English 11-B: Mother Tongue, Board of Education, American Society

What is most needed to strengthen this statement?
Facts and statements
Which visual aid would best enhance a speech about the popularity of sports around the world?
a graph that shows the most-watched sports around the world
Which sentence best demonstrates the language required of an argumentative speech?
To improve their games, chess players must face skilled opponents and attempt novel strategies.
Which statement best describes an appropriate image for a presentation slide?
The image engages the audience and provides visual representations of logical evidence.
Which statement best describes a good presentation slide?
Keep it simple and remember that less is usually best.
What is one benefit of giving an argumentative speech as opposed to publishing an argumentative essay?
The speaker can connect with the audience on a personal level.
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In an argumentative speech, include second-person pronouns to
connect and engage with the audience
Which change would best modify this written paragraph into a strong argumentative speech?
dividing the final sentence into two shorter sentences
The use of visual cues and transitions in presentations can
XXX entertain the audience
The use of images such as graphs and photos in a presentation
can help communicate information visually.
Based on the paragraph, who is the target audience for this presentation?
a general audience
The author’s purpose is
to present a case for intramural sports
What is the best reason it is helpful to practice a presentation in front of a friend or family member?
to get feedback on strong and week points…
The evidence in an argumentative speech should include
facts, statements, or examples
What evidence best supports the claim that vegetarians have multiple choices for protein?
Milk, cheese, and yogurt are valuable sources of protein that offer calcium as a bonus nutrient.
What is the best reason it is helpful to practice a presentation in front of a friend or family member?
to get feedback on strong and weak points in your presentation
The use of images such as graphs and photos in a presentation
can help communicate information visually.

Most of you probably are fans of typical American sports such as baseball and basketball. However, I urge you to consider watching and participating in sports that are popular in other nations. Most of us are familiar with soccer. However, few of us realize that it is the most popular sport in the world. You’ve all experienced Super Bowl Sunday madness, but that is nothing compared to the international frenzy that sweeps across our planet every four years when soccer’s World Cup occurs. Watching the games of the World Cup can be a fun way to connect with other sports fans around the globe.

Based on the paragraph, who is the target audience for this presentation?

a general audience
1. Introduction: Consuming organic food.
A. It is better for your health to consume organic fruits and vegetables
instead of conventionally grown produce.2. Organic fruits and vegetables are free of chemicals.
A. Farmers who raise organic produce do not use synthetic pesticides.
B. Some say the pesticide residue on conventional produce is minimal, but
even minimal amounts of pesticide can have a harmful effect over time.
C. Organic produce is safer due to the lack of chemicals.3. Organic fruits and vegetables are more nutritious.
A. Organic produce is packed with vitamins and minerals.
B. Conventionally grown foods are not lacking in nutrition, but the
concentration of vitamins and minerals is higher in organic foods.
C. Organic produce is healthier due to the high concentration of vitamins
and minerals.

4. Organic fruits and vegetables are less likely to carry diseases.
A. Organic farming is cleaner than conventional farming.
B. Organic farming does not include chemicals that kill organisms, however
incidences of harmful bacteria are lower in organic produce.
C. Organic produce is safer due to the low incidence of harmful bacteria.

5. Organic fruits and vegetables are better for your health for three reasons.
A. Organic fruits and vegetables are grown without the use of synthetic
chemicals, are more nutritious, and are less likely to spread diseases.
B. The lack of chemicals, the high concentration of vitamins and minerals,
and the lower incidence of disease are all better for your health.

The underlined sentence in the outline is

a counterclaim.

Many enthusiastic student athletes have slim prospects for earning a spot on a varsity team; however, they would embrace the idea of after-school sporting events offered to everyone. The school could sponsor, for example, an intramural volleyball program in the afternoons. This would encourage fitness and foster student involvement. It even has the potential to train varsity hopefuls who have not had the opportunity to play on a team.

The author’s purpose is

to present a case for intramural sports.
Which statement best describes an appropriate image for a presentation slide?
The image engages the audience and provides visual representations of logical evidence.

Organic fruits and vegetables are safer than produce grown on conventional farms because organic produce is less likely to carry diseases. Organic farming is cleaner and more hygienic than conventional farming. So when organic fruits and vegetables reach grocery stores and supermarkets, they are less likely to include E. coli and other harmful organisms. Some people claim organic produce is more dangerous because it is not grown with the use of synthetic chemicals. However, studies have shown that incidences of harmful bacteria are much lower in organic produce. Also, the lack of synthetic chemicals is better in the long-term for your health. As a result, organic fruits and vegetables are much healthier and safer than conventional produce.

Which option would best make this text suitable for a slide in a presentation?

the replacement of the text with a bulleted list

Genetically modified foods unequally benefit rich countries, including the United States. The USDA reports that the US gained the vast majority of the total world benefit from new herbicide-tolerant soybeans in 1997. In addition, the US company that created the soybeans charged farmers a technology fee. These high adoption costs will continue to limit the benefits of genetically modified crops to rich countries that do not need the higher yields, rather than extending them to poorer nations that do.

Which change would best modify this written paragraph into a strong argumentative speech?

dividing the final sentence into two shorter sentences
The use of visual cues and transitions in presentations can
orient the audience.
Word choice in an argumentative essay should be
formal and precise.
Evidence to support a claim in an argumentative essay should be part of the
body paragraph
Which revision offers the most improvement in sentence fluency?
College tuition has almost doubled in the last twenty years; however, more than half of all recent college graduates are currently unemployed or in jobs that do not require a college degree.
Which sentence best demonstrates an appropriate style for an argumentative essay?
Increasing taxes would place an unnecessary hardship on the citizens and should be avoided
Which sentence from an argumentative essay about genetically modified foods best states a claim?
Genetically modified foods should not be sold to consumers until proper tests can prove their safety.

Consuming too much sugar over time can lead to diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

Where would be the most appropriate place in the essay for this sentence?

body paragraph
Which revision exhibits the best word choice for the underlined portion of the sentence?
why is the funding for American public schools so inadequate?
Which revision offers the most improvement in sentence fluency?
Taxpayers have spent millions of dollars on programs to improve education.
Which is the best example of a thesis statement for an argumentative essay about zoos and animal welfare?
Although many people feel that keeping animals captive in zoos is cruel, zoos are necessary for animal conservation and research.
Which piece of evidence, if true, would best support this claim?
Many animals die prematurely in zoos because they are exposed to infectious diseases.
Which piece of evidence, if true, would best support this claim?
Consuming too much sugar over time can lead to diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
Which of the following parts of an argumentative essay belongs in the introduction?
thesis
Which revision exhibits the best word choice for the underlined portion of the sentence?
a drastic increase in unemployment

Despite all the attention paid to rogue companies like Enron, academics know very little about the practicalities of white-collar crime. The reason? There are no good data. A key fact of white-collar crime is that we hear about only the very slim fraction of people who are caught cheating. Most embezzlers lead quiet and theoretically happy lives; employees who steal company property are rarely detected.

With street crime, meanwhile, that is not the case. A mugging or a burglary or a murder is usually tallied whether or not the criminal is caught. A street crime has a victim, who typically reports the crime to the police, who generate data, which in turn generate thousands of academic papers by criminologists, sociologists, and economists. But white-collar crime presents no obvious victim. From whom, exactly, did the masters of Enron steal? And how can you measure something if you don’t know to whom it happened, or with what frequency, or in what magnitude?

The excerpt helps the authors support their conclusion by

evaluating a logical fallacy.

When he started his business, he expected a 95 percent payment rate, based on the experience at his own office. But just as crime tends to be low on a street where a police car is parked, the 95 percent rate was artificially high: Feldman’s presence had deterred theft. Not only that, but those bagel eaters knew the provider and had feelings (presumably good ones) about him. A broad swath of psychological and economic research has shown that people will pay different amounts for the same item depending on who is providing it. . . .

In the real world, Feldman learned to settle for less than 95 percent. He came to consider a company “honest” if its payment rate was above 90 percent. He considered a rate between 80 and 90 percent “annoying but tolerable.”

The excerpt helps the authors arrive at their conclusion by

providing statistical evidence.

Feldman has also reached some of his own conclusions about honesty, based more on his experience than the data. He has come to believe that morale is a big factor—that an office is more honest when the employees like their boss and their work. He also believes that employees further up the corporate ladder cheat more than those down below. He got this idea after delivering for years to one company spread out over three floors—an executive floor on top and two lower floors with sales, service, and administrative employees. (Feldman wondered if perhaps the executives cheated out of an overdeveloped sense of entitlement. What he didn’t consider is that perhaps cheating was how they got to be executives.)

Which idea from the excerpt best addresses the counterclaim that people are only honest when there is a financial incentive?

Employees tend to be more honest when they like their boss and their work.

Driving around the parks that encircle Washington, he solicited customers with a simple pitch: early in the morning, he would deliver some bagels and a cash basket to company’s snack room; he would return before lunch to pick up the money and the leftovers. It was an honor-system commerce scheme, and it worked. Within a few years, Feldman was delivering 8,400 bagels a week to 140 companies and earning as much as he had ever made as a research analyst. He had thrown off the shackles of cubicle life and made himself happy.

The authors prove Feldman’s success by describing

the size of his business

There is a tale, “The Ring of Gyges,” that Feldman sometimes tells his economist friends. It comes from Plato’s Republic. A student named Glaucon offered the story in response to a lesson by Socrates—who, like Adam Smith, argued that people are generally good even without enforcement. Glaucon, like Feldman’s economist friends, disagreed. He told of a shepherd named Gyges who stumbled upon a secret cavern with a corpse inside that wore a ring. When Gyges put on the ring, he found that it made him invisible. With no one able to monitor his behavior, Gyges proceeded to do woeful things—seduce the queen, murder the king, and so on. Glaucon’s story posed a moral question: could any man resist the temptation of evil if he knew his acts could not be witnessed? Glaucon seemed to think the answer was no. But Paul Feldman sides with Socrates and Adam Smith—for he knows the answer, at least 87 percent of the time, is yes.

Compared with Feldman’s argument, the tale of “The Ring of Gyges” is best described as a

counterclaim.

As it happens, Feldman’s accidental study provides a window onto a form of cheating that has long stymied academics: white-collar crime. (Yes, shorting the bagel man is white-collar crime, writ however small.) It might seem ludicrous to address as large and intractable a problem as white-collar crime through the life of a bagel man. But often a small and simple question can help chisel away at the biggest problems.

Despite all the attention paid to rogue companies like Enron, academics know very little about the practicalities of white-collar crime. The reason? There are no good data. A key fact of white-collar crime is that we hear about only the very slim fraction of people who are caught cheating. Most embezzlers lead quiet and theoretically happy lives; employees who steal company property are rarely detected.

What purpose does the “bagel man” serve in this argument?

to show the seriousness of cheating

He also believes that employees further up the corporate ladder cheat more than those down below. He got this idea after delivering for years to one company spread out over three floors—an executive floor on top and two lower floors with sales, service, and administrative employees (Feldman wondered if perhaps the executives cheated out of an overdeveloped sense of entitlement. What he didn’t consider is that perhaps cheating was how they got to be executives.)

Which of the following best describes the type of the reasoning the excerpt uses?

Feldman uses inductive reasoning because he formulates a generalization based on specific examples.

A key fact of white-collar crime is that we hear about only the very slim fraction of people who are caught cheating. Most embezzlers lead quiet and theoretically happy lives; employees who steal company property are rarely detected.

With street crime, meanwhile, that is not the case. A mugging or a burglary or a murder is usually tallied whether or not the criminal is caught. A street crime has a victim, who typically reports the crime to the police, who generate data, which in turn generate thousands of academic papers by criminologists, sociologists, and economists. But white-collar crime presents no obvious victim.

In this excerpt, the authors present

a contrast between different types of crime.
Which of the following statements support the claim in Freakonomics that “people are generally good even without enforcement”?
many people enjoy using the honor system

The bagel data also reflect how much personal mood seems to affect honesty. Weather, for instance, is a major factor. Unseasonably pleasant weather inspires people to pay at a higher rate. Unseasonably cold weather, meanwhile, makes people cheat prolifically; so do heavy rain and wind. Worst are the holidays. The week of Christmas produces a 2 percent drop in payment rates—again, a 15 percent increase in theft, an effect on the same magnitude, in reverse, as that of 9/11. Thanksgiving is nearly as bad; the week of Valentine’s Day is also lousy, as is the week straddling April 15. There are, however, a few good holidays: the weeks that include the Fourth of July, Labor Day, and Columbus Day. The difference in the two sets of holidays? The low-cheating holidays represent little more than an extra day off from work. The high-cheating holidays are fraught with miscellaneous anxieties and the high expectations of loved ones.

The excerpt is an example of inductive reasoning because the authors

formulate a generalization by studying specific examples.

Read the excerpt from part 2 of Zeitoun.

Zeitoun went outside, the air humid and gusty. He tied the canoe to the back porch. The water was whispering through the cracks in the back fence, rising up. It was flowing into his yard at an astonishing rate. As he stood, it swallowed his ankles and crawled up his shins.

Back inside, he continued to move everything of value upward. As he did, he watched the water erase the floor and climb the walls. In another hour there was three feet of water indoors. And his house was three feet above street level.

What conclusion can readers draw about this character vs. nature conflict?

Despite Zeitoun’s competence, his home sustains damage.

Read the excerpt from part 1 of Zeitoun.

