English 11-B3: Mother Tongue, Harrison Bergeron

According to “Introduction to Cultural Rebellion: Mid-Twentieth-Century Voices,” which statement best explains why science fiction authors of the postwar period created alternative worlds as settings for their stories?
They wanted to highlight the potential negative consequences of developing atomic weapons.
One day I was hanging around the campus and Chad and Tim Gray told me Dean was staying in a cold-water pad in East Harlem, the Spanish Harlem. Dean had arrived the night before, the first time in New York, with his beautiful little sharp chick Marylou; they got off the Greyhound bus at 50th Street and cut around the corner looking for a place to eat and went right in Hector’s, and since then Hector’s cafeteria has always been a big symbol of New York for Dean.

What does this excerpt reveal about the beat generation?

The beat generation was made up of young people who were just beginning their lives as independent adults.
With the coming of Dean Moriarty began the part of my life you could call my life on the road. Before that I’d often dreamed of going West to see the country, always vaguely planning and never taking off.

What quality of the beat generation does Kerouac express in this excerpt?

a spirit of adventure
As we rode in the bus in the weird phosphorescent void of the Lincoln Tunnel we leaned on each other with fingers waving and yelled and talked excitedly, and I was beginning to get the bug like Dean. He was simply a youth tremendously excited with life, and though he was a con-man, he was only conning because he wanted so much to live and to get involved with people who would otherwise pay no attention to him.

Which statement best explains the effect of Kerouac’s syntax on his writing style?

Kerouac’s use of syntax gives his writing a fast, animated style that reflects the thrill of the moment.
According to “Introduction to Cultural Rebellion: Mid-Twentieth-Century Voices,” which statement best reflects one difference between postwar science fiction writers and writers of the beat generation?
Postwar science fiction authors wrote to warn society of the potential results of its values, while beat generation authors wrote to reject society’s values.
According to “Introduction to Cultural Rebellion: Mid-Twentieth-Century Voices,” which underlying theme is reflected in the writing of postwar authors across genres?
the personal and political dangers of a society that values conformity
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One day I was hanging around the campus and Chad and Tim Gray told me Dean was staying in a cold-water pad in East Harlem, the Spanish Harlem. Dean had arrived the night before, the first time in New York, with his beautiful little sharp chick Marylou; they got off the Greyhound bus at 50th Street and cut around the corner looking for a place to eat and went right in Hector’s, and since then Hector’s cafeteria has always been a big symbol of New York for Dean.

Which statement best describes how Kerouac’s use of syntax contributes to his writing style?

NOT: Kerouac’s use of syntax gives his writing the journalistic tone of a newspaper article.
One day I was hanging around the campus and Chad and Tim Gray told me Dean was staying in a cold-water pad in East Harlem, the Spanish Harlem. Dean had arrived the night before, the first time in New York, with his beautiful little sharp chick Marylou; they got off the Greyhound bus at 50th Street and cut around the corner looking for a place to eat and went right in Hector’s, and since then Hector’s cafeteria has always been a big symbol of New York for Dean.

Which statement best describes how Kerouac’s diction contributes to his writing style?

NOT: Kerouac uses abstract vocabulary to give his writing a detached quality.
In those days he really didn’t know what he was talking about; that is to say, he was a young jailkid all hung-up on the wonderful possibilities of becoming a real intellectual, and he liked to talk in the tone and using the words, but in a jumbled way, that he had heard from “real intellectuals”—although, mind you, he wasn’t so naïve as that in all other things, and it took him just a few months with Carlo Marx to become completely in there with all the terms and jargon.

Which is a key feature of Kerouac’s syntax that contributes to his writing style?

the use of long, uninterrupted sentences
One day I was hanging around the campus and Chad and Tim Gray told me Dean was staying in a cold-water pad in East Harlem, the Spanish Harlem. Dean had arrived the night before, the first time in New York, with his beautiful little sharp chick Marylou; they got off the Greyhound bus at 50th Street and cut around the corner looking for a place to eat and went right in Hector’s, and since then Hector’s cafeteria has always been a big symbol of New York for Dean.

Which statement best describes how Kerouac’s use of diction and syntax define his writing style?

Kerouac’s use of slang and long, uninterrupted sentences define his style as unconventional.
Neither am I the means to any end others may wish to accomplish. I am not a tool for their use. I am not a servant of their needs. I am not a bandage for their wounds. I am not a sacrifice on their altars.
I am a man. This miracle of me is mine to own and keep, and mine to guard, and mine to use, and mine to kneel before!

