were around, what would I do? If your decision would be different because people around you were different, then you are probably being influenced by the pressure to conform and to jump on the bandwagon.
2. 100- 199
4. 300- 399
5. 400- 499
2. Philosophy and Psychology
4. Social Sciences
6. Pure Sciences
7. Applied Sciences
8. Fine Arts and Recreation
10. History, Travel, Collected Biography
11. Fiction in English
12. Individual Biography
2. Philosophy, Psychology, Religion
3. History and Topography
5. Geography, Anthropology, Sports and Games
6. Social Sciences
7. Political Science
11. Fine Arts
12. Language and Literature
15. Agriculture, Forestry
16. Engineering and Technology
17. Military Science
18. Naval Science
The Readers’ Guide to Periodical Literature indexes magazines written for the general reader. Whatever your subject, you will probably find something on it in the Readers’ Guide. These indexes are published in monthly or semi-monthly installments and are then combined in huge volumes, listing articles for a period of one or more years. In the front of the Readers’ Guide is an index to abbreviations as well as a list of all magazines referenced.
1. Internet – is made up of the computer equipment (including machines, wires, cables, and software) which connects millions of computers world wide. These interconnections form a net or web allowing a single computer to communicate with many other computers.
2. software programs which run on computers connected to the Internet – These programs, known as information servers, deliver information requested by computer users connected to the Internet. Servers are thus information “holding tanks.” Some servers deliver information in the form of web pages while others provide menus of files to choose from. Some servers send and receive electronic mail (“e-mail”) messages. Nine different types of servers, each with its own function, are widely used today.
3. Internet web browser – a software program such as Firefox or Internet Explorer which specializes in accessing and displaying information on any or all of the information servers. Browsers are useful because they make searching for information on the Internet much easier, allowing those who have little experience with computers or computer languages to access information from several servers without having to learn the “language” required to operate each server.
1. a block of information stored in an HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) file on a server
2. a “holding tank” for information on the Web or software which retrieves that information
3. the wires, cables, machines, and software connecting millions of computers world-wide
4. a device which categorizes and locates web sites
5. the table of contents of a web site
6. a software package which retrieves information from any or all available Internet servers
7. a highlighted word or phrase within a web page which acts as a “bridge” to another web page or site
8. a term which aids in narrowing a web search
9. an Internet discussion group on a particular topic
10. a collection of interrelated web pages united by a home page
2. information server
3. the “Web”
4. search engine
5. home page
10. web site
EX: Some farmers seem to be able to predict the weather. For example, Old Mr. Beamish cocks his ear to determine the count of the crickets’ chirpings and knows that rain is coming.
When words like for *instance, for example, and by way of illustration* are used, the illustration-example is easy to identify. Notice that the general statement in the previous paragraph is followed by a specific example.
Another writing pattern that is seen repeatedly is definition. Like a dictionary, a definition exposition defines terms; however, where a definition in a dictionary is usually not even a sentence in length, an extended definition in exposition can go on for pages.
EX: The adjective indifferent is like a chameleon; it changes its color to fit the situation in which it is being used. It may mean “unbiased” when the reference implies partiality or impartiality. In such a case the indifferent attitude means that it simply does not matter one way or the other. The word may also mean that the case in hand calls for neither sanction nor condemnation in either observance or in neglect.
This particular definition could continue for several pages because the subject, the word “indifferent,” has many meanings. For complete clarification, every shade of meaning would have to be explored.
The cause-effect pattern is frequently seen in writings about events in history. The writer using this method attempts to show how one event or a series of events causes something else to come about.
EX: In 1914, Prince Franz Ferdinand–the crown prince of Austria–went with his wife on a visit to Serbia. At the time, the Austrian government had great influence over Serbia. This influence caused tensions with the Russians, who were also bent on controlling Serbia. While on the trip, Ferdinand was assassinated and killed by a group of Serbian nationalists who wanted independence from Austria. His death led to the Austrian government making very strong demands on Serbia. This circumstance heightened tensions with Russia whose support lie with the Serbs. Days later the First World War began with the Germans–who controlled Austria–declaring war on Russia.
The comparison-contrast pattern is used to show likenesses (comparison) or differences (contrast) of two or more subjects. In some instances both comparison and contrast will be used within one paragraph.
EX: In the fitness community, many people have trouble deciding between low-fat, low-calorie diets and high protein diets. Both are successful. When a person eats fewer calories than he burns, he will inevitably lose weight. This is the principle for the low-fat, low-calorie diet. Lower fat foods tend to have fewer calories (because fat has 9 calories per gram whereas protein and carbohydrates have 4 calories per gram), so sticking to low-fat foods helps a person cut calories. Fruits, vegetables, and whole grains are naturally low in fat.
The high-protein diet, in contrast, focuses on protein as the building block for muscle. Muscle burns more calories than fat in the body and speeds up a person’s metabolism, which dictates how many calories she burns. The faster a person’s metabolism, the more calories burned. The low-fat, low-cal diet is a simple math solution: eat less than you burn and lose weight. The high protein diet is a bit more complex: eat to build muscle, burn more calories, and lose weight.
Writing of this kind usually announces the comparison or contrast at the very beginning. Such words as but, however, yet, moreover, and on the other hand signal this method.
EX: Golfers come in three types: the duffer, the amateur, and the professional. The duffer hits the dirt farther than the ball. The amateur hits the ball further than the dirt and then spends his time looking for the ball. And the professional inspires the others to come back and try again.
EX: Three genres studied in Introduction to Literature are short story, poetry, and drama…
Topic sentences such as the two above very distinctly indicate to the knowledgeable reader that a classification-division pattern of writing is forthcoming. Although the classification is easy to identify, the division is less easily spotted because it has already occurred. Golfers is a division of sports hobbyists. Literature is a division of the arts, which includes music and traditional arts such as painting and sculpture. Under the three genres a deeper classification will occur in the definition which will divide drama, for instance, into tragedy, comedy, morality plays, and the theater of the absurd.
The last category of exposition discussed here is process analysis. This kind of writing usually features an analysis or description of how to do something, whether that something is assembling a computer, operated a lawn mower, or otherwise completing a task. New equipment almost always includes a pamphlet which gives guidelines for use. In most every case, the pamphlet makes use of process analysis. Note that process analysis is implied in the title of the paragraph below: “How to Find the Perfect Gift.”
EX: The first rule of gift-buying is to keep in mind the interests of the recipient. Too often, the shopper makes the mistake of buying a friend or family member the sort of gift that the buyer would like. Just because you enjoy tennis does not mean your non-athletic sister will love a top-of-the-line tennis racket. If you want to select the perfect gift, try to think of something that the recipient would love, but would never buy for herself. Maybe your mother has always wanted to get a manicure, but would feel silly spending the money on herself. Perhaps, you could present her with a gift certificate. Maybe your father loves baseball, but isn’t good at planning ahead to buy tickets. If that’s the case, buy a set of tickets and offer to join him. Remember, with gift-giving, it’s the thought that counts. Think about the recipient’s likes and dislikes and you can’t go wrong. If all else fails, you can’t go wrong with a gift-certificate.
The best leaders are organized, efficient, and punctual. Molly Spencer, the President of the Spanish Club is just this type of leader. She keeps all of the club’s folders and rosters neatly arranged. She has organized several events to help students celebrate the Spanish language, and her fund-raisers have helped several students pay for Study Spanish Abroad programs. In addition, she’s never been late to a meeting. Molly Spencer is the perfect example of a leader
W. Michael Blumenthal, a corporate CEO, talks about the mistakes he made in hiring:
“In choosing people for top positions, you have to make sure they have a clear sense of what is right and wrong, a willingness to be truthful, the courage to say what they think and to do what they think is right, even if the politics militate against that. This is the quality that should really be at the top. I was too often impressed by the intelligence and substantive knowledge of an individual and did not always pay enough attention to the question of how honest and courageous and good a person the individual really was.”