He looked in the backyard. There was the canoe. It called to him, floating and ready. It was a rare opportunity, he thought, to be able to glide over the roads. . . .

Leaving the yard was difficult. A tree across the street had been ripped from its roots and lay across the road, branches spread over his driveway. He paddled around them and looked back to the house. No great damage to the exterior. Some shingles missing from the roof. The windows broken. A gutter that would need remounting. Nothing too bad, three days’ work.

What conclusion can readers draw about this character vs. nature conflict?

Zeitoun believes he can manage nature’s strength.

Read the excerpt from part 1 of Zeitoun.

All day Zeitoun and James saw people lined up at bus stops—those who planned to stay in the Superdome. Families, couples, elderly men and women carrying their belongings in backpacks, suitcases, garbage bags. Seeing them exposed like that, as the winds picked up and the sky darkened, worried Zeitoun. He and James passed the same groups, waiting patiently, on the way to their job sites and on their way back.

What is happening in the excerpt?

Zeitoun is recognizing the vulnerability of those staying in New Orleans.

Read the excerpt from part 4 of Zeitoun.

Zeitoun had picked up and dropped off friends and relatives at the station a handful of times over the years. Fronted by a lush lawn and palm trees, the Union Passenger Terminal had opened in 1954, an art deco-style building once aspiring to grandness but since overtaken by a certain grey municipal malaise. There was a whimsical candy-colored sculpture on the lawn that looked like a bunch of child’s toys glued together without reason or order.

Why does the author include this description?

to present Zeitoun as a New Orleans resident and family man

Read the excerpt from part 2 of Zeitoun.

He was conflicted about what he was seeing, a refracted version of his city, one where homes and trees were bisected and mirrored in this oddly calm body of water. The novelty of the new world brought forth the adventurer in him—he wanted to see it all, the whole city, what had become of it. But the builder in him thought of the damage, how long it would take to rebuild. Years, maybe a decade. He wondered if the world at large could already see what he was seeing, a disaster mythical in scale and severity.

What conclusion can readers draw about this character vs. self conflict?

Zeitoun acknowledges the tragedy and its potential.

Read the excerpt from part 2 of Zeitoun.

He coasted away from his home, passing over bicycles and cars, their antennae scraping the bottom of his canoe. Every vehicle, old and new, was gone, unsalvageable. The numbers filled his head: there were a hundred thousand cars lost in the flood. Maybe more. What would happen to them? Who would take them once the waters receded? In what hole could they all be buried?

Zeitoun is pondering

the fate of flooded cars.

Read the excerpt from part 2 of Zeitoun.

As he paddled back to Claiborne, a hope flickered within Zeitoun that his siblings might see him on TV. Perhaps they would see what he was doing, that he had done something good by staying in his adopted city. The Zeitouns were proud, and there was plenty of sibling rivalry that had pushed them all to an array of achievements—all of them measured against the deeds of Mohammed. None of them had ever done something like that, none had achieved on his level. But Zeitoun felt again that perhaps this was his calling, that God had waited to put him here and now to test him in this way. And so he hoped, as silly as it seemed, that his siblings might see him like this.

Why does the author include Zeitoun’s thoughts?

to emphasize how his Muslim faith drives his actions

Read the excerpt from part 4 of Zeitoun.

Moments later, another passing soldier looked at Zeitoun and muttered “Taliban.” And as much as he wanted to dismiss both comments, he couldn’t. Now he was sure that there was a grave misunderstanding taking place, and that unraveling it, disproving it, was going to take days. Todd ranted, but Zeitoun knew it would do no good. The question of their innocence or guilt would not be answered in this room, not any time soon.

Why does the author include these details?

NOT!!!!!!! to compare and contrast Todd and Zeitoun’s experiences

Read the excerpt from part 1 of Zeitoun.

In the neighborhood, other homes had been hit by all manner of debris. Windows had been blown out. Wet, black branches covered cars, the street. Everywhere trees had been pulled out of the earth and lay flat.

The quiet was profound. The wind rippled the water but otherwise all was silent. No cars moved, no planes flew. A few neighbors stood on their porches or waded through their yards, assessing damage. No one knew where to start or when.

What conclusion can readers draw about this society vs. nature conflict?

NOT!!!!!! Society has remained unaware of nature’s power. OR Zeitoun is considering the religious nature of the flood.

Read the excerpt from part 4 of Zeitoun.

Todd raised his voice, rolled his eyes. The soldiers around him stood closer, barking admonitions and threats back at him.

“Why are we here?” he asked a passing soldier.

“You guys are al Qaeda,” the soldier said.

Todd laughed derisively, but Zeitoun was startled. He could not have heard right.

Why does the author describe this encounter?

NOT!!!!!!!! to illustrate Todd’s casual rapport with the soldiers

Read the excerpt from part 2 of Zeitoun.

Zeitoun woke with the sun and crawled out of his tent. The day was bright, and as far as he could see in any direction the city was underwater. . . . He could only think of Judgment Day, of Noah and forty days of rain. And yet it was so quiet, so still. Nothing moved. He sat on the roof and scanned the horizon, looking for any person, any animal or machine moving. Nothing.

As he did his morning prayers, a helicopter broke the silence, shooting across the treetops and heading downtown.

Why does the author include the details of Zeitoun’s morning?

NOT!!!!!!!!! to reveal the efforts at assistance offered by the military

Read the excerpt from part 2 of Zeitoun.

It brought forth a vague memory of a storm on Arwad Island, when he was just a boy, when the Mediterranean rose up and swallowed the lower-sitting homes, the blue-green sea sitting inside living rooms and bedrooms and kitchens. The water breached and dodged the Phoenician stones surrounding the island without any difficulty at all.

Why does the author include this flashback?

NOT!!!!!!!! to present various images of nature’s strength throughout history

Read the excerpt from part 4 of Zeitoun.

The van stopped at the station’s side door, and the captives were taken out of the van and led inside. When Zeitoun and the others entered the main room of the station, immediately fifty pairs of eyes, those of soldiers and police officers and military personnel, were upon them. There were no other civilians inside. It was as if the entire operation, this bus station-turned-military base, had been arranged for them.

What conclusion can readers draw about this character vs. society conflict?

NOT!!!!!!!!!! Zeitoun and his friends are the first of many suspects in the city.

Read the excerpt from part 2 of Zeitoun.

Only birds would survive this sort of apocalypse. Birds, some snakes, any beast that could find higher ground ahead of the rising tide. He looked for fish. If he was floating atop water shared with the lake, surely fish had been swept into the city. And, on cue, he saw a murky form darting between submerged tree branches.

What is happening in the excerpt?

Zeitoun is considering the religious nature of the flood.

Read the excerpt from part 2 of Zeitoun.

He set out alone for a while and before long, at the corner of Canal and Scott, he encountered a small boat. It was a military craft, with three men aboard: a soldier, a man with a video camera, and one holding a microphone and a notebook. They waved Zeitoun down and one of the men identified himself as a reporter.

“What are you doing?” the reporter asked.

“Just checking on friends’ houses. Trying to help,” Zeitoun said.

“Who are you working with?” the reporter asked.

“Anybody,” Zeitoun said. “I work with anybody.”

What conclusion can readers draw about this character vs. character conflict?

NOT!!!!!!!!! The men in the boat are unwilling to offer humanitarian aid.

Read the excerpt from part 2 of Zeitoun.

Only birds would survive this sort of apocalypse. Birds, some snakes, any beast that could find higher ground ahead of the rising tide. He looked for fish. If he was floating atop water shared with the lake, surely fish had been swept into the city. And, on cue, he saw a murky form darting between submerged tree branches.

What is happening in the excerpt?

NOT!!!!!! Zeitoun is considering the religious nature of the flood.
Why does the author include the details of Zeitoun’s morning?
to establish Zeitoun’s dedication to the rituals of his faith
Zeitoun is pondering
the fate of flooded cars.
What conclusion can readers draw about this character vs. character conflict?
The men in the boat are skeptical about Zeitoun’s behavior.
Why does the author include this flashback?
to recall Zeitoun’s foreign birth and the universality of struggles against nature
Why does the author include these details?
to reveal the prevailing racist sentiment among the soldiers
What conclusion can readers draw about this character vs. society conflict?
Zeitoun and his friends are presumed guilty of serious offenses.
“My application…
The theme suggested by the excerpt is about
being understood.
What conclusion can readers draw about this character vs. nature conflict?
Despite Zeitoun’s competence, his home sustains damage.
What conclusion can readers draw about this character vs. self conflict?
Zeitoun acknowledges the tragedy and its potential.
What is happening in the excerpt?
Zeitoun is realizing the likelihood of flood casualties.
Why does the author include these details?
to acknowledge the reality of racial profiling and scrutiny
What is happening in the excerpt?
Zeitoun is recognizing the vulnerability of those staying in New Orleans.
Zeitoun is considering
the hostile nature of his internment.
Why does the author include Zeitoun’s thoughts?
to emphasize how his Muslim faith drives his actions
Why does the author describe this encounter?
to emphasize the weight of racist assumptions
Zeitoun is recalling
Kathy’s reaction when he purchased the canoe.
Why does the author include this description?
to present Zeitoun as a New Orleans resident and family man

Laws permitting, and even requiring, their separation in places where they are liable to be brought into contact do not necessarily imply the inferiority of either race to the other, and have been generally, if not universally, recognized as within the competency of the state legislatures in the exercise of their police power.

How does this relate to the premises of Brown v. Board of Education?

The Brown case addresses whether these laws inherently deny certain citizens equal protection under the law.

In these days, it is doubtful that any child may reasonably be expected to succeed in life if he is denied the opportunity of an education.

Why does the Supreme Court assert this fact?

to highlight the significance of equal access to education
What is the plaintiffs’ main concern about the state of public schools in Brown v. Board of Education?
The schools were racially segregated, which led to a lower quality of education for some students in Topeka.

This discussion and our own investigation convince us that, although these sources cast some light, it is not enough to resolve the problem with which we are faced. At best, they are inconclusive. . . .

[T]here are findings below that the Negro and white schools involved have been equalized, or are being equalized . . .

This excerpt suggests that the Supreme Court Justices

cannot find a conclusive reason to uphold separate systems of education
Which policy do the plaintiffs disagree with in Brown v. Board of Education?
separate but equal

No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States . . .

How does the excerpt relate to the premises of Brown v. Board of Education?

The Brown case addresses whether education systems separated by race limit citizens’ privileges.

. . . requiring the officer of the passenger train to assign each passenger to the coach or compartment assigned for the race to which he or she belong; and imposing fines or imprisonment upon passengers insisting on going into a coach or compartment other than the one set aide for the race to which he or she belongs.

How does the excerpt relate to the premises of Brown v. Board of Education?

The Brown case addresses whether public institutions can legally be divided by race.
What is the fundamental idea behind the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution, which is mentioned in Brown v. Board of Education?
The Fourteenth Amendment secures the rights of citizenship to all Americans.

Because these are class actions, because of the wide applicability of this decision, and because of the great variety of local conditions, the formulation of decrees in these cases presents problems of considerable complexity.

Why does the Supreme Court describe these considerations?

to emphasize the challenges inherent in determining a ruling for a varied nation

If the civil and political rights of both races be equal, one cannot be inferior to the other civilly or politically. If one race be inferior to the other socially, the Constitution of the United States cannot put them upon the same plane.

How does this relate to the premises of Brown v. Board of Education?

The Brown case questions whether separate schools based on race inherently render one inferior to the other.

We know through painful experience that freedom is never voluntarily given by the oppressor; it must be demanded by the oppressed.

How does King support this claim?

by describing his own experience with waiting for civil rights

In no sense do I advocate evading or defying the law, as would the rabid segregationist.

King includes this sentence to

distinguish himself from radicals.

In that dramatic scene on Calvary’s hill three men were crucified. We must never forget that all three were crucified for the same crime—the crime of extremism.

Why does King use this allusion?

to suggest the moral significance of his cause

I have tried to stand between these two forces, saying that we need emulate neither the “do nothingism” of the complacent nor the hatred and despair of the black nationalist.

How does King support this claim?

by describing nonviolent direct action as a peaceful middle ground

Just as Socrates felt that it was necessary to create a tension in the mind so that individuals could rise from the bondage of myths and half truths to the unfettered realm of creative analysis and objective appraisal, so must we see the need for nonviolent gadflies to create the kind of tension in society that will help men rise from the dark depths of prejudice.

Why does King use this allusion?

to appeal to his critics’ intellect

Just as the Apostle Paul left his village of Tarsus and carried the gospel of Jesus Christ to the far corners of the Greco Roman world, so am I compelled to carry the gospel of freedom beyond my own home town.

Why does King use this allusion?

to emphasize the morality of his cause

You suddenly find your tongue twisted and your speech stammering as you seek to explain to your six year old daughter why she can’t go to the public amusement park that has just been advertised on television, and see tears welling up in her eyes when she is told that Funtown is closed to colored children.

What is the author’s purpose for including this sentence?

to emphasize his personal connection to segregation

You express a great deal of anxiety over our willingness to break laws. This is certainly a legitimate concern.

How does King rebut his critics’ claim?

by questioning the fairness of the laws in a counterclaim

Of course, there is nothing new about this kind of civil disobedience. It was evidenced sublimely in the refusal of Shadrach, Meshach and Abednego to obey the laws of Nebuchadnezzar, on the ground that a higher moral law was at stake.