The imagery of servitude and sacrifice reinforces the theme that the moral purpose of a person’s life is to

seek his or her own happiness
Ayn Rand, author of Anthem, would most likely agree with which statement?
NOT: The rights of a group are more important than the rights of an individual. OR It is man’s moral obligation to help others.
But I still wonder how it was possible, in those graceless years of transition, long ago, that men did not see whither they were going, and went on, in blindness and cowardice, to their fate. I wonder, for it is hard for me to conceive how men who knew the word “I,” could give it up and not know what they lost.

Based on the excerpt, it can be inferred that the narrator believes that

men surrendered to conformity and gave up their own freedom.
I stand here on the summit of the mountain. I lift my head and I spread my arms. This, my body and spirit, this is the end of the quest. I wished to know the meaning of things. I am the meaning. I wished to find a warrant for being. I need no warrant for being, and no word of sanction upon my being. I am the warrant and the sanction.

The excerpt supports the theme of

reflective connections
What disaster took their reason away from men? What whip lashed them to their knees in shame and submission? The worship of the word “We.”

In the excerpt, which concept causes the downfall of humanity?

collectivism
Those men who survived—those eager to obey, eager to live for one another, since they had nothing else to vindicate them—those men could neither carry on, nor preserve what they had received. Thus did all thought, all science, all wisdom perish on earth. Thus did men—men with nothing to offer save their great number—lose the steel towers, the flying ships, the power wires, all the things they had not created and could never keep.

What connection does the narrator make between collectivism and human invention?

People who prefer collective thought are unable to contribute new ideas to mankind’s progress.
In Anthem, the narrator’s name, Equality 7-2521, helps to develop a theme that
individuality is lost in a collective society.
The word “We” is as lime poured over men, which sets and hardens to stone, and crushes all beneath it, and that which is white and that which is black are lost equally in the grey of it.

Which best states the effect of the imagery in the excerpt?

The comparison of the word “We” to limestone helps to develop the theme that a collective society destroys humankind’s potential.
But what is freedom? Freedom from what? There is nothing to take a man’s freedom away from him, save other men. To be free, a man must be free of his brothers. That is freedom. This and nothing else.

Based on the philosophical concepts expressed in the excerpt, the narrator would most likely support a government that

NOT: ensures all of mankind is treated equally.
Which excerpt from Anthem best supports the theme that man’s spirit is unconquerable?
Through all the darkness, through all the shame of which men are capable, the spirit of man will remain alive on this earth.
Where are we going, Walt Whitman? The doors close in an hour. Which way does your beard point tonight?
(I touch your book and dream of our odyssey in the supermarket and feel absurd.)
Will we walk all night through solitary streets? The trees add shade to shade, lights out in the houses, we’ll both be lonely.

Why does Ginsberg most likely make an allusion to Walt Whitman in this excerpt?

to show Ginsberg’s esteem for Whitman and his work
The trees add shade to shade.

What is the meaning of this phrase?

The narrator is remarking that trees make the night darker.
I hear America singing, the varied carols I hear,
Those of mechanics, each one singing his as it should be blithe and strong,
The carpenter singing his as he measures his plank or beam,
The mason singing his as he makes ready for work, or leaves off work,
The boatman singing what belongs to him in his boat, the deckhand
singing on the steamboat deck,
The shoemaker singing as he sits on his bench, the hatter singing as he stands.

Whitman most likely uses this structure for his poem to

present a poem with a natural, conversational rhythm.
What thoughts I have of you tonight, Walt Whitman, for I walked down the sidestreets under the trees with a headache self-conscious looking at the full moon.

Which statement best describes the scene in the first stanza of Ginsberg’s poem?

The speaker is taking a lonely stroll at night while reflecting on the words of a favorite poet.
What thoughts I have of you tonight, Walt Whitman, for I walked down the sidestreets under the trees with a headache self-conscious looking at the full moon.

Why does the author most likely use free verse for this stanza?

The long-line structure imitates stream-of-conscious thought.
Wives in the avocados, babies in the tomatoes!—and you, Garcia Lorca, what were you doing down by the watermelons?