Key Idea: When hot weather arrives and the nation takes to the outdoors, mishaps multiply.
Most people can learn to swim in ten short lessons.
The majority of water-accident victims require mouth-to-mouth breathing.
Heat exhaustion comes from overdoing in hot weather.
Dress in light-colored clothing to prevent heat strokes.
An empty, tightly closed gallon jug will support a tired swimmer.
Half of the summer deaths will occur on the highway.
First aid is to prevent accidents as well as assist in rescue.
Bees, hornets, wasps, and yellow jackets sting more people in the summertime.
Outdoor and on-the-road eating increases the number of vacationing people stricken by food poisoning.
Key Idea: Foresight often prevents disaster.
Difficult times disappear if people prepare for them.
Planting and harvesting in summer provide food for the winter.
Poor planning is a result of laziness.
Disasters sometimes happen even if people plan for them.
Some crises can be avoided if they are anticipated.
Disasters often teach people to plan ahead.
Planning ahead often brings about suffering.
Key idea: It is sometimes necessary to adjust yourself to those who fail to adjust to you.
Animals are required to adjust their living patterns to their environment.
People often find it necessary to make adjustments in their lives because others won’t.
We should treat others like we would want to be treated.
Some people refuse to change.
Others’ refusal to change for us may mean that we must change for them.
Others’ failure to change provides the basis for our own refusal to change.
Sometimes we need to stay the same, even when others change.
Insisting that others adjust to us will prevent us from having to adjust to others.
If we don’t agree with others, we should act as though we do.
Which of these are defining characteristics of language? Select all that apply.
Which of the following explains why language can be called arbitrary? Select all that apply.
~Words do not inherently resemble the objects that they represent.
~The word chair does not resemble the object it represents.
~Words are meaningful only because of meanings given to them by their users.
~People determine what signs, or words, are used to represent things in language.
Animal sounds and signals are not considered language because: _____.
~their smells and calls are not systematic; they are not defined by constructed rules
Which of the following best describes the relationship between a linguist and language?
~Linguists study language as a system.
Which of the following sentences are true? Select all that apply.
~It is not necessary for a linguist to be bilingual or multilingual.
~Linguists can study the rules and principles for making a language systematic without actually speaking the language.
~syntax : the rules for placing words together to form complete thoughts
~morphology : the rules for forming words
~semantics : word meanings
Early English grammar was based on _______
Traditional grammars are considered to be primarily ________.
~prescriptive (including English)
T/F: Traditional grammars are still completely based on the Latin model.
T/F: Latin grammar is an acceptable model for English grammar.
Which of the following is included in grammar?
Traditional grammars usually begin with the definition of a sentence, then go on to describe the individual parts of speech. The classifications—
1. *noun* – person, place, or thing
2. *verb* – used to make a statement, ask a question, or give a command
3. *adjective* – modifies a noun or noun substitute
4. *adverb* – modifies a word or word group other than a noun or pronoun
5. *preposition* – shows relationship of noun or pronoun to rest of the sentence
6. *conjunction* – a word which links words, phrases, or clauses of the same type
7. *pronoun* – noun substitute
8. *interjection* – sudden feeling
—are based more on definition than usage. Categories occasionally overlap.
EX: the word her in the phrase, her history book, is both a pronoun and an adjective.
Traditional grammars also define phrases and clauses, outline relationships between words and functions of speech parts, and attempt to account for the uses and the placement of various constructions such as verbals or prepositional phrases. Although traditional grammars have been successful in training many people to speak and write correctly, they have some weaknesses. The chief problem with traditional grammars is their detail. Exceptions are at least as numerous as rules. Although traditional grammars are valuable and effective in many respects, they tend to view English from the outside. They describe existing sentences, rather than explain the inevitable formation of every possible English sentence.
Although we use the term traditional, today’s grammar is not strictly traditional. It has been modified somewhat to incorporate a few of the better ideas contained in other types of grammars, without changing the basic principles. This modified approach to traditional grammar might be called *functionalist, because it emphasizes usage and allows for some variation in accepted usage.* Through the functional approach, the parts of speech are important indicators of word relationships. A student not only must learn a definition and recognize a noun, he must also be able to actually use the noun correctly. Functional grammar then reinforces learned concepts through practice. This type of grammar utilizes the terminology and structure of traditional grammar while emphasizing function.
comparison of the grammatical structure of English and of Latin shows that Latin is inappropriate as a model for English:
*Latin nouns and pronouns have 5 cases*–
1. *ablative* – the case in Latin that expresses separation from, position, motion from, or means by which something is done. Usually translated from, with, in, or by
2. *accusative* – the case in Latin and other inflected languages that is used for direct objects; corresponds with objective case in English
3. *dative* – in Latin and other inflected languages, the case used for indirect objects
4. *genitive* – a case showing possession, source, or origin. Called possessive case in English.
Whereas *English has 3*–
English nouns have the same form in the nominative and objective cases. Only the personal pronouns and the relative pronoun who employ different forms in the two cases. The following chart shows the cases of the personal pronouns in their singular and plural forms.
(chart labeled Personal Pronoun Chart)
Third person pronouns, the most complex of the group, have twelve forms. Third person pronouns cannot, however, be considered typical English words. The pronoun I has eight forms. The relative pronoun who has three forms: who, whom, and whose. A common noun, for example the word wolf, has four forms.
Compare the forms of lupus, the Latin word for wolf.
Singular, Plural / Singular, Plural
Nominative: lupus, lupi / lupa, lupae
Genitive: lupi, luporum / lupae, luparum
Dative: lupo, lupis / lupae, lupis
Accusative: lupam, lupas / lupam, lupas
Ablative: lupa, lupis / lupa, lupis
If a Roman had wanted to say, “The hide of the wolf is very thick,” he would have chosen a different form of lupus than he would have used had he wished to say, “Give the wolf a piece of meat.” Wolf used as the subject or as the direct object had still other forms. When a Roman recited, “lupus, lupi, lupo, lupam, lupa,” he was saying, in effect, “wolf, of the wolf, to the wolf, wolf (objective), from the wolf.” The ablative and accusative cases, however, were used with various other prepositions. The grammatical meaning that English achieves through word order was accomplished in Latin by means of inflection, giving a single word as many as twenty forms.
(adjective, adverb, verb, preposition, interjection…)
Alexandra stomped out of the classroom *with* her entourage. – preposition
Stephen *girded* his sword upon his armor. – verb
Please take a *quart* of these dry oats. – noun
*”Hey!”* Jacques yelled out the window, “That’s my car!” – interjection
The *fluorescent* lights made my headache throb painfully. – adjective
~ *logical fallacy* : false idea or mistaken belief arrived at through faulty reasoning
~ *normative fallacy* : a mistaken belief or false idea that violates the norm or standard it is supposed to uphold
*morpheme* : the smallest meaningful part of a word, whether a complete word, a prefix or suffix, or an inflection
*morphology* : the branch of grammar that deals with the forms of words and their formation, as by inflection or derivation
*paradigm* : a pattern or example. In grammar, a word of a particular class shown with all its inflections (form changes)
EX: good better best
Positive Comparative Superlative
*phoneme* : the smallest significant speech sound in a language; a unit that serves to distinguish similar utterances from one another, as pan from pen
*structural linguistics* : the study of language to determine and describe structural patterns and their interrelationships
*syntax* : the branch of grammar dealing with the arrangement of words and phrase in a sentence
*semantics* : the scientific study of word meanings; word is derived from the Greek word *semantikos*, which means *signification.* Semantics deals especially with the historical development of word meanings and changes that occur in the meaning of particular words. Definitions of semantics will vary according to the area of semantics being defined. The three main areas of semantics are defined according to function.
early name for semantics – *semasiology & significs*
Gained recognition by 1925, and like other descriptive grammars, emphasizes spoken language over written language. Unlike traditional grammar, its analysis of language begins with word forms and works back toward meaning. The emphasis is placed on grammatical meaning rather than on semantic meaning or total meaning. Structural grammarians attempt to form generalizations about English rather than to formulate specific rules.