King uses this allusion to

forge a connection with familiar figures of faith.

It is unfortunate that demonstrations are taking place in Birmingham, but it is even more unfortunate that the city’s white power structure left the Negro community with no alternative.

How does King support this claim?

by describing Birmingham’s record of injustice

The movie is an invented story about the jazz scene, but it is interspersed with archival footage and photographs of famous poets and singers of the time.

In this context, what is the meaning of “archival”?

authentic

Yet the Philadelphia clubwoman is ashamed to say that her race created it and she does not like me to write about it. The old subconscious “white is best” runs through her mind. Years of study under white teachers, a lifetime of white books, pictures, and papers, and white manners, morals, and Puritan standards made her dislike the spirituals. And now she turns up her nose at jazz and all its manifestations—likewise almost everything else distinctly racial. She doesn’t care for the Winold Reiss portraits of Negroes because they are “too Negro.” She does not want a true picture of herself from anybody.

Which best describes Hughes’s chief concern in this excerpt?

He is distraught that this woman does not embrace her own heritage.

A play by Langston Hughes, Tambourines to Glory, was considered a failure. Some reviewers accused Hughes of creating caricatures of black life, with one-dimensional characters and too much humor.

In this context, what is the meaning of “caricatures”?

NOT: portrayals OR comments
Based upon “Introduction to the Harlem Renaissance and the Civil Rights Movement,” what was the difference between the political goals and strategies of Martin Luther King, Jr. and Malcolm X?
King advocated for integration and equality, while Malcolm X promoted Black Nationalism.

But, to my mind, it is the duty of the younger Negro artist, if he accepts any duties at all from outsiders, to change through the force of his art that old whispering “I want to be white,” hidden in the aspirations of his people, to “Why should I want to be white? I am a Negro—and beautiful!”

In this excerpt, Hughes is expressing the idea that

NOT: the creations of older artists do not advance the cause of equality. OR younger artists are more artistically talented than their older counterparts.
Which best describes Hughes’s purpose in “The Negro Artist and the Racial Mountain”?
to convince African American artists to celebrate both their inner selves and their heritage in their work

To these the Negro artist can give his racial individuality, his heritage of rhythm and warmth, and his incongruous humor that so often, as in the Blues, becomes ironic laughter mixed with tears.

In this context, what is the meaning of “incongruous”?

NOT: undeserving

But, to my mind, it is the duty of the younger Negro artist, if he accepts any duties at all from outsiders, to change through the force of his art that old whispering “I want to be white,” hidden in the aspirations of his people, to “Why should I want to be white? I am a Negro—and beautiful”?

In this context, what is the meaning of “aspirations”?

ambitions
According to “The Negro Artist and the Racial Mountain,” Hughes believes that young African American artists should
create art that is truthful and representative of their inner selves.
According to “Introduction to the Harlem Renaissance and the Civil Rights Movement,” why was Brown v. Board of Education significant?
The ruling declared that school segregation was unconstitutional.
According to “Introduction to the Harlem Renaissance and the Civil Rights Movement,” the 1954 ruling in Brown v. Board of Education marked the beginning of the
civil rights movement
According to “Introduction to the Harlem Renaissance and the Civil Rights Movement,” which was one effect of the first wave of the Great Migration?
the development of African American urban culture in northern cities
Which best describes Hughes’s purpose in “The Negro Artist and the Racial Mountain”?
to convince African American artists to celebrate both their inner selves and their heritage in their work

And now she turns up her nose at jazz and all its manifestations—likewise almost everything else distinctly racial.

In this context, what is the meaning of “manifestations”?

NOT: negativity OR warnings

But jazz to me is one of the inherent expressions of Negro life in America; the eternal tom-tom beating in the Negro soul—the tom-tom of revolt against weariness in a white world, a world of subway trains, and work, work, work; the tom-tom of joy and laughter, and pain swallowed in a smile.

How does Hughes inject elements of jazz into the excerpt?

by repeating the phrase “tom-tom,” which acts as a drum beat
The speaker in “Harlem” contemplates
the fate of aspirations that are unrealized.
If we must die—let it not be like hogs
Hunted and penned in an inglorious spot,
While round us bark the mad and hungry dogs,
Making their mock at our accursed lot.
If we must die—oh, let us nobly die
So that our precious blood may not be shed
In vain; then even the monsters we defy
Shall be constrained to honor us though dead!
Oh, Kinsmen! We must meet the common foe;
Though far outnumbered, let us still be brave,
And for their thousand blows deal one death-blow!
What though before us lies the open grave?
Like men we’ll face the murderous, cowardly pack,
Pressed to the wall, dying, but—fighting back!What sentence best conveys the speaker’s message?
There is honor in dying courageously.
He made that poor piano moan with melody.
O Blues!
Swaying to and fro on his rickety stool
He played that sad raggy tune like a musical fool.
Sweet Blues!
Coming from a black man’s soul.
O Blues!
In a deep song voice with a melancholy tone
I heard that Negro sing, that old piano moan—
“Ain’t got nobody in all this world,
Ain’t got nobody but ma self.
I’s gwine to quit ma frownin’
And put ma troubles on the shelf.”What is the effect of repeating the phrase “piano moan” in the poem?
It sets a sad, mournful tone.
Read the excerpt from “Harlem.”
Does it stink like rotten meat?
Or crust and sugar over-
like a syrupy sweet?Read the excerpt from “The Weary Blues.”
Droning a drowsy syncopated tune
Rocking back and forth to a mellow croonIn both poems, Hughes uses the imagery to

establish tone
Ain’t got nobody in all this world,
Ain’t got nobody but ma self.
I’s gwine to quit ma frownin’
And put ma troubles on the shelf.What is the effect of repeating the phrase “ain’t got nobody” in the poem?
NOT: It shows the singer’s desire to connect to other musicians.
The speaker’s tone in “Harlem” is best described as
frustrated
He made that poor piano moan with melody.
O Blues!
Swaying to and fro on his rickety stool
He played that sad raggy tune like a musical fool.
Sweet Blues!
Coming from a black man’s soul.
O Blues!The phrases “O Blues!” and “Sweet Blues!” are examples of
repitition
In what way are the lines of “The Weary Blues” similar to the lyrics of a blues song?
The poem uses repetition to create meaning.
Making their mock at our accursed lot.
If we must die—oh, let us nobly die,
So that our precious blood may not be shed
In vain; then even the monsters we defy
Shall be constrained to honor us though dead!
Oh, Kinsmen! We must meet the common foe;
Though far outnumbered, let us still be brave,
And for their thousand blows deal one death-blow!
What though before us lies the open grave?
Like men we’ll face the murderous, cowardly pack,
Pressed to the wall, dying, but—fighting back!Which best describes the speaker in this poem?
a motivator who encourages readers to fight oppression
The speaker’s role in “Harlem” is to
criticize oppression.

Mrs. Turner, like all other believers had built an altar to the unattainable—Caucasian characteristics for all. Her god would smite her, would hurl her from pinnacles and lose her in deserts, but she would not forsake his altars. Behind her crude words was a belief that somehow she and others through worship could attain her paradise—a heaven of straighthaired, thin-lipped, high-nose boned white seraphs.

How does Zora Neale Hurston use Mrs. Turner to present a cultural criticism?

She mocks Mrs. Turner’s belief that everyone should look alike.

Tea Cake felt sorry for him without knowing why. So he didn’t blurt out the insults he had intended. But he couldn’t hold in everything. They talked about the prospects for the coming season for a moment, then Tea Cake said, “Yo’ wife don’t seem tuh have nothin’ much tuh do, so she kin visit uh lot. Mine got too much tuh do tuh go visitin’ and too much tuh spend time talkin’ tuh folks dat visit her.”

Which best describes Tea Cake’s intent in mentioning Janie and Mrs. Turner to Mr. Turner?

He hopes Mr. Turner can influence Mrs. Turner to visit less frequently.
Which excerpt from Their Eyes Were Watching God is the best example of regional dialect?
NOT: For instance during the summer when she heard the subtle but compelling rhythms of the Bahaman drummers, she’d walk over and watch the dances. OR But Mrs. Turner’s shape and features were entirely approved by Mrs. Turner.
In Their Eyes Were Watching God, Zora Neale Hurston uses dialect when Tea Cake speaks in order to
NOT: illustrate his religious beliefs

For instance during the summer when she heard the subtle but compelling rhythms of the Bahaman drummers, she’d walk over and watch the dances. She did not laugh the “Saws” to scorn as she had heard the people doing.

Which phrase from the excerpt is the best example of nonstandard English?

NOT: had heard the people doing

He claimed that she had been shaped up by a cow kicking her from behind. She was an ironing board with things throwed at it.

Which phrase from the excerpt is the best example of nonstandard English?

things throwed at it

“Thanky Ma’am. Ah hates dat woman lak poison. Keep her from round dis house. Her look lak uh white woman! Wid dat meriny skin and hair jus’ as close tuh her head as ninety-nine is tuh uh hundred! Since she hate black folks so, she don’t need our money in her ol’ eatin’ place. We kin go tuh dat white man’s place and git good treatment. Her and dat whittled-down husband uh hers! And dat son! He’s jus’ uh dirty trick her womb played on her. Ah’m telling her husband tuh keep her home.”

What do Tea Cake’s words reveal about his intentions?

He plans to avoid Mrs. Turner and her business.

“Mah wife takes time fuh whatever she wants tuh do. Real strong headed dat way. Yes indeed.” He laughed a high lungless laugh. “De chillun don’t keep her in no mo’ so she visits when she chooses.”

Mr. Turner’s words reveal his

lack of control over his wife.
Which sentence from Their Eyes Were Watching God contains an example of dialect?
Before they realized it the sun was cooler and the crowds came pouring onto the muck again.
Which is a feature of dialect?
informal language used in a specific location
In Their Eyes Were Watching God, Zora Neale Hurston uses dialect when Tea Cake speaks in order to
NOT: highlight his shyness around others.

The season closed and people went away like they had come—in droves. Tea Cake and Janie decided to stay since they wanted to make another season on the muck. There was nothing to do, after they had gathered several bushels of dried beans to save over and sell to the planters in the fall. So Janie began to look around and see people and things she hadn’t noticed during the season.

Which aspect of early twentieth-century society in the South is illustrated in this excerpt?

Laborers traveled to find work opportunities.
Finally she was gone and Janie hurried to her kitchen to put on supper and found Tea Cake sitting in there with his head between his hands.
“Tea Cake! Ah didn’t know you wuz home.”
“Ah know yuh didn’t. Ah been heah uh long time listenin’ to dat heifer run me down tuh de dawgs uh try tuh tole you off from me.”
“So dat whut she wuz up to? Ah didn’t know.”
“Course she is. She got some no-count brother she wants yuh tuh hook up wid and take keer of Ah reckon.”
“Shucks! If dat’s her notion she’s barkin’ up de wrong tree. Mah hands is full already.”Through Janie’s dialogue in this excerpt, it is reasonable to infer that she is
devoted to Tea Cake and unaffected by Mrs. Turner’s opinions.
Which sentence from Their Eyes Were Watching God contains an example of dialect?
She was an ironing board with things throwed at it.
Mrs. Turner finally rose to go after being very firm about several other viewpoints of either herself, her son or her brother. She begged Janie to drop in on her anytime, but never once mentioning Tea Cake. Finally she was gone and Janie hurried to her kitchen to put on supper and found Tea Cake sitting in there with his head between his hands.
“Tea Cake! Ah didn’t know you wuz home.”
“Ah know yuh didn’t. Ah been heah uh long time listenin’ to dat heifer run me down tuh de dawgs uh try tuh tole you off from me.”How does Hurston convey her own cultural experiences?
through the contrast of formal language and informal dialect
Which excerpt from Black Boy best demonstrates the idea that Wright’s family feels frustrated and trapped in their financial situation?
At night there were long, halting discussions about our going to live with Granny, but nothing came of it. Perhaps there was not enough money for railroad fare.

A quarter of a century was to elapse between the time when I saw my father sitting with the strange woman and the time when I was to see him again, standing alone upon the red clay of a Mississippi plantation, a sharecropper, clad in ragged overalls, holding a muddy hoe in his gnarled, veined hands—a quarter of a century during which my mind and consciousness had become so greatly and violently altered that when I tried to talk to him I realized that, though ties of blood made us kin, though I could see a shadow of my face in his face, though there was an echo of my voice in his voice, we were forever strangers, speaking a different language, living on vastly distant planes of reality.

Which best explains Wright’s assertion that he and his father “were forever strangers”?

Wright is stating that he is emotionally disconnected from his father.
Which excerpt from Black Boy best illustrates the effect that society has on Wright’s father?
NOT: Finally we could no longer pay the rent for our dingy flat; the few dollars that Granny had left us before she went home were gone.
Then my father was called; he came forward jauntily, smiling. He tried to kiss my mother, but she turned away from him. I only heard one sentence of what he said.
“I’m doing all I can, Your Honor,” he mumbled, grinning.
It had been painful to sit and watch my mother crying and my father laughing and I was glad when we were outside in the sunny streets. Back at home my mother wept again and talked complainingly about the unfairness of the judge who had accepted my father’s word.What societal norm of the early twentieth century does this excerpt reflect?
Men were considered more able and trustworthy than women.