Ginsberg most likely makes this allusion to Garcia Lorca to

NOT: celebrate his affinity for Spanish culture and language.
We strode down the open corridors together in our solitary fancy tasting artichokes, possessing every frozen delicacy, and never passing the cashier.

Ginsberg most likely uses long-line free verse here to

express his thoughts freely and without constraints.
I heard you asking questions of each: Who killed the pork chops? What price bananas? Are you my Angel?

What is happening in this stanza?

The speaker is imagining the questions Whitman would ask if he were there.
The tones of unseen mystery, the vague and vast suggestions of the
briny world, the liquid-flowing syllables,
The perfume, the faint creaking of the cordage, the melancholy rhythm,
The boundless vista and the horizon far and dim are all here,
And this is ocean’s poem.

Why did the author most likely choose this structure for his poem?

The long-line structure allows Whitman to include a list.
The wood-cutter’s song, the ploughboy’s on his way in the morning,
or at noon intermission or at sundown
The delicious singing of the mother, or of the young wife at work,
or of the girl sewing or washing,
Each singing what belongs to him or her and to none else,
The day what belongs to the day—at night the party of young
fellows, robust, friendly,
Singing with open mouths their strong melodious songs.

Why does Whitman most likely choose this structure for his poem?

The free verse structure presents a conversational style.
Which structural element do “Ambush” and “Facing It” share?
They include a flashback about an event.
In “Ambush,” which line signals the beginning of the narrative within the frame story?
NOT: “You keep writing these war stories,” she said, “so I guess you must’ve killed somebody.”
Which pair of sentences from “Ambush” best reflects that a flashback, or a shift in time, has occurred?
Sometime I forgive myself, other times I don’t.
When she was, nine, my daughter Kathleen asked if I had ever killed anyone
In “Ambush,” why does the author begin the passage in the present rather than during the war?
to build tension within the story itself
Which best describes a theme of both “Ambush” and “Facing It”?
War and violence leave a lasting impact on people, especially soldiers.
War and violence leave a lasting impact on people, especially soldiers.
It contains a narrative that is told within another narrative.
Which best describes why “Ambush” contains a frame story?
The narrator situates a flashback of his experience in Vietnam between related events that take place after the war.
Which excerpt from “Ambush” best reflects the story’s central conflict?
Sometime I forgive myself, other times I don’t.
Which element is used in both “Ambush” and “Facing It” to create tension and conflict?
the conflicted thoughts of the narrators
In the story “Ambush,” what is revealed to the reader through the frame-story structure?
The narrator continues to feel haunted by the events in Vietnam.
Which sentence from Dispatches contains the best example of sensory language?
There would be dozens of them at once sometimes, trailing an intense smoke, dropping white-hot sparks, and it seemed as though anything caught in their range would be made still, like figures in a game of living statues.
Which excerpt from Dispatches contains sensory language to describe the geography of Vietnam?
There would be the muted rush of illumination rounds, fired from 60-mm. mortars inside the wire, dropping magnesium-brilliant above the NVA trenches for a few seconds, outlining the gaunt, flat spread of the mahogany trees, giving the landscape a ghastly clarity and dying out.
By autumn, what had begun as an adventurous expedition had turned into an exhausting, indecisive war of attrition in which we fought for no cause other than our own survival.

Based on the excerpt, the narrator

believes the reasons for fighting become muted over time and eventually all that matters is staying alive.
Which excerpt from A Rumor of War contains the best example of sensory language?
Weeks of bottled-up tensions would be released in a few minutes of orgiastic violence, men screaming and shouting obscenities above the explosions of grenades and the rapid, rippling bursts of automatic rifles.
The tedium was occasionally relieved by a large-scale search-and-destroy operation, but the exhilaration of riding the lead helicopter into a landing zone was usually followed by more of the same hot walking, with the mud sucking at our boots and the sun thudding against our helmets while an invisible enemy shot at us from distant tree lines.

The paradox in the excerpt illustrates the idea that

danger could alleviate the monotony of war.
We left Vietnam peculiar creatures, with young shoulders that bore rather old heads.

What is the author attempting to convey to the reader using sensory language?

While their bodies were young, their minds were old.
Because, really, what a choice there was; what a prodigy of things to be afraid of! The moment that you understood this, really understood it, you lost your anxiety instantly. Anxiety was a luxury, a joke you had no room for once you knew the variety of deaths and mutilations the war offered.