Traditional grammar is primarily concerned with morphology and syntax. Structural grammar also is concerned with the study of sounds in a language, particularly the effects of sound upon meaning. Emphasis is placed upon *phonemes*, stress, pitch, and juncture (pauses between or within words that can distinguish one word or phrase from another).
Structural grammar includes in its analysis of *morphemes* such patterns as the plurals and the possessives of nouns, the past tense and the past participles of verbs, the -s inflection of the third person singular present tense, the present participles, the forms of adjectives and pronouns, and the methods used to indicate the subjunctive mood. Because of the emphasis on spoken English, structural grammar also includes distinctions of meaning produced by accenting a particular syllable (sub’ject vs. sub ject’) or by the addition of word-forming affixes (friend and befriend).
In place of the traditional eight parts of speech, it recognizes twelve classes of words. Four of these classes—nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs—retain the traditional names. The definitions, however, depend upon form, function, and position. Nouns, for example, are considered as words that can be inflected in the plural and in the genitive “possessive” and that can be used in the sentence positions of subject and object.
The other eight classes of words are called *function words,* which have little or no lexical meaning. Function words have eight classes:
1. *auxiliaries* – are also known as ‘helping verbs’. list: be (am, are, is, was, were, being), can, could, do (did, does, doing), have (had, has, having), may, might, must, shall, should, will, would
3. *determiners* – include articles and other words of similar use, words such as this and those.
6. *interrogatives* – include words used to introduce questions with forms of to be or to do, including when, where, why, and who.
7. *intensives* – include words used as adverbs to emphasize the word that is modified. The most common intensifier is very.
8. *unnamed class* – consists of “empty words” such as not and there.
T/F: Structural grammar became popular fifty years before transformational grammar.
T/F: Structural grammar has now gained acceptance as an improvement over traditional grammar.
T/F: Traditional grammar, based on the principles of structural linguistics, has no real use.
-claimed that great gaps existed between traditional grammatical rules and English as it is actually spoken.
-They attempted to expose three types of fallacies in traditionalists’ thinking
-Structural linguists assume that the grammar of a language consists of the linguistic facts of that language and little else.
-Consequently, a structuralist does not label particular usages as “correct” or “incorrect.” For example, structural linguists would consider sentences such as “I didn’t do nothing” and “I ain’t got none” as fully functional and legitimate English sentences on the basis that they are used, understood, and accepted in a number of communities, even though such sentences are not standard English grammar
The position of the structural linguists can be summarized in the following principles:
1. Grammar constitutes a set of patterns common to a given community.
2. Each language or dialect has its own patterns.
3. Analysis and description of a language must conform to scientific theory in simplicity, in consistency, in completeness, and in adaptability to change.
2. *Logical Fallacies* – The structuralists claim that logical fallacies exist in the traditional description of actual English sentences. A single sentence, for example, might contain both past and present tenses. They perceive logical violations in the handling of future tense in English because the future tense differs grammatically from the past and the present tenses.
3. *Normative Fallacies* – structural linguists use this to refer to the traditional grammarian’s habit of setting up prescriptive norms for usage. The confusing and little-followed rules for the use of shall and will in first person future tense, the traditional grammarian’s objection to split infinitives, and the rule against ending a sentence with a preposition all seem to the structuralists to be unrealistic quibbles. Winston Churchill wittily alluded to the third prescription when he made the classic remark, “This is a situation up with which I will not put!”
What is NOT a fallacy found by structural linguists in traditional grammar?
I do *not* know what to say. – empty word
*Rain* began to fall. – noun
They ate lunch *under* a pine tree. – preposition
*May* I go to the library? – auxiliary
*There* are no easy answers. – empty word
*What* do you think you’re doing? – interrogative
She was *late* in arriving at the party. – adjective
The principal is *extremely* busy. – intensive
Compare these sentences:
*Yesterday* was Monday.
*Yesterday’s* class was interesting.
She came *yesterday.*
Yesterday is classed as a morphemic noun in all three sentences because the word is able to take inflections marking plural, possessive, or both—characteristic of nouns. Syntactically, however, yesterday is not the same. In sentence one, yesterday is a syntactic noun. In sentence two, it is classed as a syntactic adjective. In sentence three, the word yesterday tells when and is, therefore, considered a syntactic adverb. The difference, then, according to structural linguists, is between a word’s form and its function in a sentence.
another example sentence:
I want to hear *today’s* news *today*, not tomorrow!
Today is classed as a morphemic noun in both instances. Based on the function of each, today’s is a syntactic adjective, and today is a syntactic adverb.
It can also function as a syntactic adverb when the word describes an adjective, verb, or other adverb or word group and explains the place, time, circumstance, matter, cause, degree, etc.
*Noam Chomsky”, originator of transformational grammar, and one of the first advocates of generative grammar; whose book, Syntactic Structures, appeared in 1957 (the same year transformational grammar first appeared.) He regarded irregularities in speech performance as similar to personal mistakes in *multiplication* that did not change the rules. objective was to find “rules” that, if followed, would generate *all* possible grammatical sentences in language. The rules were not to be directives, but rather explicit statements of the knowledge that a community must have to communicate successfully. He assumed that all members of a group would know the same rules. Anyone who did not know those rules or who knew another set of rules was not quite a “member of the community.”
Chomsky and those who worked with him were primarily interested in the *competence* of individual speakers. Chomsky believed that traditional grammar, although it gave a full account of exceptions and irregularities, only made available to the student a few examples of regular constructions and expected him to understand and to use the numerous exceptions. *Structural linguists, according to Chomsky, go too deeply into structure and limit themselves to inventories of systems of elements, but provide little insight into the way in which a person forms and interprets sentences.* He attempted through transformational grammar to analyze the processes of sentence formation and sentence interpretation that a speaker or listener must master in order to be competent.
Chomsky’s grammar has three parts:
1. *phrase structure rules* (PSR) that analyze the underlying structure of *kernel sentences* (consists of a noun phrase and a verb phrase, both in their simplest form.
EX: John hit the ball.
John = noun phrase (NP) composed of a noun.
Hit the ball = verb phrase (VP) composed of a transitive verb (VT) plus a noun phrase (Det. + noun).
2. *transformation*al rules that show how more complicated sentences can be generated from the kernel sentence
(any variation from the kernel sentence pattern
EX: the restatement of John hit the ball —> Did John hit the ball?
This type of analysis makes possible an orderly and regular manipulation of sentence elements and avoids the confusion that sometimes results from definitions based on meaning. Traditional grammar says that the active voice indicates that the subject does the acting. Transformational grammar, however, advocates use of “Slattery took a hard right to the jaw,” to show that exceptions to this rule exist. Although an active voice verb is used in the sentence, the subject, Slattery, receives the action of the verb, took.)
3. morphophonemic rules that convert abstract forms into pronounceable utterances
The most basic phrase structure rule (PSR) is:
S —> NP + VP.