My mother fell ill and the problem of food became an acute, daily agony. Hunger was with us always. Sometimes the neighbors would feed us or a dollar bill would come in the mail from my grandmother. It was winter and I would buy a dime’s worth of coal each morning from the corner coalyard and lug it home in paper bags. For a time I remained out of school to wait upon my mother, then Granny came to visit us and I returned to school.

Through his personal experience, which social issue is Wright emphasizing?

the effects of poverty on families
Which excerpt from Black Boy best explains Wright’s childhood perspective of his father?
I felt that if my father were going to feed me, then he would have done so regardless of what a judge said to him.

Finally I heard my mother’s name called; she rose and began weeping so copiously that she could not talk for a few moments; at last she managed to say that her husband had deserted her and her two children, that her children were hungry, that they stayed hungry, that she worked, that she was trying to raise them alone. Then my father was called; he came forward jauntily, smiling. He tried to kiss my mother, but she turned away from him.

Which best describes the author’s purpose in including this anecdote?

NOT: to explain Wright’s specific feelings toward his father

He asked easy, drawling questions about me, his other son, his wife, and he laughed, amused, when I informed him of their destinies. I forgave him and pitied him as my eyes looked past him to the unpainted wooden shack. From far beyond the horizons that bound this bleak plantation there had come to me through my living the knowledge that my father was a black peasant who had gone to the city seeking life, but who had failed in the city; a black peasant whose life had been hopelessly snarled in the city, and who had at last fled the city—that same city which had lifted me in its burning arms and borne me toward alien and undreamed-of shores of knowing.

Which statement best describes how Wright’s cultural perspective influences his decision to forgive his father?

Wright’s cultural perspective helps him understand the difficulties his father faced throughout life.

We left. I had the feeling that I had had to do with something unclean. Many times in the years after that the image of my father and the strange woman, their faces lit by the dancing flames, would surge up in my imagination so vivid and strong that I felt I could reach out and touch it; I would stare at it, feeling that it possessed some vital meaning which always eluded me.

Based on this excerpt, how did Wright feel about his final boyhood encounter with his father?

NOT: certain that he achieved closure

I realized that, though ties of blood made us kin, though I could see a shadow of my face in his face, though there was an echo of my voice in his voice, we were forever strangers, speaking a different language, living on vastly distant planes of reality.

Which best describes Wright’s attitude toward his father in this excerpt?

Wright believes that their life views are incompatible.
Based on this excerpt, which best describes how being a sharecropper impacts Wright’s father?
NOT: It makes him feel more angry and betrayed by the world around him. OR It makes him feel such deep pain that he cherishes moments of happiness.
Through his personal experience, which social issue is Wright emphasizing?
the effects of poverty on families
Which excerpt from Black Boy best explains Wright’s childhood perspective of his father?
I felt that if my father were going to feed me, then he would have done so regardless of what a judge said to him.
What societal norm of the early twentieth century does this excerpt reflect?
Men were considered more able and trustworthy than women.
What does the excerpt most clearly demonstrate about Wright’s attitude toward his father?
Wright recognizes that he is incomprehensible to his father.
Which details from the excerpt best indicates that Wright was fairly young when this event takes place?
Wright notes being overwhelmed by faces and voices and describes the judge as being “high above.”
Which excerpt from Black Boy best demonstrates the idea that Wright’s family feels frustrated and trapped in their financial situation?
At night there were long, halting discussions about our going to live with Granny, but nothing came of it. Perhaps there was not enough money for railroad fare.
Which excerpt from Black Boy best illustrates the effect that society has on Wright’s father?
From the white landowners above him there had not been handed to him a chance to learn the meaning of loyalty, of sentiment, of tradition.
Which best describes Wright’s realization in this excerpt?
NOT: Wright acknowledges that his success was based solely on the lessons he learned from his father’s failure.
Which best explains Wright’s assertion that he and his father “were forever strangers”?
Wright is stating that he is emotionally disconnected from his father.
How does this relate to the premises of Brown v. Board of Education?
The Brown case addresses whether facilities separated by race are permissible by law.
How does the excerpt relate to the premises of Brown v. Board of Education?
The Brown case addresses whether the plaintiffs have been afforded the full rights of citizenship.
This excerpt suggests that the Supreme Court Justices
cannot find a conclusive reason to uphold systems of education
Why does the Supreme Court make this distinction?
NOT: The court recognizes that segregated schools require additional federal funding.
Based on this excerpt, The Supreme Court chose to consider the case due to
a legal issue shared by a number of cases.
How does this relate to the premises of Brown v. Board of Education?
NOT: The Brown case addresses whether authorities believe that one race is inferior to another when creating public schools.
Why did the Supreme Court decide to overturn Plessy v. Ferguson, as explained in Brown v. Board of Education?
Separate is inherently unequal.
The Supreme Court cites these cases because it seeks to
NOT: share the unique differences between the given cases.
Why does the Supreme Court assert this fact?
NOT: to highlight the idea that a child’s potential can be measured
What is the plaintiffs’ main concern about the state of public schools in Brown v. Board of Education?
NOT: The school buildings were in poor condition, which caused low attendance rates in Topeka.
What is the plaintiffs’ main concern about the state of public schools in Brown v. Board of Education?
The schools were racially segregated, which led to a lower quality of education for some students in Topeka.
How does the excerpt relate to the premises of Brown v. Board of Education?
The Brown case addresses whether the plaintiff has been afforded equal protection of the laws relative to those attending public schools.
Why did the Supreme Court take jurisdiction of Brown v. Board of Education?
The implications of the case were important and widespread.
Which movement followed the Brown v. Board of Education decision?
desegregation
Why does the Supreme Court describe these considerations?
to emphasize the challenges inherent in determining a ruling for a varied nation
How does the excerpt relate to the premises of Brown v. Board of Education?
The Brown case addresses whether education systems separated by race limit citizens’ privileges.

In no sense do I advocate evading or defying the law, as would the rabid segregationist.

King includes this sentence to

distinguish himself from radicals.

You express a great deal of anxiety over our willingness to break laws. This is certainly a legitimate concern.

How does King rebut his critics’ claim?

by questioning the fairness of the laws in a counterclaim

But such an ordinance becomes unjust when it is used to maintain segregation and to deny citizens the First-Amendment privilege of peaceful assembly and protest.

Why does King use this allusion?

NOT: to issue a call for action

Shallow understanding from people of good will is more frustrating than absolute misunderstanding from people of ill will.

What is the author’s purpose for including this sentence?

to explain the need for mutual understanding

I have the honor of serving as president of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, an organization operating in every southern state, with headquarters in Atlanta, Georgia.

What is King’s purpose for including this sentence?

to establish his professional credentials

Just as Socrates felt that it was necessary to create a tension in the mind so that individuals could rise from the bondage of myths and half truths to the unfettered realm of creative analysis and objective appraisal, so must we see the need for nonviolent gadflies to create the kind of tension in society that will help men rise from the dark depths of prejudice.

Why does King use this allusion?

to appeal to his critics’ intellect

In that dramatic scene on Calvary’s hill three men were crucified. We must never forget that all three were crucified for the same crime—the crime of extremism.

Why does King use this allusion?

to suggest the moral significance of his cause

We know through painful experience that freedom is never voluntarily given by the oppressor; it must be demanded by the oppressed.

How does King support this claim?

by describing his own experience with waiting for civil rights

Just as the Apostle Paul left his village of Tarsus and carried the gospel of Jesus Christ to the far corners of the Greco Roman world, so am I compelled to carry the gospel of freedom beyond my own home town.

Why does King use this allusion?

to emphasize the morality of his cause

We are caught in an inescapable network of mutuality, tied in a single garment of destiny.

King includes this sentence to

draw attention to the interrelationship of events.

Algebra is a precursor for calculus because it will help students to be successful in the latter course.

Which word is closest in meaning to the underlined word?

preceding requirement

As the contractor looked at the dilapidated structure that stood on the empty lot, he noticed the cracks and holes in the roof and realized he had a great deal of work to do.

Which word is closest in meaning to the underlined word?

rundown

As the trumpet blared a jarring noise, everyone quickly covered their ears!

Using the context clues, what is the meaning of the underlined word?

NOT: harmonious

The investors could not handle the ups and downs so they removed their funds from the fluctuating market.

Using the context clues, what is the meaning of the underlined word?

to vary in level or value

The largest of the linen tents, erected at the campsite to protect the team of conservationists from the relentless African sun, housed the leader of the expedition, Dr. Aidan Hamilton. His round spectacles framed his slender face and complimented his gray hair as he sat outside his tent, mapping the day’s journey.

Julissa is most likely writing with the purpose of

describing in an observational manner.

In the Yellowstone the animals seem always to behave as one wishes them to! It is always possible to see the sheep and deer and antelope, and also the great herds of elk, which are shyer than the smaller beasts. In April we found the elk weak after the short commons and hard living of winter.

What is the closest meaning of the underlined phrase as it used in the excerpt?

trials and tribulations

Since the budget for the groundbreaking elephant-behavior-studies program has been cut—just as it was beginning to make progress—wildlife conservationists and their supporters are asking that people from all over the world promote the program by encouraging local agencies and community members to donate time and funds to secure the future of the amazingly gentle and intelligent African elephant species.

Darryl is most likely writing with the purpose of

persuading and influencing others.

It is the height of rudeness for young people not to go and shake hands with an older lady of their acquaintance when they meet her away from home, if she is a hostess to whose house they have often gone. It is not at all necessary for either young women or young men to linger and enter into a conversation, unless the older lady detains them, which she should not do beyond the briefest minute.

Which best describes the style and tone of the passage?

assertive

The mission of the Blanche Anti-Bullying Organization is to promote integrity, self-esteem, and respect for all people; therefore, as we pursue our mission, we the founders do respectfully promise to uphold these values for ourselves and all of our participating members.

What is the tone of the passage?

sincere

My Fellow-Citizens: When a man hears himself somewhat misrepresented, it provokes him,—at least, I find it so with myself; but when misrepresentation becomes very gross and palpable, it is more apt to amuse him.

What is the closest meaning of the underlined phrase as it used in the excerpt?

obviously exaggerated

Students participating in school athletics should be required to maintain a 2.0 in all academic courses. Most of Douglas High’s varsity athletes prioritize their schoolwork; but, there are a few who ignore their responsibilities.

Which transition word would best replace the underlined word?

however

Students at Glenmore High demand an increase in the number of advanced placement classes. In order to compete with other college-bound students, we must have access to more rigorous courses. I mean, if we can’t show that we took tough courses, colleges will turn us down.

How can the final sentence best be revised for this argument?

NOT: We need tougher courses on our transcripts, or else nobody’s going to notice us.
When addressing a counterclaim in an argumentative essay, it is important to
consider how the counterclaim reinforces the main position of your argument.
In the conclusion of an argumentative essay, the author should
restate main ideas and summarize how they support the claim.
Which correctly demonstrates MLA formatting?
One way of going about research is “by browsing the academic search engine at your school library” (Scott 56).
Which of these best strengthens a factual argument?
NOT: strongly stated beliefs and viewpoints

Students attending schools with mandatory uniform policies experience less pressure than do students who must choose their wardrobes. This is because school uniforms allow students and their parents to save money and time. The financial investment in uniforms at the beginning of the school year is far more economical than the purchase of an entire wardrobe of designer clothes and trendy styles. Students who do not have to deliberate what to wear each morning are able to invest their time in more productive ways, such as studying for tests or finishing homework. Uniforms may stifle students’ self-expression, but there are many other ways to reveal one’s individuality at school.

Which sentence addresses a counterclaim?

Uniforms may stifle students’ self-expression, but there are many other ways to reveal one’s individuality at school.

Students attending schools with mandatory uniform policies experience less pressure than do students who must choose their wardrobes. This is because school uniforms allow students and their parents to save money and time. The financial investment in uniforms at the beginning of the school year is far more economical than the purchase of an entire wardrobe of designer clothes and trendy styles. Students who do not have to deliberate what to wear each morning are able to invest their time in more productive ways, such as studying for tests or finishing homework. Uniforms may stifle students’ self-expression, but there are many other ways to reveal one’s individuality at school.

Which of the following statements best supports the author’s claim?

Parents are supportive of public schools adopting school uniforms for several reasons; the most common being affordability.
The only way to avoid plagiarism in an argumentative essay is to
create a citation for the information used.

We probably couldn’t go to all the stars because they’re too far away. It would take a long time to get there.

The sentences need to be revised for this type of essay because they

contain generalizations and contractions.

Students attending schools with mandatory uniform policies experience less pressure than do students who must choose their wardrobes. This is because school uniforms allow students and their parents to save money and time. The financial investment in uniforms at the beginning of the school year is far more economical than the purchase of an entire wardrobe of designer clothes and trendy styles. Students who do not have to deliberate what to wear each morning are able to invest their time in more productive ways, such as studying for tests or finishing homework. Uniforms may stifle students’ self-expression, but there are many other ways to reveal one’s individuality at school.

Which sentence addresses a counterclaim?

Uniforms may stifle students’ self-expression, but there are many other ways to reveal one’s individuality at school.

Students attending schools with mandatory uniform policies experience less pressure than do students who must choose their wardrobes. This is because school uniforms allow students and their parents to save money and time. The financial investment in uniforms at the beginning of the school year is far more economical than the purchase of an entire wardrobe of designer clothes and trendy styles. Students who do not have to deliberate what to wear each morning are able to invest their time in more productive ways, such as studying for tests or finishing homework. Uniforms may stifle students’ self-expression, but there are many other ways for them to reveal their individuality at school.

Which fact best supports the author’s position?

On average, school uniforms cost $150 a year, which is much less than the average spent on back-to-school clothes.

We probably couldn’t go to all the stars because they’re too far away. It would take a long time to get there.

The sentences need to be revised for this type of essay because they

contain generalizations and contractions.

Students at Glenmore High demand an increase in the number of advanced placement classes. In order to compete with other college-bound students, we must have access to more rigorous courses. I mean, if we can’t show that we took tough courses, colleges will turn us down.

How can the final sentence best be revised for this argument?

NOT: Tough work is the key to proving to college admissions that we’ve got what they want.
Which topic would prompt an argumentative essay?
The Recognition Veterans Deserve

Our county government has neglectfully ignored a national trend in child safety and must enact a bicycle helmet law immediately to right this wrong.

Which best describes the tone?

critical
The thesis statement, or claim, of an argumentative essay should
establish the focus of the essay and the writer’s position.

(1) Space: the final frontier! (2) Many people see space as a true frontier. (3) They are excited by both the exploration of space and the potential of space. (4) Not everyone agrees with this. (5) Some people think that the money would be better spent solving Earth’s problems. (6) However, the truth is that the money spent on space exploration is critical to solving our problems on Earth.

Which of the following is the thesis statement?

sentence 6
Thump, thump, thump, went his foot on the floor.
He played a few chords then he sang some more.The repetition of the word “thump” is an example of what literary device?
onom
Which source would best support an argumentative essay on the importance of protective gear for those playing sports?
a case study of sports-related injuries

Students attending schools with mandatory uniform policies experience less pressure than do students who must choose their wardrobes. This is because school uniforms allow students and their parents to save money and time. The financial investment in uniforms at the beginning of the school year is far more economical than the purchase of an entire wardrobe of designer clothes and trendy styles. Students who do not have to deliberate what to wear each morning are able to invest their time in more productive ways, such as studying for tests or finishing homework. Uniforms may stifle students’ self-expression, but there are many other ways to reveal one’s individuality at school.

Which revision would best strengthen the author’s main argument?

the inclusion of reputable sources and specific facts
Which excerpt from Black Boy best reflects the way in which Wright’s knowledge of history and culture influence his views on his father?
From far beyond the horizons that bound this bleak plantation there had come to me through my living the knowledge that my father was a black peasant who had gone to the city seeking life, but who had failed in the city; a black peasant whose life had been hopelessly snarled in the city.

The question of whether or not to allow cell phones in school is an important one. Cell phones are a monumental distraction to young people whose attention should be focused on learning. However, they do serve a purpose in that phones allow students to communicate with their parents. Plus, cell phones are great for taking pictures with friends. In all, cell phone use at school must be carefully regulated.

Which best explains the inconsistency in writing used in this paragraph?

It does not maintain the same tone throughout.

New York’s bad manners are often condemned and often very deservedly. Even though the cause is carelessness rather than intentional indifference, the indifference is no less actual and the rudeness inexcusable.

What is the closest meaning of the underlined phrase as it used in the excerpt?

justifiably criticized

Sometimes a law is just on its face and unjust in its application.

How does King support this claim?

by describing a law about parade permits
According to “Introduction to the Harlem Renaissance and the Civil Rights Movement,” which was one reason for the first wave of the Great Migration?
segregation and racism in the South

Therefore, we hold that the plaintiffs and others similarly situated for whom the actions have been brought are, by reason of the segregation complained of, deprived of the equal protection of the laws guaranteed by the Fourteenth Amendment.

Why does the Supreme Court conclude that the plaintiffs have been denied their rights?

Segregation is inherently unequal and unfair.

Langston Hughes was extremely versatile. He wrote poetry, published essays, and even authored a commissioned history of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).

In this context, what is the meaning of “versatile”?

multi-talented

Competitive sports are valuable activities for young people today. They emphasize the importance of being part of a team and working toward a common goal. Competitive sports give today’s youth an advantage as athletes tend to be more confident in themselves and their abilities. Participation in competitive sports is strongly recommended for our students.

Which strategy does the author use in her choice of language to convey her message?

persuasive influence

I have earnestly opposed violent tension, but there is a type of constructive, nonviolent tension which is necessary for growth.

How does King support this claim in the rest of his letter?

by quoting Socrates and establishing historical precedent
What can readers infer about Hurston from her voice in Their Eyes Were Watching God?
She appreciates history and culture.

[T]here are findings below that the Negro and white schools involved have been equalized, or are being equalized, with respect to buildings, curricula, qualifications and salaries of teachers, and other “tangible” factors.

The Supreme Court is most likely interested in these findings because it hopes to determine whether

separate systems of education can be equal.
The speaker in “The Weary Blues” is most likely
an audience member at a blues show.
Which topic would prompt an argumentative essay?
The Recognition Veterans Deserve
In Anthem, the narrator’s name, Equality 7-2521, helps to develop a theme that
individuality is lost in a collective society.

I am neither foe nor friend to my brothers, but such as each of them shall deserve of me. And to earn my love, my brothers must do more than to have been born. I do not grant my love without reason, nor to any chance passer-by who may wish to claim it. I honor men with my love. But honor is a thing to be earned.

Which best explains the philosophical concept reflected in the excerpt?

This excerpt reflects capitalism, because it emphasizes an exchange based on free will.
Ayn Rand, author of Anthem, would most likely agree with which statement?
The rights of an individual are more important than the rights of a group.

But I still wonder how it was possible, in those graceless years of transition, long ago, that men did not see whither they were going, and went on, in blindness and cowardice, to their fate. I wonder, for it is hard for me to conceive how men who knew the word “I,” could give it up and not know what they lost.

Based on the excerpt, it can be inferred that the narrator believes that

men surrendered to conformity and gave up their own freedom.
According to the themes in Anthem, which word is the most destructive to human progress?
we

I stand here on the summit of the mountain. I lift my head and I spread my arms. This, my body and spirit, this is the end of the quest. I wished to know the meaning of things. I am the meaning. I wished to find a warrant for being. I need no warrant for being, and no word of sanction upon my being. I am the warrant and the sanction.

The excerpt supports the theme of

reflective connections

But what is freedom? Freedom from what? There is nothing to take a man’s freedom away from him, save other men. To be free, a man must be free of his brothers. That is freedom. This and nothing else.

Based on the philosophical concepts expressed in the excerpt, the narrator would most likely support a government that

allows man to make his own decisions and live with the consequences.

What disaster took their reason away from men? What whip lashed them to their knees in shame and submission? The worship of the word “We.”

In the excerpt, which concept causes the downfall of humanity?

Collectivism

The word “We” is as lime poured over men, which sets and hardens to stone, and crushes all beneath it, and that which is white and that which is black are lost equally in the grey of it.

Which best states the effect of the imagery in the excerpt?

The comparison of the word “We” to limestone helps to develop the theme that a collective society destroys humankind’s potential.
Which excerpt from Anthem best supports the theme that man’s spirit is unconquerable?
Through all the darkness, through all the shame of which men are capable, the spirit of man will remain alive on this earth.
Which excerpt from “Ambush” best reflects the story’s central conflict?
Sometime I forgive myself, other times I don’t.
In “Ambush,” why does the author begin the passage in the present rather than during the war?
to build tension within the story itself
Which structural element do “Ambush” and “Facing It” share?
NOT!!
They contain multiple points of view.
Which pair of sentences from “Ambush” best reflects that a flashback, or a shift in time, has occurred?
NOT!!
“You keep writing these war stories,” she said, “so I guess you must’ve killed somebody.”
Even now, I haven’t finished sorting it out.
Which best describes why “Ambush” contains a frame story?
The narrator situates a flashback of his experience in Vietnam between related events that take place after the war.

He was a short, slender young man of about twenty. I was afraid of him—afraid of something—and as he passed me on the trail I threw a grenade that exploded at his feet and killed him.

The excerpt is an example of

NOT!!
frame story, because the narrator is describing an action that he deeply regrets.
Which best describes a theme of both “Ambush” and “Facing It”?
War and violence leave a lasting impact on people, especially soldiers.
Which element is used in both “Ambush” and “Facing It” to create tension and conflict?
the conflicted thoughts of the narrators
How does the author’s use of free verse allow him to effectively express his feelings about the memorial in the poem “Facing It”?
NOT!!
The use of free verse allows him to use similes and metaphors.
NOT!!
The use of free verse allows him to use personification.
The first paragraph of “Ambush” contains a conversation that takes place
after the narrator’s experiences in the Vietnam War.
In the story “Ambush,” what is revealed to the reader through the frame-story structure?
The narrator continues to feel haunted by the events in Vietnam.
Which best describes the central conflict in “Ambush”?
The narrator is haunted by the experience of killing another man.
In “Ambush,” which line signals the beginning of the narrative within the frame story?
NOT!!
When she was nine, my daughter Kathleen asked if I had ever killed anyone.
How do the authors differ in the way they present the war in “Facing It” and “Ambush”?
NOT!!
O’Brien describes it with sensory language, while Komunyakaa describes it with personification.

“I am the Emperor!” cried Harrison. “Do you hear? I am the Emperor! Everybody must do what I say at once!” He stamped his foot and the studio shook.

“Even as I stand here—” he bellowed, “crippled, hobbled, sickened—I am a greater ruler than any man who ever lived! Now watch me become what I can become!”

What do Harrison’s words and actions reveal about his character?

He wants to rebel against the law and show off his superior gifts.
Based on “Harrison Bergeron,” which statement would Kurt Vonnegut most likely support?
Achieving absolute and literal equality requires the suppression of individuality.

“All of a sudden you look so tired,” said Hazel. “Why don’t you stretch out on the sofa, so’s you can rest your handicap bag on the pillows, honeybunch.” She was referring to the forty-seven pounds of birdshot in a canvas bag, which was padlocked around George’s neck. “Go on and rest the bag for a little while,” she said. “I don’t care if you’re not equal to me for a while.”

George weighed the bag with his hands. “I don’t mind it,” he said. “I don’t notice it any more. It’s just a part of me.”
This dialogue between George and Hazel portrays George as a

static character because he has accepted society’s rules and does not try to challenge them.

The year was 2081, and everybody was finally equal. They weren’t only equal before God and the law. They were equal every which way. Nobody was smarter than anybody else. Nobody was better looking than anybody else. Nobody was stronger or quicker than anybody else. All this equality was due to the 211th, 212th, and 213th Amendments to the Constitution, and to the unceasing vigilance of agents of the United States Handicapper General.

The author is describing a society that is

uniform.

“Ladies and gentlemen—” said the ballerina, reading the bulletin. She must have been extraordinarily beautiful, because the mask she wore was hideous. And it was easy to see that she was the strongest and most graceful of all the dancers, for her handicap bags were as big as those worn by two-hundred-pound men.

What is ironic about this excerpt?

The handicaps devised to conceal the ballerina’s strength and beauty actually accentuate them.
In “Harrison Bergeron,” Vonnegut includes the character of Diana Moon Glampers, the Handicapper General, to
represent the real dangers of an oppressive government.

The musicians scrambled back into their chairs, and Harrison stripped them of their handicaps, too. “Play your best,” he told them, “and I’ll make you barons and dukes and earls.”

The music began. It was normal at first—cheap, silly, false. But Harrison snatched two musicians from their chairs, waved them like batons as he sang the music as he wanted it played. He slammed them back into their chairs.

How does Vonnegut use irony in this excerpt?

NOT!!
The musicians are described as the opposite of what is expected.

“I think I’d make a good Handicapper General.”

“Good as anybody else,” said George.

“Who knows better’n I do what normal is?” said Hazel.

How does the dialogue develop Hazel’s character?

It depicts her as a flat character because she represents the stereotype of perfectly average intelligence.
Which condition is considered most dangerous by George and Hazel Bergeron in “Harrison Bergeron”?
Competition

Scrap metal was hung all over him. Ordinarily, there was a certain symmetry, a military neatness to the handicaps issued to strong people, but Harrison looked like a walking junkyard. In the race of life, Harrison carried three hundred pounds.

And to offset his good looks, the H-G men required that he wear at all times a red rubber ball for a nose, keep his eyebrows shaved off, and cover his even white teeth with black caps at snaggle-tooth random.

How does Harrison Bergeron’s physical description help to create satire?

The absurdity of Harrison’s exaggerated handicaps ridicules society’s obsession with equality.
In “Harrison Bergeron,” why is Harrison Bergeron’s character considered a danger to society?
He is physically and intellectually superior to others and threatens their sense of equality.
How do Hazel’s comments help Vonnegut develop his critique of American society?
NOT!!
They emphasize the importance of having compassion for others.
Which excerpt from Leslie alarm o which excerpt from Leslie Marmon Silko’s story “The Man to Send Rain Clouds” contains an example of personification?
The rain pulled the priest’s brown Franciscan Rogue inns world of way the corn meal and pollen that had been sprinkled on the blanket.
Which excerpt from Leslie Marmon Silko’s story “The Man to Send Rain Clouds” contains a simile?
… the water fell through the light from sundown like August rain that fell while the sun was still shining.

Read the following excerpt from Leslie Marmon Silko’s story “The Man to Send Rain Clouds.”

Leon stared at the new moccasins that Teofilo had made for the ceremonial dances in the summer. They were nearly hidden by the red blanket. It was getting colder, and the wind pushed great dust down the narrow pueblo road.