S stands for sentence,
—> means either consists of or rewrite as,
NP means noun phrase,
VP means verb phrase.
In phrase structure rules, the term appearing to the left of the arrow is always rewritten or restated as the information that appears to the right of the arrow. The phrase structure rule stated above, when translated from symbols into ordinary English, reads as follows:
*A sentence can be rewritten as a noun phrase plus a verb phrase.* Notice that (NP) and (VP) are subcategories of (S).
Each of the categories NP and VP can also appear to the right of the arrow and be rewritten as a grouping of subcategories.
S —> NP + VP.
NP —> (DET) N
VP —> V (NP)
The first of the two rules above can be restated as follows: A noun phrase (NP) consists of an optional determiner (DET) and a noun (N). The second rule reads: A verb phrase (VP) consists of a verb (V) and an optional noun phrase (NP). Any terms to the right of the arrow that cannot be rewritten are called terminal nodes. In the example above, both N and V are terminal nodes.
The three rules shown above can be combined to form a group of phrase structure rules that represent all English sentences containing those categories or constituents. Another set of rules can be added which generates specific words or lexical categories. Thus, the phrase structure rules for a sentence such as John hit the ball appear as follows.
S —> NP + VP.
NP —> (DET) N
VP —> V (NP)
DET —> the
N —> John, ball
V —> hit
*Transformations that can convert a kernel sentence into a more complicated sentence* include:
-the creation of negatives from positives
-passives from actives
-questions from statements
-as well as adding, deleting, or rearranging the elements of the kernel sentence.
-The transformational rules make possible generation, or creation, of every conceivable grammatical sentence.
To summarize– the 3 kinds of rules in generative transformational grammar are *transformational, morphophonemic, and phrase structure*
1. variation of a kernel sentence
2. lays down rules, dictates
3. division into halves
4. study of word forms
5. simplest form of a sentence
6. word forms in characteristic sequence
7. developed transformational grammar
8. a class of words in structural linguistics
9. false idea or mistaken belief
10. a form of a noun or pronoun
5. kernel sentence
7. Noam Chomsky
In his new lime green Mustang, Brad sped *down* the street into the police radar trap. – preposition
“*He* stood me up on Friday night!” Tanith screamed hysterically. – pronoun
The purple flamingo flapped outrageously as the blue alligator closed in for the *attack.* – noun
The immaculately *dressed* woman tripped and fell down all of the stairs in the entry way. – adjective
While their parents were quietly talking, Lilly shrieked “*Mine!*” as she grabbed the toy from Ollie. – interjection
In the sentence John ate the cake, the verb phrase is ________.
ate the cake
~*general semantics* : goes beyond the meanings of words to examine the influence of words and their meanings on human behavior
~*linguistic semantics* : deals with the meanings of words as they occur in the language structure. Words are analyzed as to what they mean in a given context and what they add to the context. In linguistic semantics, all of the meanings of words are studied in relation to the grammatical structures in which they occur.
~*philosophical semantics* : sometimes called symbolic logic. Deals with theories of meaning. Looks at signs and symbols, tries to form these into a symbolic language, and then tries to analyze the relationship between signs and symbols and their meaning
*connotation* : suggested meaning of a word; differs from lexical meaning
Modern semantics began to develop in the early twentieth century. These early studies dealt with such things as the history of words, ambiguity in language, changes in word meanings, classifications of words, and figures of speech.
Linguists, phonologists, scientists, and philosophers all began to be interested in semantic studies. Gradually scholars in several fields became interested in word-meaning studies and their applications. Anthropologists, psychologists, folklorists, and educators all began to use and to investigate semantic theories.
Further interest was spurred by the new theories of grammar in the 1920s and 1930s. Gradually, certain areas of semantics became recognized as part of the linguistic system of study, which included all study and theories of language.
During this time, *Alfred Korzybski developed his theory, or system, of general semantics.*
*S.I. Hayakawa*, one of America’s early leading semanticists, *advanced the study of general semantics.*
*General semantics deals with the inadequacy of language to express what is left. Because of this function, general semantics is not considered part of language studies or linguistic semantics.*
Other applications of semantics were developed. *I.A. Richards and C.K. Ogden*, for example, *used semantics in their study of stylistics and literary criticism.* They began to examine the relationship between ordinary language & literary language. They also examined metaphors and the feelings evoked by metaphor in a particular context.
Today, semantics are used in many ways. The meanings of words used in advertising, in cartoons, in the media, and in politics are being investigated. These investigations are providing new insights into the power of words and into the manipulation of words in context.
T/F: S.I. Hayakawa founded generative grammar.
T/F: Ogden was a philosophical semanticist.
EX: For this morning’s breakfast, he ate toast, cereal, and eggs.
From the context, the person could tell two things about the meaning of breakfast: that breakfast is eaten in the morning, and that toast, cereal, and eggs are sometimes eaten for breakfast.
EX: Let us have breakfast at noon.
In this context, the ordinary meaning of breakfast as a morning meal is obscured, because breakfast is identified with a later time of day.
Be aware that context is essential to clear understanding of what is heard, spoken, read, or written. *Political speeches, news reports, and advertising claims often present material out of context so that one point or another can be proved.*
Context is also important to understanding verbal jokes, sometimes called “word play.” Phrases such as “you’re pulling my leg,” “her eyes popped out of her head,” “opened a can of worms,” or “climbing the walls,” all mean something other than their lexical meaning. The words that precede or follow these phrases explain their meaning.
These levels of usage all have their own grammatical variance but are all derived from a basic grammar that makes up the structure of the language. Each level has words whose meanings change. These levels are given various names, but generally can be listed as:
1. *intimate level* : level of usage used with very close friends and family. On this level, the grammatical structure of statements is often significantly altered from its more basic form. Little context is needed. The relationship between word and meaning on the intimate level is almost like a code. This is the level on which all babies begin to communicate. A single sound or word communicates meaning to the parents.
2. *casual level* : is used among friends who are at a football game, a pep rally, or just having fun. Slang is often used. The meaning of words and phrases is understood by the group, but may not always be understood by an outsider.
3. *conference level* : is employed when making an appointment or when conducting business. Neither person knows the other very well. The grammatical structure is more complete, and words are carefully chosen so that the meaning will be clear to both.
4. *formal or official usage* : appears when talking to teachers, officials, employers, lawyers, and other adults who are in higher positions. The grammatical structure contains few deletions or alterations, and words are selected to convey the meaning clearly.
5. *frozen usage* : deals only with written material. This material is printed and, therefore, frozen into a form that cannot be changed. Frozen usage is usually very general, because the audience is both large and unknown. Meaning has to be clear so that the material is understood. No clarifications of meaning can be given by the writer. This level of usage most often refers to textbooks and to more formal written material.
T/F: Class discussion demonstrates frozen usage.
T/F: Frozen and formal levels of speech are identical.
Some people have an inner drive to wear the latest styles, the more extreme the better, or to drive the latest vehicle, whatever it is. Many young people have an almost overwhelming desire to do, wear, or eat what their peers are doing, wearing, or eating. Curiosity is one of the human tendencies that advertising people exploit. “Try it, you’ll love it!” “A brand new taste treat!” “Your neighbors will be green with envy when they see you riding a new mower!” This last one appeals to two facets of human nature: curiosity and ego.
Dictionary definitions are inadequate in conveying the meaning of advertising slogans. Everyone knows what a Band-Aid is, even though he may not limit its use to the brand that owns the trademarked name. You may hear someone refer to a temporary or incomplete solution to a problem as a “band-aid approach.”