Which of the following items ask as a symbol in this excerpt?

the red blanket
Which excerpt from “The Man to Send Rain Clouds” best illustrates how Leon’s beliefs differ from those of Father Paul?
Leon turned to look up at the high blue Mountains in the deep snow that’s reflected a faint red light from the west. He felt good because it was finished, and he was happy about the sprinkling of the holy water; now the old man could send them big thunder clouds for sure.

Read following excerpt from Leslie Marmon Silko’s story “The Man to Send Rain Clouds.”

Leon watched him climb the hill, and when he had disappeared within the tall, thick walls, Leon turned to look up at the high blue mountains in the deep snow that reflected a faint red light from the west. He felt good because it was finished, and he was happy about the sprinkling of the holy water; now the old man could send it then big thunder clouds for sure.

What does the holy water symbolize for Leon ?

It symbolizes his Pueblo traditions and hope for rain.

Read the following excerpt from Leslie Marmon Silko’s story “The Man to Send Rain Clouds.”

“What did you say? I didn’t hear you.”

“I said that I had been thinking about something.”

“About what?”

“About the priest sprinkling holy water for Grandpa. So he won’t be thirsty.”

What does this dialogue reveal about the Louise?

She follows think some of the spiritual ideas of the Pueblo people.

Read the following excerpt from Leslie Marmon Silko’s story “The Man to Send Rain Clouds.”

His fingers were stiff, and it took him a long time to twist the lid off the holy water. Drops of water fell on the red blanket and soaked into dark icy spots. He sprinkled the grave and the water disappeared almost before it touched the dim, cold sand; it reminded him of something- he tried to remember what it was, because he thought if he could remember he might understand this. He sprinkled more water; he shook the container until it was empty, and the water fell through the light from sundown like August rain that fell while the sun was still shining, almost evaporating before it touched the wilted squash flowers.

What inference can be made about Father Psul’s motives for going with Leon to sprinkle holy water on Teofilo’s grave?

He hopes to integrate his beliefs into theirs as much as possible.
Which of the following pieces of dialogue from Leslie Marmon Silko’s story “The Man to Send Rain Clouds” best reveals that Father Paul sees a compromise between the two faiths as the best option?
“When Leon open the door Father Paul stood up and said, “Wait.”

Read the following excerpt from Leslie Marmon Silko’s story “The Man to Send Rain Clouds.”

His fingers are stiff, And it took him a long time to twist the lid off the holy water. He sprinkled the grave and the water disappeared almost beat for it touch the dim, cold sand; it reminded him of something- he tried to remember what it was, because he thought if he could remember he might understand this. He sprinkled more water; he shook the container until it was empty, and the water fell through the light from sundown like August rain that fell while the sun was still shining, almost evaporating before it touched the wilted squash flowers.

Which statement best describes the significance of the holy water in this excerpt?

The holy water is important to both the priest and Leon, but it is important for different reasons.

Read the following excerpt from Leslie Marmon Silko’s story “The Man to Send Rain Clouds.”

“We down to him under a cottonwood tree in the big arroyo near sheep camp. I guess he sat down to rest in the shade and never got up again.” Leon walked towards the old man’s bed. The red plaid shawl had been shaken and spread carefully over the bed, and a new brown flannel shirt and a pair of stiff new Levi’s where are arranged neatly beside the pillow. Louise held the screen door open well Leon and Ken carried in the red blanket. He looked small and shriveled, and after they dressed him in the new shirt and pants he seemed more shrunken.

What detail from this excerpt best symbolizes traditional pueblo culture?

the red blanket

Read the following excerpt from Leslie Marmon Silko’s story “The Man to Send Rain Clouds.”

“Well, I’m glad you understand. I hope I’ll be seeing you at Mass this week- we missed you last Sunday. See if you can get old Teofilo to come with you.” The priest smiled and waved at them as they drove away.

This quote is located early in the narrative. What does it reveal about Father Paul?

He is out of touch with the community he serves.

Read the following excerpt from Leslie Marmon Silko’s story “The Man to Send Rain Clouds.”

The priest stared down at his scuffed brown loafers and the worn hem of his cassock. ” For a Christian burial it was necessary.”

His voice was distant, and Leon thought that his blue eyes looked tired.

“It’s O.K., Father, we just want him to have plenty of water.”

The priest sank down into the green chair and picked up a glossy missionary magazine. He turned the colored pages full of lepers and pagans without looking at them.

“You no I can’t do that, Leon. There should have been the Last Rites and a funeral Mass at the very least.”

Leon put on his green cap and pulled the flaps down over his ears. “It’s getting late, Father. I’ve got to go.”

Which of the following statements best describes the thematic significance of this dialogue?

Leon’s and Father Paul’s differing perspectives of the situation reflect their larger cultural conflicts.

The priest stared down at his scuffed brown loafers and the worn hem of his cassock. “For a Christian burial it was necessary.”

His voice was distant, and Leon thought that his blue eyes looked tired.

“It’s O.K., Father, we just want him to have plenty of water.”

The priest sank down into the green chair and picked up a glossy missionary magazine. He turned the colored pages full of lepers and pagans without looking at them.

“You know I can’t do that, Leon. There should have been the Last Rites and a funeral Mass at the very least.”

Based on this excerpt, what can be inferred about Father Paul’s feelings?

He is discouraged because Leon does not view the holy water as a holy symbol.
Which excerpt from Leslie Marmon Silko’s story “The Man to Send Rain Clouds” contains a simile?
. . . the water fell through the light from sundown like August rain that fell while the sun was still shining.
What does this dialogue reveal about Louise?
She follows some of the spiritual ideas of the Pueblo people.
What inference can be made about Father Paul’s motives for going with Leon to sprinkle holy water on Teofilo’s grave?
He hopes to integrate his beliefs into theirs as much as possible.
Which phrase best defines the term “figurative language”?
Language that is not meant to be taken literally
Which of the following pieces of dialogue from Leslie Marmon Silko’s story “The Man to Send Rain Clouds” best reveals that Father Paul sees compromise between the two faiths as the best option?
“When Leon opened the door Father Paul stood up and said, ‘Wait.'”
Which excerpt from Leslie Marmon Silko’s story “The Man to Send Rain Clouds” contains an example of personification?
The wind pulled the priest’s brown Franciscan robe and swirled away the corn meal and pollen that had been sprinkled on the blanket.
The actions of Leon and Ken indicate that
they still value the traditional beliefs of the Pueblo people.
Which detail in this excerpt indicates that Leon and his family still carry out traditional Pueblo practices?
the medicine bags and the sprinkled cornmeal
Which statement best describes the significance of the holy water in this excerpt?
The holy water is important to both the priest and Leon, but it is important for different reasons.
What does the holy water symbolize for Leon?
Which excerpt from Leslie Marmon Silko’s story “The Man to Send Rain Clouds” contains an example of personification?
The wind pulled the priest’s brown Franciscan robe and swirled away the corn meal and pollen that had been sprinkled on the blanket.

Read the following excerpt from Leslie Marmon Silko’s story “The Man to Send Rain Clouds.”

Leon stared at the new moccasins that Teofilo had made for the ceremonial dances in the summer. They were nearly hidden by the red blanket. It was getting colder, and the wind pushed gray dust down the narrow pueblo road.

Which of the following items acts as a symbol in this excerpt?

NOT the moccasins

Read the following excerpt from Leslie Marmon Silko’s story “The Man to Send Rain Clouds.”

The priest sank down into the green chair and picked up a glossy missionary magazine. He turned the colored pages full of lepers and pagans without looking at them.

“You know I can’t do that, Leon. There should have been the Last Rites and a funeral Mass at the very least.”

Leon put on his green cap and pulled the flaps down over his ears. “It’s getting late, Father. I’ve got to go.”

When Leon opened the door Father Paul stood up and said, “Wait.” He left the room and came back wearing a long brown overcoat.

What does the outcome of this discussion reveal about the priest?

Though he wants to promote his religious beliefs, he is willing to make some sacrifices.
Which piece of dialogue from Leslie Marmon Silko’s story “The Man to Send Rain Clouds” best illustrates that Christian rites are not important to Leon or his community?
NOT Leon put on his green cap and pulled the flaps down over his ears. “It’s getting late, Father. I’ve got to go.”

Read the following quote from Leslie Marmon Silko’s story “The Man to Send Rain Clouds.”

“Well, I’m glad you understand. I hope I’ll be seeing you at Mass this week—we missed you last Sunday. See if you can get old Teofilo to come with you.” The priest smiled and waved at them as they drove away.

This quote is located early in the narrative. What does it reveal about Father Paul?

NOT He has been Leon’s priest for a long time.

Read the following excerpt from Leslie Marmon Silko’s story “The Man to Send Rain Clouds.”

Before they wrapped the old man, Leon took a piece of string out of his pocket and tied a small gray feather in the old man’s long white hair. Ken gave him the paint. Across the brown wrinkled forehead he drew a streak of white and along the high cheekbones he drew a strip of blue paint. He paused and watched Ken throw pinches of corn meal and pollen into the wind that fluttered the small gray feather. Then Leon painted with yellow under the old man’s broad nose, and finally, when he had painted green across the chin, he smiled.

The actions of Leon and Ken indicate that

they still value the traditional beliefs of the Pueblo people.

Read the following excerpt from Leslie Marmon Silko’s story “The Man to Send Rain Clouds.”

His fingers were stiff, and it took him a long time to twist the lid off the holy water. Drops of water fell on the red blanket and soaked into dark icy spots. He sprinkled the grave and the water disappeared almost before it touched the dim, cold sand; it reminded him of something—he tried to remember what it was, because he thought if he could remember he might understand this. He sprinkled more water; he shook the container until it was empty, and the water fell through the light from sundown like August rain that fell while the sun was still shining, almost evaporating before it touched the wilted squash flowers.

What inference can be made about Father Paul’s motives for going with Leon to sprinkle holy water on Teofilo’s grave?

He hopes to integrate his beliefs into theirs as much as possible.

Read the following excerpt from Leslie Marmon Silko’s story “The Man to Send Rain Clouds.”

“We found him under a cottonwood tree in the big arroyo near sheep camp. I guess he sat down to rest in the shade and never got up again.” Leon walked toward the old man’s bed. The red plaid shawl had been shaken and spread carefully over the bed, and a new brown flannel shirt and pair of stiff new Levi’s were arranged neatly beside the pillow. Louise held the screen door open while Leon and Ken carried in the red blanket. He looked small and shriveled, and after they dressed him in the new shirt and pants he seemed more shrunken.

What detail from this excerpt best symbolizes traditional Pueblo culture?

the red blanket

Read the following quote from Leslie Marmon Silko’s story “The Man to Send Rain Clouds.”

The priest stared down at his scuffed brown loafers and the worn hem of his cassock. “For a Christian burial it was necessary.”

His voice was distant, and Leon thought that his blue eyes looked tired.

“It’s O.K., Father, we just want him to have plenty of water.”

The priest sank down into the green chair and picked up a glossy missionary magazine. He turned the colored pages full of lepers and pagans without looking at them.

“You know I can’t do that, Leon. There should have been the Last Rites and a funeral Mass at the very least.”

Based on this excerpt, what can be inferred about Father Paul’s feelings?

NOT He secretly feels frustrated that Leon and the Pueblo people hold on to their traditional beliefs.

Read the following excerpt from Leslie Marmon Silko’s story “The Man to Send Rain Clouds.”

His fingers were stiff, and it took him a long time to twist the lid off the holy water. Drops of water fell on the red blanket and soaked into dark icy spots. He sprinkled the grave and the water disappeared almost before it touched the dim, cold sand; it reminded him of something—he tried to remember what it was, because he thought if he could remember he might understand this. He sprinkled more water; he shook the container until it was empty, and the water fell through the light from sundown like August rain that fell while the sun was still shining, almost evaporating before it touched the wilted squash flowers.

Which statement best describes the significance of the holy water in this excerpt?

The holy water is important to both the priest and Leon, but it is important for different reasons.

Read the excerpt from “Mother Tongue.”

And sure enough, the following week there we were in front of this astonished stockbroker, and I was sitting there red-faced and quiet, and my mother, the real Mrs. Tan, was shouting at his boss in her impeccable broken English.

What can be inferred from the excerpt?

Nonstandard forms of English can be as effective as the standard form of English.
Which of the following best summarizes one central idea of the passage from “Mother Tongue”?
All forms of the English language are meaningful and purposeful.

Read the excerpt from “Mother Tongue.”

Just last week, I was walking down the street with my mother, and I again found myself conscious of the English I was using, the English I do use with her. We were talking about the price of new and used furniture and I heard myself saying this: “Not waste money that way.” My husband was with us as well, and he didn’t notice any switch in my English. And then I realized why. It’s because over the twenty years we’ve been together I’ve often used that same kind of English with him, and sometimes he even uses it with me. It has become our language of intimacy, a different sort of English that relates to family talk, the language I grew up with.

How does Tan build a central idea of her story in the excerpt?

Tan describes a realization she makes while with her husband to support the idea that nonstandard forms of English are important forms of communication.
Which of the following best summarizes one central idea of the passage from “Mother Tongue”?
The way a person speaks English is not a good measure of intellectual ability.

Read the excerpt from “Mother Tongue.”