One further element of advertising language that interests semanticists is the subtle meaning imparted by words that qualify the overall meaning. All advertisers would like consumers to believe that the products sold are the best, the most perfect. No product, however, is absolutely perfect or foolproof; and the law forbids claims in advertising that cannot be proved. Advertisers, therefore, must insert words that qualify the superlatives.
Because of this legal restraint, phrases such as “leaves your dishes virtually spotless” qualify the meaning of spotless at the same time that they give the impression that the product is perfect. Other words, such as nearly and almost, are often used to the same end. Words such as virtually change the meaning of the statement, but are often overlooked by consumers because they are not emphasized.
Semanticists are concerned with advertising because advertising often changes the ______.
~meaning of words
Advertising _____ changes the usage of a word.
“Do the Dew” means that you should _____.
~drink a particular soft drink
Many catchy phrases and some new words come into American English by way of _____.
~ false, and it changes gradually
Which of the following is true of the English language?
~It is a combination of the languages from native and invading peoples.
Before written history was used to record events, a spoken tradition, known as the _______ tradition, was used to pass on the stories of a people.
What is Old English?
~the Germanic language used in Anglo-Saxon England
1. Hadrian’s Wall
2. Celtic invasion
3. means of change in early England
4. Roman invasion
5. conquered by Rome
6. Anglo-Saxon period
7. father of English history
8. chosen by Charlemagne
9. established monastic school at Canterbury
10. council of retainers
11. possible time of the legendary King Arthur
2. 700 BC
4. 52 BC
6. AD 449-1066
7. Venerable Bede
9. Theodore and Hadrian
11. AD 500
-Anglo-Saxon is closely related to Saxon and Frisian (Low German)
-The Anglo-Saxons were also an artistic people. Recent archaeological findings reveal that their craftsmen produced artifacts and ornaments such as brooches, helmets, and bracelets.
The Anglo-Saxons were originally: _____. Select all that apply.
Angles and Saxons
a blended tribe
-They were ruled by the traditional Germanic system of the leader, or chieftain, and his *witan*, or council of retainers. They called assemblies to discuss issues and to interpret laws.
What happened to many manuscripts of Anglo-Saxon literature?
~Many manuscripts were destroyed by Danish raids. Some manuscripts were taken out of the country to save them.
The major event that changed the course of Anglo-Saxon culture, language, and art was the _______ in the year _______.
~Norman Conquest; 1066 AD
Where are words of Anglo-Saxon origin commonly used?
~in everyday speech and writing
*Nouns, pronouns, adjectives, adverbs, verbs, and even the article “the” were all inflected.* As the chart illustrates, the pronouns in modern English can be traced to Anglo-Saxon. Some have undergone spelling changes. Others, such as *me, we, he, us, his, or him have retained their original forms.*
-He was the King of Wessex.
-He began the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle.
-He was a peacemaker.
but what isn’t true:
He successfully kept the Danes out of England.
During _______ reign, spelling became more regular.
The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle was: _____. Select all that apply.
~the first account of English *history* written in English, the oldest extant national chronicle
-Began by Alfred in AD 892
The portion of England ceded to the Danes to keep peace was called the _______.
T/F: The Vikings broke the Danelaw by looting monasteries.
T/F: The Danelaw gave the Danes all of England.
The _____ was a portion of England which the Anglo-Saxons ceded to the Danes to avoid more warfare.
The poet told older stories and embellished them, or changed them. Although the poet knew his material well, he always varied it in one way or another. The Anglo-Saxon scop, or poet, used certain set formulas to relate a new tale or to adapt an old one. In the oral tradition, each telling differed from the last.
Since a poet often told or sang his story without interruption, he had to have certain frameworks and patterns with which to improvise. Part of this structure included the use of certain *alliterative and rhythmical patterns as well as poetic idioms.* Because alliteration and rhythm are aids to memory, the poet could draw upon various formulas to express common ideas. By utilizing his storehouse of automatic phrases whenever possible, the poet could quickly compose the next line. A poet had to think quickly and to be skilled in language. The oral tradition of poetry contributed an unmatched richness of expression.
Anglo-Saxon poetic language is rich in metaphor. A frequently used device is a double metaphor, or kenning. The kenning is a form of expression unfamiliar to most speakers of modern English. This compounding of words and ideas is refreshing when used skillfully. Several kennings exist for the sea in Anglo-Saxon literature. Two of the most common sea kennings are “whaleroad” (hron-rade) and “swanroad” (swan-rade), Kennings can refer to almost anything in nature or life. The sun was referred to as the “world-candle” (woruldcandel), the speech of a man is often called his “wordhoard” (wordhord), and a wanderer is called an “earth-stepper” (eardstapa).
they did use:
What is the repetition of initial sounds in two or more words?
T/F: Alliteration is a repetition of initial sounds in two or more words.
The use of repetition of initial sounds is called ____.
The hero in an epic is _____.
A *retainer* who was abandoned by the lord or dismissed because of a lack of loyalty was banished from the lord’s lands. Other lords would not accept lone retainers readily. The death of a lord was tragic if he had no successor; all of his retainers became detached from any comitatus relationship and could not easily find a new lord. This lonely relationship was the plight of the poet in “The Wanderer.”
This attitude toward fame was closely linked to the *Anglo-Saxon attitude toward life itself. Life was looked upon as transitory, as passing quickly. The harshness of the weather and the ravages of war and illness were constant reminders of this fleeting nature of man’s life.*
Both fame and the transitory nature of life were linked to the comitatus. *The relationship of the comitatus could ease the burdens of a hard life. The lord, also called the ring-giver, would bestow treasure on his retainers, would provide food and shelter in time of peace, and would generally make life more bearable.*
Which of the statements best describes comitatus?
~It was closely linked with pagan warriors.
T/F: The comitatus was a bond between a king and his nobles (called thegns).
What comitatus relationships are shown in Beowulf? Select all that apply.
~Hrothgar and his men
~Beowulf and his men
~Geats and Danes
A _____ is the relationship between a king (or Lord) and his retainers in Anglo-Saxon times.
-The first section deals with the young noble, Beowulf, who leads his men to Hrothgar’s kingdom and offers to rid the Danes of a terrible monster, Grendel.
-The second section deals with the older King Beowulf, who has served his people well and who goes out to fight a fiery dragon that is plaguing the kingdom, knowing that this battle will be his last.
Beowulf reveals many of the customs and ideals of Anglo-Saxon culture. To understand the poem, some of these customs and ideals must be studied.
In Beowulf, this (comitatus) relationship is seen between Hrothgar and his retainers and between Beowulf and his men. The comitatus also extended to a long-standing bond between the Geats (Beowulf’s people) and the Danes (Hrothgar’s people). Because of this bond, Beowulf and his men left their homes and traveled to the land of the Danes to help them in time of need. The breakdown of comitatus is also seen in Beowulf. Near the end of the poem, Beowulf and his retainers went out to fight the fiery dragon that had been plaguing the kingdom. All the retainers, except one, became frightened and ran off to hide in the woods. *The one supporter, Wiglaf, remained with Beowulf to the end.* Because of his loyalty, Wiglaf was named successor by the dying Beowulf. Because of their desertion, the other retainers were disgraced. Their cowardice was announced so that no other lord would accept them. They and their families had to seek new dwellings.
2. a long narrative poem about national heroes
3. in the middle of things
4. people of southern Sweden
5. the monster who pillages Heorot Hall
6. Hrothgar’s queen
7. a lake or pool
8. Beowulf’s uncle
9. loyal companion of Beowulf
3. in medias res
The burials mentioned in Beowulf, of Scyld Scefing in the beginning and of Beowulf at the end, were traditional Anglo-Saxon or Viking burials. In Beowulf, they were neither pagan nor Christian in themselves. They were in keeping with the cultural traditions of the people.
Such burials discovered in this century by archaeologists have revealed several artifacts among the treasures buried with the body. Many of the descriptions of swords, helmets, goblets, and other artifacts found in Beowulf correspond to those artifacts found by archaeologists at Sutton Hoo in 1939 and at other burial sites.
2. death of Hygelac
3. latest date for original writing of Beowulf
4. original form of Beowulf story
5. founded Danish royal line
6. ship burial site
7. Hrothgar’s kingdom
8. home of Geats and Beowulf
2. AD 521
3. AD 790-830
4. oral tradition
5. Scyld Scefing
6. Oseburg, Norway
2. Hrothgar’s hall
3. carried off a chieftain
4. king of the Geats
5. king of the Danes
3. Grendel’s mother
4. Hygelac – Beowolf’s uncle
~798 to 805
Which line numbers show Grendel’s first recognition that he was facing an extraordinary opponent?
~750 to 754
other options are:
This period between 1066 and 1300 also saw the rise of feudalism, the increase of church influence and power, and the gradual emergence of trade, of towns, and of a middle class.
2. a list of property holders
3. the archbishop of Canterbury
4. lost the throne to William
5. lost most English possessions in France
6. set up the forerunner of the modern grand jury
7. conquered Wales
8. called “Beauclerc” (good clerk)
2. Domesday Book
3. Thomas à Becket
5. King John
6. Henry II
7. Edward I
8. Henry I
The Normans virtually took over the land and the government. *William the Conqueror* awarded half of England to his Norman nobles keeping one-fifth for himself. He set up a council of advisors and *converted the Anglo-Saxon witan into a Great Council.* Positions on this council were awarded to many Norman nobles.
He named a Norman archbishop of Canterbury. He prevented conspiracy by requiring every lord to recognize him as supreme ruler. He also compiled a list of holdings for eleventh-century England. This list, called the *Domesday Book*, insured that all property holders were known for tax collection purposes.
Another period of struggle for power followed Henry’s death. His grandson became *King Henry II.* He set up the forerunner of the modern grand jury. Common law based upon legal precedents began to be upheld. Henry II appointed his friend *Thomas à Becket*, archbishop of Canterbury. Becket resisted attempts by the king to gain control of the church and was assassinated in Canterbury cathedral by the king’s men. *Becket* became known as a martyr—the “holy blissful martyr” whose shrine is the object of Chaucer’s pilgrimage.
Henry’s son, *Richard the Lion-Hearted*, took the throne in 1189. A popular king and a hero of many medieval tales, Richard spent much time on crusades or as a captive in prison. He lessened the hold of feudalism by allowing nobles and knights to pay money rather than giving personal service in war. Richard hired mercenaries, or professional soldiers, to fight.
*King John* had religious, foreign, and domestic problems during his reign. John was an *unpopular king.* He opposed the will of the pope over who should lead the church in England. The power struggle that ensued between the throne and the church caused the English people to despise John. He was forced to surrender to the pope’s wishes, keeping England’s church under the political influence of the pope in Rome. *John lost most of the English possessions in France because the pope encouraged the French to oppose him.* His own nobles also forced him to sign the *Magna Carta* at Runnymede.
The increased power of the church under *Henry III* created an anticlerical attitude among the people. A domestic power dispute led to the assembly of an informal parliament.
*Edward I* was king at the turn of the fourteenth century. He called the “model parliament” to win support for wars against Scotland and Wales. *He conquered Wales*, but could not defeat the Scots. He created a stronger monarchy and brought about a strong government, based on the principles of common law, that was ruled by king and Parliament.
*Feudalism* differed from one country to the next, but the basic concept remained the same. In the feudal system, the king held a great deal of land. To insure loyalty and military support, he would grant parcels of land, known as *fiefs*, to church leaders and to nobles. This fief was granted in a ceremony of *investiture* at which the noble receiving the land became a *vassal* of the king and swore an oath of loyalty. Each noble, in turn, could grant fiefs to lesser nobles. These lesser nobles became vassals of the nobles. The lesser nobles, finally, could grant fiefs to knights. The knights then became vassals of the lesser noble. In time of war or of need in the kingdom, each vassal was pledged to support his lord. Thus, the king could demand aid from the nobles, who in turn demanded aid from the lesser nobles. The lesser nobles demanded aid from the knights. The king had at his command all the nobles and knights of the kingdom by this system. Feudalism involved only the nobility. The peasantry had no place in the system.
*Manorialism*, on the other hand, set up the social and economic structure for the lower classes. Like feudalism, manorialism differed greatly from one country to the next, but the basic concept can be described.
The land of a noble or lord which he did not grant to others of the nobility had to be cared for by someone. Since the lands often were vast, the lord had to hire workers to tend the crops and the animals. The entire estate became known as a manor. The lord built his house, the manor house, and chose the best land for himself. This select parcel was called the lord’s *demesne.* This land was planted, tended, and harvested by peasants.
The remaining land on the manor was divided into pastureland, wasteland, forests, and farmland for the peasants. The peasants worked their own land after the lord’s had been tended. They often paid the lord fifty percent of their own harvest.
The peasants, or *serfs*, had little future. They were *bound to the manor* with little hope of moving off the land. The lord of the manor often did little more than provide the land for their huts and crops. The lord, however, could not evict these peasants.
Some peasants, called *freemen*, could afford to pay rent for land, and to hire serfs to work their land. These few peasants also had the right to leave the manor if they could find better land or a better lord.
Feudalism and manorialism succeeded primarily in countries with weak monarchies and strong local government. Countries with strong monarchies eventually moved away from feudalism and toward the development of strong national trade and commerce.
T/F: Manorialism was a system of government.
T/F: The demesne is the best land on the manor.
T/F: A fief is a noble.
Feudalism was not a(n) _______ system.
Church architecture changed. Church power increased as more and more bishops and abbots were invested with grants of land. The increase of church power led to church intervention in political matters as well as to increased political intervention by government into church matters. Unlike present-day American culture, Medieval English culture did not attempt to separate church and state.
Life in the Middle Ages was short and harsh. Religion and a belief in the after-life helped people to cope with a transient “earthly” existence. This is reflected in much of the literature from this historical period.
*Although militarily unsuccessful, the Crusades stimulated the growth of trade and banking, the growth of the cities, and the rise of a middle class.* English trade with both the Italian states and Flanders increased. Italy became a banking center as well as a trade center. Flanders became an important supplier of woolen goods. Certain groups formed trade associations called *guilds.* Trade fairs were established for national and international trade purposes. The use of money replaced the old barter system and led to the development of banking and monetary systems.
By the eleventh and twelfth centuries, towns were becoming more important. Although most of England was still rural, the population move was to the cities. By 1300, London had a population of forty thousand. Manufacturing and industry grew, causing growth in urban centers. A middle class rose with the growth of the towns. *This new class, made up of shopkeepers, merchants, and tradesmen*, gained influence through their growing wealth. Sometimes these groups joined to charter a new town and thus attained local independence. These people began to find ways of improving their lives and their political positions. By the end of the Middle Ages, the middle class had become the dominant force.
This growth of commerce, the cities, and the middle class eventually brought about the death of the feudal system in England and on the continent.
As English kings gained further French territories, new French words from different French dialects entered the language. French and Latin were official court and legal languages, but anyone needing to communicate with the common Englishman would need to know the English spoken by the people.
Little literature of the early part of this period survives. What does survive, however, shows little French influence. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle continued for nearly a century after the conquest. Sermons, religious writings, and historical writings also continued to be written in English.