Yet some of my friends tell me they understand 50 percent of what my mother says. Some say they understand 80 to 90 percent. Some say they understand none of it, as if she were speaking pure Chinese. But to me, my mother’s English is perfectly clear, perfectly natural. It’s my mother tongue. Her language, as I hear it, is vivid, direct, full of observation and imagery. That was the language that helped shape the way I saw things, expressed things, made sense of the world.

How does Tan build a central idea of her story in the excerpt?

Tan discusses her mother’s English to support the idea that the language of one’s childhood is a person’s deepest, truest form of expression.

Read the excerpt from “Mother Tongue.”

And here you would be presented with a list of four possible pairs, one of which showed the same kind of relationship: red is to stoplight, bus is to arrival, chills is to fever, yawn is to boring. Well, I could never think that way. I knew what the tests were asking, but I could not block out of my mind the images already created by the first pair, “sunset is to nightfall”—and I would see a burst of colors against a darkening sky, the moon rising, the lowering of a curtain of stars.

How does Tan build a central idea of her story in the excerpt?

NOT: Tan gives an example of a test question to support the idea that more efforts must be made in the home to expose children to standard English.

Read the excerpt from “Mother Tongue.”

And sure enough, the following week there we were in front of this astonished stockbroker, and I was sitting there red-faced and quiet, and my mother, the real Mrs. Tan, was shouting at his boss in her impeccable broken English.

Which information from the excerpt best supports the inference that all forms of English can be effective forms of communication?

Tan uses the word “impeccable” to describe her mother’s English.

Read the excerpt from “Mother Tongue.”

Lately, I’ve been giving more thought to the kind of English my mother speaks. Like others, I have described it to people as “broken” or “fractured” English. But I wince when I say that. It has always bothered me that I can think of no other way to describe it other than “broken,” as if it were damaged and needed to be fixed, as if it lacked a certain wholeness and soundness.

Which best summarizes the central idea in the excerpt?

NOT: Tan is troubled by the way her mother uses the English language.

Read the excerpt from “Mother Tongue.”

I’ve heard other terms used, “limited English,” for example. But they seem just as bad, as if everything is limited, including people’s perceptions of the limited English speaker.

How does Tan build a central idea of her story in the excerpt?

NOT: Tan discusses the limits of writing in English to support the idea that authors learn other languages to express their ideas more fully

Read the excerpt from “Mother Tongue.”

Just last week, I was walking down the street with my mother, and I again found myself conscious of the English I was using, the English I do use with her. We were talking about the price of new and used furniture and I heard myself saying this: “Not waste money that way.” My husband was with us as well, and he didn’t notice any switch in my English. And then I realized why. It’s because over the twenty years we’ve been together I’ve often used that same kind of English with him, and sometimes he even uses it with me. It has become our language of intimacy, a different sort of English that relates to family talk, the language I grew up with.

What can be inferred from the excerpt?

Tan believes that nonstandard English can be an important part of family culture.
Which of the following best summarizes one central idea of the passage from “Mother Tongue”?
The way a person speaks English is not a good measure of intellectual ability.

Read the excerpt from “Mother Tongue.”

Those tests were constructed around items like fill-in-the-blank sentence completion, such as “Even though Tom was ______, Mary thought he was _____.” And the correct answer always seemed to be the most bland combinations of thoughts, for example, “Even though Tom was foolish, Mary thought he was ridiculous.” Well, according to my mother, there were very few limitations as to what Tom could have been and what Mary might have thought of him. So I never did well on tests like that.

How does Tan build a central idea of her story in the excerpt?

Tan gives an example of her experience with achievement tests to support the idea that they are not always accurate measures of language ability.

Read the excerpt from “Mother Tongue.”

And sure enough, the following week there we were in front of this astonished stockbroker, and I was sitting there red-faced and quiet, and my mother, the real Mrs. Tan, was shouting at his boss in her impeccable broken English.

Which information from the excerpt best supports the inference that all forms of English can be effective forms of communication?

Tan uses the word “impeccable” to describe her mother’s English.

Read the excerpt from “Mother Tongue.”

Yet some of my friends tell me they understand 50 percent of what my mother says. Some say they understand 80 to 90 percent. Some say they understand none of it, as if she were speaking pure Chinese. But to me, my mother’s English is perfectly clear, perfectly natural. It’s my mother tongue. Her language, as I hear it, is vivid, direct, full of observation and imagery. That was the language that helped shape the way I saw things, expressed things, made sense of the world.

How does Tan build a central idea of her story in the excerpt?

Tan discusses her mother’s English to support the idea that the language of one’s childhood is a person’s deepest, truest form of expression.
Which of the following best summarizes one central idea of the passage from “Mother Tongue”?
The expression of experience through language is more powerful when different forms of English are accepted.

Read the excerpt from “Mother Tongue.”

Just last week, I was walking down the street with my mother, and I again found myself conscious of the English I was using, the English I do use with her. We were talking about the price of new and used furniture and I heard myself saying this: “Not waste money that way.” My husband was with us as well, and he didn’t notice any switch in my English. And then I realized why. It’s because over the twenty years we’ve been together I’ve often used that same kind of English with him, and sometimes he even uses it with me. It has become our language of intimacy, a different sort of English that relates to family talk, the language I grew up with.

Which information from the excerpt best supports the inference that nonstandard forms of English can express relationship nuances that standard English cannot?

Tan uses the nonstandard English of her childhood with her husband because it expresses intimacy.

Read the excerpt from “Mother Tongue.”

Just last week, I was walking down the street with my mother, and I again found myself conscious of the English I was using, the English I do use with her. We were talking about the price of new and used furniture and I heard myself saying this: “Not waste money that way.” My husband was with us as well, and he didn’t notice any switch in my English. And then I realized why. It’s because over the twenty years we’ve been together I’ve often used that same kind of English with him, and sometimes he even uses it with me. It has become our language of intimacy, a different sort of English that relates to family talk, the language I grew up with.

How does Tan build a central idea of her story in the excerpt?

Tan describes a realization she makes while with her husband to support the idea that nonstandard forms of English are important forms of communication.

Read the excerpt from “Mother Tongue.”

I’ve heard other terms used, “limited English,” for example. But they seem just as bad, as if everything is limited, including people’s perceptions of the limited English speaker.

How does Tan build a central idea of her story in the excerpt?

Tan expresses an opinion to support the idea that people who speak nonstandard forms of English are unfairly judged in negative ways.

Read the excerpt from “Mother Tongue.”

Just last week, I was walking down the street with my mother, and I again found myself conscious of the English I was using, the English I do use with her. We were talking about the price of new and used furniture and I heard myself saying this: “Not waste money that way.” My husband was with us as well, and he didn’t notice any switch in my English. And then I realized why. It’s because over the twenty years we’ve been together I’ve often used that same kind of English with him, and sometimes he even uses it with me. It has become our language of intimacy, a different sort of English that relates to family talk, the language I grew up with.

Which best summarizes the central idea of the excerpt?

Nonstandard forms of English imply close relationships and family values.

Read the excerpt from “Mother Tongue.”

And sure enough, the following week there we were in front of this astonished stockbroker, and I was sitting there red-faced and quiet, and my mother, the real Mrs. Tan, was shouting at his boss in her impeccable broken English.

The inference suggested by this excerpt is that nonstandard forms of English

can be as effective as the standard form of English
Which of the following best summarizes one central idea of the passage from “Mother Tongue”?
All forms of the English language are meaningful and purposeful.

Read the excerpt from “Mother Tongue.”

Lately, I’ve been giving more thought to the kind of English my mother speaks. Like others, I have described it to people as “broken” or “fractured” English. But I wince when I say that. It has always bothered me that I can think of no other way to describe it other than “broken,” as if it were damaged and needed to be fixed, as if it lacked a certain wholeness and soundness.

What best supports the inference that Tan believes nonstandard English is no less valid than standard English?

Tan winces when she describes her mother’s English as “broken.”

Read the excerpt from “Mother Tongue.”

Just last week, I was walking down the street with my mother, and I again found myself conscious of the English I was using, the English I do use with her. We were talking about the price of new and used furniture and I heard myself saying this: “Not waste money that way.” My husband was with us as well, and he didn’t notice any switch in my English. And then I realized why. It’s because over the twenty years we’ve been together I’ve often used that same kind of English with him, and sometimes he even uses it with me. It has become our language of intimacy, a different sort of English that relates to family talk, the language I grew up with.

What can be inferred from the excerpt?

Tan believes that nonstandard English can be an important part of family culture.
What type of language should be used in a critical analysis essay?
formal

Whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness.

In this excerpt, certain words are capitalized to

highlight the supremacy of certain concepts.

Tortillas and poetry. They go hand in hand. Books nourish the spirit, bread nourishes our bodies. Our distinct cultures nourish each one of us, and as we know more and more about the art and literature of the different cultures, we become freer and freer. . . .

I don’t know anyone who doesn’t like to sample different ethnic foods, the breads of many many groups; just as many of us enjoy sampling books from different areas of the world. I travel to foreign countries, and I know more about myself as I learn more about my fellow human beings. Censorship imposes itself in my path of knowledge, and that activity can be justified by no one.

Which of these changes would make this excerpt more argumentative?

including words that address logic and reason

Tortillas and poetry. They go hand in hand. Books nourish the spirit, bread nourishes our bodies. Our distinct cultures nourish each one of us, and as we know more and more about the art and literature of the different cultures, we become freer and freer. . . .

I don’t know anyone who doesn’t like to sample different ethnic foods, the breads of many many groups; just as many of us enjoy sampling books from different areas of the world. I travel to foreign countries, and I know more about myself as I learn more about my fellow human beings. Censorship imposes itself in my path of knowledge, and that activity can be justified by no one.

Which choice best describes the purpose of this text?

to persuade readers to oppose the censorship of literature

In the Declaration of Independence, Thomas Jefferson talks about independence through his use of big words and fancy argument skills.

Which is the best revision to the sentence?

In the Declaration of Independence, Thomas Jefferson uses his command of the English language to make a powerful argument for American independence.

Go where you may, search where you will, roam through all the monarchies and despotisms of the Old World, travel through South America, search out every abuse, and when you have found the last, lay your facts by the side of the everyday practices of this nation, and you will say with me, that, for revolting barbarity and shameless hypocrisy, America reigns without a rival.

What is one way that Douglass achieves his purpose of persuading the reader to see his point of view?

by repeating the word “you” to directly relate to the reader
Which choice best defines a word’s connotative meaning?
the feeling and association that the word evokes

Thomas Paine was an English American __________ who wrote pamphlets that influenced many people and were instrumental in starting the American Revolution. He skillfully communicated the ideas of the Revolution to everyone, from farmers to intellectuals.

If the purpose of this paragraph is to inform, which word best fits in the blank?

activist

Tortillas and poetry. They go hand in hand. Books nourish the spirit, bread nourishes our bodies. Our distinct cultures nourish each one of us, and as we know more and more about the art and literature of the different cultures, we become freer and freer. . . .

I don’t know anyone who doesn’t like to sample different ethnic foods, the breads of many many groups; just as many of us enjoy sampling books from different areas of the world. I travel to foreign countries, and I know more about myself as I learn more about my fellow human beings. Censorship imposes itself in my path of knowledge, and that activity can be justified by no one.

Which phrase from the excerpt uses formal English?

“that activity can be justified by no one”

Britain, with an army to enforce her tyranny, has declared that she has a right (not only to TAX) but “to BIND us in ALL CASES WHATSOEVER,” and if being bound in that manner, is not slavery, then is there not such a thing as slavery upon earth. . . .

. . . Neither have I so much of the infidel in me, as to suppose that He has relinquished the government of the world, and given us up to the care of devils; and as I do not, I cannot see on what grounds the king of Britain can look up to heaven for help against us: a common murderer, a highwayman, or a house-breaker, has as good a pretence as he.

What is the denotation of the word “bound” in this excerpt?

trapped
Which phrase best defines the denotative meaning of a word?
the literal meaning of the word

Britain, with an army to enforce her tyranny, has declared that she has a right (not only to TAX) but “to BIND us in ALL CASES WHATSOEVER,” and if being bound in that manner, is not slavery, then is there not such a thing as slavery upon earth. . . .

. . . Neither have I so much of the infidel in me, as to suppose that He has relinquished the government of the world, and given us up to the care of devils; and as I do not, I cannot see on what grounds the king of Britain can look up to heaven for help against us: a common murderer, a highwayman, or a house-breaker, has as good a pretence as he.

The words “slavery,” “devils,” and “murderer” evoke a sense of

anger and injustice.

I know this for a fact, because when I was growing up, my mother’s “limited” English limited my perception of her. I was ashamed of her English. I believed that her English reflected the quality of what she had to say. That is, because she expressed them imperfectly her thoughts were imperfect.

Which phrase from this excerpt best helps the reader identify the author’s purpose?

NOT!
“my mother’s ‘limited’ English”

The largest of the linen tents, erected at the campsite to protect the team of conservationists from the relentless African sun, housed the leader of the expedition, Dr. Aidan Hamilton. His round spectacles framed his slender face and complimented his gray hair as he sat outside his tent, mapping the day’s journey.

Julissa is most likely writing with the purpose of

describing in an observational manner.

Monica relocated into a new apartment last weekend. She had countless boxes to pack and could not possibly attempt to transport the furniture herself. She is hiring movers to help her with the heaviest items. Monica’s furniture was loaded into a truck and moved to her new apartment. She was there to instruct the movers where to put everything. Luckily, all the furniture made it to the location in one piece!