The main French influence occurs in words referring to matters of state and to matters of the arts and learning, two areas in which the upper class involved themselves. French became the language of the educated and of the upper class.
Several dialects grew out of this strange coexistence of languages. Middle English dialects vary greatly depending on the distance of the region from the central government. The London dialect, the dialect in which Chaucer wrote, eventually took precedence and became the basis of modern English. Had another dialect, such as the Northwest Midland dialect, taken precedence, modern English would be quite different from what it is today.
The literature of this period also struggled for a language. Some authors chose to write in Latin; others, in French; still others, in English. Some wrote the same work in all three languages.
The late twelfth and the thirteenth centuries saw the rebirth of a true English literature. The fourteenth- and fifteenth-century writers firmly established English as a literary language.
Extant literary works of the twelfth century are scarce. The works consist primarily of sermons, sayings, and historical works, such as the Peterborough Chronicle. An important historical work, *Geoffrey of Monmouth’s History of the Kings of Britain*, was written in Latin. A famous French version of this text was done by Wace. By the late twelfth century, an English verse translation was done by *Layamon and was called simply Brut*. This work traces the origins of Britain back to Troy (a common practice at this time). Brut, the supposed grandson of Aeneas, lead his fellow Trojans out of Greek bondage and arrived on the island that is now Britain.
*Other literature of the twelfth century includes sermons and a collection of sayings that became known as the Proverbs of Alfred.*
A final literary form found throughout the ages is the *folk ballad*. Ballads are nearly impossible to date. They usually arise from the oral tradition of a common group of people, are spread from group to group by traveling minstrels or troubadours, and are changed slightly by the minstrel’s desire to suit the ballad to the group or by his lapse of memory.
The ballad can be historical or non-historical. It may deal with romantic, supernatural, tragic, humorous, or adventurous subjects. Many versions of the same ballad exist because these songs were not written down until the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Nearly seventy versions of the ballad The Twa Sisters have been noted.
Unlike other forms of poetry, the ballad says very little in many words. A ballad concerns itself with a single incident or scene. The characters reveal the topic of the ballad through dialogue, as in a play. The use of repetition of exact words, or a refrain, is characteristic of this form. This repetition is usually to emphasize the sound of the words and to serve as a convenient memory device.
The ballad stanza often consists of four lines of iambic tetrameter. The first and third lines have four accented syllables; the second and the fourth lines have three accented syllables. The second and the fourth lines rhyme.
Many of the early ballads are Scottish and English. The important thing to remember about ballads is that they were written to be sung. Although they do not read well as poetry, if read aloud, they do give an indication of the rhythm intended for the music.
The Adventures of Robin Hood is a collection of ballads that tell the stories of a local British hero. Below is just one of the ballads from a large series.
A pedlar bold he chanced to be;
He rolled his pack all on his back,
And he came tripping o’er the lee.
Down, a down, a down, a down,
Down, a down, a down.
By chance he met two troublesome blades,
Two troublesome blades they chanced to be;
The one of them was bold Robin Hood,
And the other was Little John, so free.
‘Oh! pedlar, pedlar, what is in thy pack,
Come speedilie and tell to me?’
‘I’ve several suits of the gay green silks,
And silken bowstrings two or three.’
‘If you have several suits of the gay green silk,
And silken bowstrings two or three,
Then it’s by my body,’ cries Little John,
‘One half your pack shall belong to me.’
Oh! nay, oh! nay,’ says the pedlar bold,
‘Oh! nay, oh! nay, that never can be,
For there’s never a man from fair Nottingham
Can take one half my pack from me.’
Then the pedlar he pulled off his pack,
And put it a little below his knee,
Saying, ‘If you do move me one perch from this,
My pack and all shall gang with thee.’
Then Little John he drew his sword;
The pedlar by his pack did stand;
They fought until they both did sweat,
Till he cried, ‘Pedlar, pray hold your hand!’
Then Robin Hood he was standing by,
And he did laugh most heartilie,
Saying, ‘I could find a man of a smaller scale,
Could thrash the pedlar, and also thee.’
‘Go, you try, master,’ says Little John,
‘Go, you try, master, most speedilie,
Or by my body,’ says Little John,
‘I am sure this night you will not know me.’
Then Robin Hood he drew his sword,
And the pedlar by his pack did stand,
They fought till the blood in streams did flow,
Till he cried, ‘Pedlar, pray hold your hand!’
‘Pedlar, pedlar! what is thy name?
Come speedilie and tell to me.’
‘My name! my name, I ne’er will tell,
Till both your names you have told to me.’
‘The one of us is bold Robin Hood,
And the other Little John, so free.’
‘Now,’ says the pedlar, ‘it lays to my good will,
Whether my name I chuse to tell to thee.
‘I am Gamble Gold of the gay green woods,
And travelled far beyond the sea;
For killing a man in my father’s land,
From my country I was forced to flee.
‘If you are Gamble Gold of the gay green woods,
And travelled far beyond the sea,
You are my mother’s own sister’s son;
What nearer cousins then can we be?’
They sheathed their swords with friendly words,
So merrily they did agree;
They went to a tavern and there they dined,
And bottles cracked most merrilie
honor, loyalty, bravery, and courtesy
The tradition of courtly love was spread by the minstrels, or troubadours. According to the system of courtly love, the man sees the lady whose beauty wounds him through his eyes; *love’s arrows (shot by cupid)* enter his eyes and go to his heart. Only the lady can heal his wound. *He must suffer because of his love.* He fears to reveal his love to the lady or to others; he becomes sickly and sleepless; when in her presence, he becomes pale, speechless, and confused; he is jealous but constant; *he tries to prove himself worthy through brave deeds*; and he leaves his heart with the lady when he goes away.
The *lady seems to be perfect in appearance.* She is described in most metrical romances: blond hair, eyes gray as glass, clear complexion, rosy mouth, white skin. She usually comes from a high social position, and treats the lover in a haughty manner. To everyone else she is courteous, kind, and refined; she spreads good will to those around her. Like the ideal of chivalry, courtly love occurs more in literature than it did in history. Several of Chaucer’s tales contain comments or satires on courtly love, for example, the “Knight’s Tale,” the “Franklin’s Tale,” the “Merchant’s Tale,” and the “Squire’s Tale.”
*Didactic literature, literature written to teach a lesson*, was also popular. Many of the didactic poems took the form of a *debate*. One of the most famous, *”The Owl and the Nightingale,”* has the poet overhearing a lengthy debate between an owl and a nightingale. Scholars do not agree on the exact point of the debate. Several points are argued: youth versus age, summer versus winter, art versus philosophy, monastic versus secular clergy, moral duty versus pleasure, and so on.
Another such debate is the “Debate of the Body and the Soul,” one of many debate poems between the soul and the body. The body is usually near death or already dead. The soul berates the body for not living a better life.
Didactic literature also included such things as the *”Bestiary,”* a set of short poems *allegorizing animals*. In these poems, the animal is first described with all its traits. Then the allegory is explained. The lion, for example, is described, then compared to the feudal lord.
*The Breton lay*, a secular form that came from Brittany and dealt with romance, was a song form that the English began to experiment with at this time. One of the more famous Breton lays to survive is *”Sir Orfeo.”*
Tales of knights and noble deeds made up the rest of thirteenth century literature. A renewed interest in alliterative poetry developed late in the thirteenth century and reached a high point in the fourteenth century.
3. Breton lay
4. animal allegory
5. popular question posed in Medieval lyrics
2. “The Owl and the Nightingale”
3. “Sir Orfeo”
5. “Where are they… ?”