Which best explains the inconsistency in writing used in this paragraph?

It does not maintain appropriate verb tense.

Texting is an increasingly popular means of communication with students at Mystic Falls High School. Students text their friends to make plans, ask questions, and share information. However, texting can also be distracting. It takes students’ attention away from the primary purpose of school: learning.

What is the tone of the article?

critical

From Polaris a line of small stars curves toward the handle of the Dipper, meeting the upper one of a pair of the third magnitude. This pair, with another farther on and parallel to it, form the ‘Little Dipper,’ Polaris being the end of its handle. The group is Ursa Minor. Opposite the handle of the great Dipper, and at about the same distance from Polaris, are five rather bright stars forming a flattened letter W. They are the principal stars of Cassiopeia.

What strategy does the author use in his choice of language to convey his message?

facts and statements

The pines are widely distributed throughout the Northern Hemisphere, and include about 80 distinct species with over 600 varieties. The species enumerated here are especially common in the eastern part of the United States, growing either native in the forest or under cultivation in the parks. The pines form a very important class of timber trees, and produce beautiful effects when planted in groups in the parks.

Which strategy does the author use in his choice of language to convey his message?

facts and statements

As the trumpet blared a jarring noise, everyone quickly covered their ears!

Using the context clues, what is the meaning of the underlined word?

shrill

The mission of the Blanche Anti-Bullying Organization is to promote integrity, self-esteem, and respect for all people; therefore, as we pursue our mission, we the founders do respectfully promise to uphold these values for ourselves and all of our participating members.

What is the tone of the passage?

sincere

Since the budget for the groundbreaking elephant-behavior-studies program has been cut—just as it was beginning to make progress—wildlife conservationists and their supporters are asking that people from all over the world promote the program by encouraging local agencies and community members to donate time and funds to secure the future of the amazingly gentle and intelligent African elephant species.

Darryl is most likely writing with the purpose of

persuading and influencing others.

Maria excels in gymnastics and tumbling. She has the commitment and dedication it takes to be successful in a demanding sport. The balance beam is my favorite event to watch because it requires a great deal of focus. Maria will continue training in the hopes of landing a spot on the competitive team.

Which best explains the inconsistency in writing used in this paragraph?

It does not maintain a single point of view.

The investors could not handle the ups and downs so they removed their funds from the fluctuating market.

Using the context clues, what is the meaning of the underlined word?

to vary in level or value

Read the excerpt from Rudolfo Anaya’s essay “Take the Tortillas Out of Your Poetry.”

Tortillas and poetry. They go hand in hand. Books nourish the spirit, bread nourishes our bodies. Our distinct cultures nourish each one of us, and as we know more and more about the art and literature of the different cultures, we become freer and freer. . . .

I don’t know anyone who doesn’t like to sample different ethnic foods, the breads of many many groups; just as many of us enjoy sampling books from different areas of the world. I travel to foreign countries, and I know more about myself as I learn more about my fellow human beings. Censorship imposes itself in my path of knowledge, and that activity can be justified by no one.

Which choice best describes the purpose of this text?

to persuade readers to oppose the censorship of literature

Read the paragraph from a student’s critical analysis essay.

In the Declaration of Independence, Thomas Jefferson talks about independence through his use of big words and fancy argument skills. First, Jefferson states his thesis, which makes it seem important that the colonists get independence. Next, Jefferson gives evidence against the king of England and how he mistreats the American colonies. Finally, Jefferson suggests that colonists should stop paying taxes and fight, which is the obvious answer to the colonists’ problems.

What is the best way for the student to revise the essay?

The student should replace informal language with formal language.

Read the excerpt from Amy Tan’s essay “Mother Tongue.”

I know this for a fact, because when I was growing up, my mother’s “limited” English limited my perception of her. I was ashamed of her English. I believed that her English reflected the quality of what she had to say. That is, because she expressed them imperfectly her thoughts were imperfect.

Which phrase from this excerpt best helps the reader identify the author’s purpose?

“I know this for a fact”

Read the excerpt from Rudolfo Anaya’s essay “Take the Tortillas Out of Your Poetry.”

Tortillas and poetry. They go hand in hand. Books nourish the spirit, bread nourishes our bodies. Our distinct cultures nourish each one of us, and as we know more and more about the art and literature of the different cultures, we become freer and freer. . . .

I don’t know anyone who doesn’t like to sample different ethnic foods, the breads of many many groups; just as many of us enjoy sampling books from different areas of the world. I travel to foreign countries, and I know more about myself as I learn more about my fellow human beings. Censorship imposes itself in my path of knowledge, and that activity can be justified by no one.

Which phrase from the excerpt uses formal English?

“that activity can be justified by no one”

Read the excerpt from Frederick Douglass’s speech “What to the Slave Is the Fourth of July?”

Go where you may, search where you will, roam through all the monarchies and despotisms of the Old World, travel through South America, search out every abuse, and when you have found the last, lay your facts by the side of the everyday practices of this nation, and you will say with me, that, for revolting barbarity and shameless hypocrisy, America reigns without a rival.

Which of the following best describes Douglass’s word choice in this excerpt?

NOT: lighthearted

Read the excerpt from Amy Tan’s essay “Mother Tongue.”

I know this for a fact, because when I was growing up, my mother’s “limited” English limited my perception of her. I was ashamed of her English. I believed that her English reflected the quality of what she had to say. That is, because she expressed them imperfectly her thoughts were imperfect.

Which phrase from the excerpt uses informal English?

NOT: “limited my perception”

Read the excerpt from Rudolfo Anaya’s essay “Take the Tortillas Out of Your Poetry.”

Tortillas and poetry. They go hand in hand. Books nourish the spirit, bread nourishes our bodies. Our distinct cultures nourish each one of us, and as we know more and more about the art and literature of the different cultures, we become freer and freer. . . .

I don’t know anyone who doesn’t like to sample different ethnic foods, the breads of many many groups; just as many of us enjoy sampling books from different areas of the world. I travel to foreign countries, and I know more about myself as I learn more about my fellow human beings. Censorship imposes itself in my path of knowledge, and that activity can be justified by no one.

Which phrase from the excerpt best uses persuasion?

NOT: “just as many of us enjoy sampling books from different areas”

Read the excerpt from Amy Tan’s essay “Mother Tongue.”

I know this for a fact, because when I was growing up, my mother’s “limited” English limited my perception of her. I was ashamed of her English. I believed that her English reflected the quality of what she had to say. That is, because she expressed them imperfectly her thoughts were imperfect.

What is the purpose of this text?

to inform readers based on Tan’s childhood experience
What type of language should be used in a critical analysis essay?
formal

Read the excerpt from Frederick Douglass’s speech “What to the Slave Is the Fourth of July?”

Go where you may, search where you will, roam through all the monarchies and despotisms of the Old World, travel through South America, search out every abuse, and when you have found the last, lay your facts by the side of the everyday practices of this nation, and you will say with me, that, for revolting barbarity and shameless hypocrisy, America reigns without a rival.

To support his purpose, Douglass includes words such as

abuse, barbarity,shameless

I know this for a fact, because when I was growing up, my mother’s “limited” English limited my perception of her. I was ashamed of her English. I believed that her English reflected the quality of what she had to say. That is, because she expressed them imperfectly her thoughts were imperfect.

Which word best describes Tan’s language in this excerpt?

conversational
Which of the following pieces of evidence from Fast Food Nation best supports the author’s claim that teenagers are the ideal candidates for working in the fast food industry?
Since most teenagers still lived at home, they could afford to work for wages too low to support an adult, and until recently, their limited skills attracted few other employers.
Which excerpt from Fast Food Nation best states a reason supporting the author’s claim that fast food restaurants follow the assembly line model?
At Burger King restaurants, frozen hamburger patties are placed on a conveyer belt and emerge from a broiler ninety seconds later fully cooked.
Which excerpt from Fast Food Nation best illustrates the author’s use of the rhetorical appeal logos?
English is now the second language of at least one-sixth of the nation’s restaurant workers, and about one-third of that group speaks no English at all.
Which excerpt from Fast Food Nation best illustrates the use of the rhetorical appeal pathos?
But the stance of the fast food industry on issues involving employee training, the minimum wage, labor unions, and overtime pay strongly suggests that its motives in hiring the young, the poor, and the handicapped are hardly altruistic.

Read the excerpt from Fast Food Nation.

EVERY SATURDAY, ELISA ZAMOT gets up at 5:15 in the morning. It’s a struggle, and her head feels groggy as she steps into the shower. Her little sisters, Cookie and Sabrina, are fast asleep in their beds. By 5:30, Elisa’s showered, done her hair, and put on her McDonald’s uniform. She’s sixteen, bright-eyed and olive-skinned, pretty and petite, ready for another day of work. Elisa’s mother usually drives her the half-mile or so to the restaurant, but sometimes Elisa walks, leaving home before the sun rises.

Which of the following choices best describes the rhetorical appeal used in this excerpt?

The excerpt demonstrates pathos because the author presents a compelling story using emotional language.
The author of Fast Food Nation claims that the fast-food industry prefers to employ underskilled workers. The author best offers support by providing
specific reasons such as the ability of de-skilled jobs to “be filled cheaply”

Read the excerpt from Fast Food Nation.

Instead of relying upon a small, stable, well-paid, and well-trained workforce, the fast food industry seeks out part-time, unskilled workers who are willing to accept low pay. Teenagers have been the perfect candidates for these jobs, not only because they are less expensive to hire than adults, but also because their youthful inexperience makes them easier to control.

In this excerpt, Schlosser claims that fast food restaurants are

taking advantage of people to save money.

Read the excerpt from Fast Food Nation.

Cooking instructions are not only printed in the manual, they are often designed into the machines. A McDonald’s kitchen is full of buzzers and flashing lights that tell employees what to do.

The evidence presented in this excerpt best supports the author’s claim that

fast food restaurants use technology designed to reduce the need for skilled labor.

Read the excerpt from Fast Food Nation.

Unlike Olympic gymnastics—an activity in which teenagers consistently perform at a higher level than adults—there’s nothing about the work in a fast food kitchen that requires young employees.

Which type of evidence does the author use in this excerpt?

analogical

Read the excerpt from Fast Food Nation.

The labor practices of the fast food industry have their origins in the assembly line systems adopted by American manufacturers in the early twentieth century. Business historian Alfred D. Chandler has argued that a high rate of “throughput” was the most important aspect of these mass production systems. A factory’s throughput is the speed and volume of its flow—a much more crucial measurement, according to Chandler, than the number of workers it employs or the value of its machinery.

Which of the following choices best describes the evidence used in this excerpt?

An expert’s opinion provides historical background of an important concept.
Which type of evidence is Schlosser using in this excerpt?
c. testimonial
The evidence presented here supports the author’s claim that fast food restaurants are like factories because the excerpt
d. illustrates the assembly line principle of making things faster.
Which excerpt from Fast Food Nation best illustrates the use of the rhetorical appeal pathos?
d. But the stance of the fast food industry on issues involving employee training, the minimum wage, labor unions, and overtime pay strongly suggests that its motives in hiring the young, the poor, and the handicapped are hardly altruistic.
In this excerpt, Schlosser claims that fast food restaurants are
a. taking advantage of people to save money.
In Fast Food Nation, the best reason that the author offers for the fast-food industry’s strict regimen for productivity is that
c. it gives the companies power over their employees.
Which of the following choices best describes the evidence used in this excerpt?
a. An expert’s opinion provides historical background of an important concept.
Which excerpt from Fast Food Nation best illustrates the author’s use of the rhetorical appeal logos?
c. English is now the second language of at least one-sixth of the nation’s restaurant workers, and about one-third of that group speaks no English at all.
The author of Fast Food Nation claims that the fast-food industry prefers to employ teenagers. How does the author best support this claim?
d. by providing specific reasons why teenagers are ideal candidates, such as their acceptance of lower wages
Which best describes the type of evidence presented in this excerpt?
d. testimonial
The author of Fast Food Nation claims that the fast-food industry prefers to employ underskilled workers. The author best offers support by providing
= specific reasons such as the ability of de-skilled jobs to “be filled cheaply”
The testimonial evidence in this excerpt is effective because it
b. includes an expert opinion supporting the claim that the fast food industry resembles the manufacturing business.
Which excerpt from Fast Food Nation best states the author’s overall claim?
The fast food industry’s obsession with throughput has altered the way millions of Americans work, turned commercial kitchens into small factories, and changed familiar foods into commodities that are manufactured.
Which type of evidence does the author use in this excerpt?
d. analogical
Which type of evidence does Schlosser use in this excerpt?
a. anecdotal
Which excerpt from Fast Food Nation best states a reason supporting the author’s claim that fast food restaurants follow the assembly line model?
b. At Burger King restaurants, frozen hamburger patties are placed on a conveyer belt and emerge from a broiler ninety seconds later fully cooked.

At Taco Bell restaurants the food is “assembled,” not prepared. The guacamole isn’t made by workers in the kitchen; it’s made at a factory in Michoacán, Mexico, then frozen and shipped north. The chain’s taco meat arrives frozen and precooked in vacuum-sealed plastic bags. The beans are dehydrated and look like brownish corn flakes. The cooking process is fairly simple. “Everything’s add water,” a Taco Bell employee told me. “Just add hot water.”

The Taco Bell employee’s quote supports Schlosser’s argument in this excerpt because it

emphasizes the obsession with consistency and standardization in the fast food industry.