The name Chaucer comes from the French *chaussier, meaning maker of shoes.* Chaucer’s immediate ancestors, however, may have been prosperous vintners. He may have been the Chaucer born in the 1340’s to John Chaucer and his wife, whose name is thought to be Agnes. Chaucer probably served as a page in the household of wealthy English nobles. His acquaintance with many royal and influential people may have begun at that time.
Some of Chaucer’s pilgrims in the *Canterbury Tales * reflect the medieval feudal system. The knight, representing the nobility, held land and served his king. The squire was training to become a knight. A boy of noble birth was first made a page. At the age of fourteen, he became a squire; after completing his training and attaining the age of twenty-one, he took his vow and was knighted. The knight’s yeoman in the Prologue was a servant, but a member of the feudal system by his association with the knight.
The franklin was a representative of the new rich middle class. *Franklins* were landowners who may have taken part in the feudal system by contributing money or men rather than personally defending the overlord. The *miller*, a resident of a manor or a town, served an area. The reeve was the manager of a large estate in the lord’s absence. The plowman was a freeman.
*The fourteenth century was a period of transition from feudalism to a more modern world.* The agrarian economy was being replaced gradually by industry and commerce. This more complex society encouraged the emergence of textile workers and artisans to meet the growing needs of the people. As the decline of feudalism produced more and more freemen, a middle class arose. This period in history was influenced significantly by the growing power wielded by this middle class.
Warfare became a regular part of the people’s lives. Beginning about 1340, the Hundred Years’ War was both political and economic in purpose. With the development of the longbow and the military decline of the English feudal system, the freeman, or yeoman, became the equal of the knight. A yeoman class of archers proved its worth at the battle of Crècy in 1346, conquering the army of the French as well as injuring the pride of the English knight.
Another factor causing social change was the Black Death (1347-1350). *The Black Death*, or bubonic plague, was a very contagious and deadly form of plague that wiped out almost half of Europe. The already shaky social structure of the times became even more unstable. Edward III attempted to stabilize things by issuing his “*Statute of Workers*,” which fixed wages and prices and required peasants to accept any available work. Social discontent was not so easy to contain, however. The relationship between noble and serf was altered drastically. Some serfs remained on deserted estates; others became paid workers on estates or in the growing cities. Social unrest became apparent in rebellions by the peasants who had tasted a slightly better life and who aspired to even greater social or economic advancement.
Chaucer was a *civil servant*, that is, he served in various governmental positions during his lifetime. His position required him to represent the king as a diplomat to France and Italy. Chaucer resided in London in a house paid for by the government. By 1394, he had been appointed *Comptroller* of the Customs and Subsidies on Wools, Skins, and Hides for the port of London. Since wool was one of England’s most profitable trade items, Chaucer’s position was important. He served in this capacity until his term expired. He moved to Kent where he served as justice of the peace. He also represented Kent as a Member of Parliament.
A year or two after his wife’s death in 1387, he returned to London, taking office as clerk of the King’s Works. He was responsible for construction and repair on buildings such as the Tower of London, Westminster Abbey, the royal residences, and other buildings of royal interest. He also was commissioned to maintain bridges, sewers, and ditches along the Thames River in the London area. He carried out the duties of this office for almost two years until he became a deputy forester for the royal forest in Somerset. He apparently retained the favor of the kings, since he frequently received small gifts of cash and annuities as well as personal gifts.
In spite of his government offices and the royal gifts, Chaucer was apparently in and out of debt. Records show a claim or two for debts filed against him as well as several loans or advances. He wrote several poems about debt, but he was probably comfortable most of his life.
Not only had words been added to Old English, but many inflections had been dropped. Middle English, however, retained inflections no longer used in Modern English. The Middle English pronunciation of long vowels and diphthongs is also different from that of Modern English. The following chart demonstrates the correct pronunciation for the long vowel sounds.
1. Middle English Sound : ā
Modern Pronunciation : a as in father
2. Middle English Sound : ē, open
Modern Pronunciation : ea in wear
3. Middle English Sound : ē, closed
Modern Pronunciation : a in plate
4. Middle English Sound : ī
Modern Pronunciation : ee in meet
5. Middle English Sound : ō, open
Modern Pronunciation : aw in paw
6. Middle English Sound : ō, closed
Modern Pronunciation : o in holy
7. Middle English Sound : ū
Modern Pronunciation : oo in hoot
8. Middle English Sound : ū
Modern Pronunciation : ew in few
Example Words : nama
2. Middle English Spelling : e, ee
Example Words : heeth
3. Middle English Spelling : e, ee
Example Words : feet
4. Middle English Spelling : i, y
Example Words : shires
5. Middle English Spelling : o, oo
Example Words : holy
6. Middle English Spelling : o, oo
Example Words : route
7. Middle English Spelling : ou, ow, ouh
Example Words : fowles
8. Middle English Spelling : u
Example Words : vertu
A final e is not silent in Middle English. Called a neutral vowel sound, it is pronounced like the a in sofa.
1. Middle English Sound : ēi
Modern Pronunciation : ay in say
2. Middle English Sound : au
Modern Pronunciation : ou in mouse
3. Middle English Sound : ēu
Modern Pronunciation : ew in mew
4. Middle English Sound : oi
Modern Pronunciation : oy in joy
5. Middle English Sound : ōu
Modern Pronunciation : ow in owe
6. Middle English Sound : ou
Modern Pronunciation : aw in awl
Example Word : wey
2. Middle English Spelling : au, aw
Example Word : chaunge
3. Middle English Spelling : eu, ew
Example Word : newe
4. Middle English Spelling : oi, oy
Example Word : coy
5. Middle English Spelling : ou, ow
Example Word : growen
6. Middle English Spelling : o (u), before gh
Example Word : tho (u) ghte
Although Middle English long vowels and diphthongs are much different from Modern English, the short vowel sounds of Middle English are quite similar to those of Modern English
1. Consonant : gg
2. Consonant : gg in dagger
3. Consonant : gh
4. Consonant : gn
5. Consonant : kn, (cn)
6. Consonant : il, lk, lm
7. Consonant : wr
Example : ju *gg* en
2. Sound : da gg ere
Example : N/A
3. Sound : ch in porch
Example : li*gh*ten
4. Sound : g and n
Example : lin*gn*e
5. Sound : k and n
Example : *kn*ight
6. Sound : L pronounced
Example : pa*l*mers
7. Sound : w and r
Example : *wr*ingen
Although most consonants of Middle English are pronounced as in their modern counterparts, some unusual pronunciations should be noted. The following chart contains these unusual consonant combinations. Notice that the only silent consonants (such as h and gn) appear in French words. These sounds were pronounced in Old English words.
England had three dialects of Middle English.
Middle English differs from Modern English in pronunciation of long vowels, some diphthongs, and some consonants.
Gh is pronounced ch in Middle English.
Chaucer’s language was the language of London.
In Middle English, h and gn are not silent in words of French origin.
Final e is silent in Middle English.
2. Divine Comedy
4. shrine at Canterbury
5. Book of the Duchesse
6. list of characters and setting
4. Thomas à Becket
the nun’s priest
the second nun
-loyal to God, king, and country
-combines wisdom and strength
-fought in Spain
-strong spiritual ideals
-aspires to courtly love
-fought in political wars
-fought in France
-more worldly ideals
her small dogs
2. poor student
3. Madame Eglentyne
4. successful tradesman
6. newly rich
7. lawyer of high rank
7. sergeant of laws
3. hair as yellow as wax
4. red beard like a fox
5. diseased and morally repulsive
6. a skillful cheat
Book of the Duchesse
“Nun’s Priest’s Tale”