The purpose of the paradox in the excerpt is to

highlight the idea that fear can be viewed in different ways.
Which excerpt from Dispatches is an example of paradox?
And at night it was beautiful. Even the incoming was beautiful at night, beautiful and deeply dreadful.
Which excerpt from A Rumor of War best illustrates Vietnam’s uncomfortable climate?
The tedium was occasionally relieved by a large-scale search-and-destroy operation, but the exhilaration of riding the lead helicopter into a landing zone was usually followed by more of the same hot walking, with the mud sucking at our boots and the sun thudding against our helmets while an invisible enemy shot at us from distant tree lines.
Weeks of bottled-up tensions would be released in a few minutes of orgiastic violence, men screaming and shouting obscenities above the explosions of grenades and the rapid, rippling bursts of automatic rifles.

In this excerpt, the author uses imagery to describe

the chaos and frenzy of war.
Which of the following excerpts from “Harrison Bergeron” best illustrates irony?
“He is a genius and an athlete, is under-handicapped, and should be regarded as extremely dangerous.”
“Ladies and gentlemen—” said the ballerina, reading the bulletin. She must have been extraordinarily beautiful, because the mask she wore was hideous. And it was easy to see that she was the strongest and most graceful of all the dancers, for her handicap bags were as big as those worn by two-hundred-pound men.

What is ironic about this excerpt?

The handicaps devised to conceal the ballerina’s strength and beauty actually accentuate them.
And George, while his intelligence was way above normal, had a little mental handicap radio in his ear. He was required by law to wear it at all times. It was tuned to a government transmitter. Every twenty seconds or so, the transmitter would send out some sharp noise to keep people like George from taking unfair advantage of their brains.

How is this excerpt an example of irony?

Handicapping intelligence contradicts expectations because intelligence is normally considered a positive attribute.
He tried to think a little about the ballerinas. They weren’t really very good—no better than anybody else would have been, anyway. They were burdened with sash-weights and bags of birdshot, and their faces were masked, so that no one, seeing a free and graceful gesture or a pretty face, would feel like something the cat drug in. George was toying with the vague notion that maybe dancers shouldn’t be handicapped.

This excerpt best illustrates Kurt Vonnegut’s message that

absolute equality prevents personal freedoms of expression.
Which condition is considered most dangerous by George and Hazel Bergeron in “Harrison Bergeron”?
NOT: conformity
Hazel had a perfectly average intelligence, which meant she couldn’t think about anything except in short bursts. And George, while his intelligence was way above normal, had a little mental handicap radio in his ear. He was required by law to wear it at all times. It was tuned to a government transmitter. Every twenty seconds or so, the transmitter would send out some sharp noise to keep people like George from taking unfair advantage of their brains.

How could this excerpt serve as a warning about the consequences of forced uniformity?

by implying that forced uniformity interferes with individuals’ intellectual development
In “Harrison Bergeron,” why is Harrison Bergeron’s character considered a danger to society?
He is physically and intellectually superior to others and threatens their sense of equality.
The musicians scrambled back into their chairs, and Harrison stripped them of their handicaps, too. “Play your best,” he told them, “and I’ll make you barons and dukes and earls.”
The music began. It was normal at first—cheap, silly, false. But Harrison snatched two musicians from their chairs, waved them like batons as he sang the music as he wanted it played. He slammed them back into their chairs.

How does Vonnegut use irony in this excerpt?

The normal music is described as the opposite of what is expected.
A police photograph of Harrison Bergeron was flashed on the screen—upside down, then sideways, upside down again, then right side up.

This excerpt is an example of satire because it humorously

NOT: portrays Harrison Bergeron as being more dangerous than he really is.
The year was 2081, and everybody was finally equal. They weren’t only equal before God and the law. They were equal every which way. Nobody was smarter than anybody else. Nobody was better looking than anybody else. Nobody was stronger or quicker than anybody else. All this equality was due to the 211th, 212th, and 213th Amendments to the Constitution, and to the unceasing vigilance of agents of the United States Handicapper General.

The author is describing a society that is

uniform
Which sentence contains a verbal phrase acting as a noun?
My objective was writing an eloquent speech.
Which is a compound sentence?
I managed to complete the task, but I missed the deadline.
Conservationists are considering urban runoff and they are tracking population growth but the magnitude of the situation has not been determined.

According to The Elements of Style, what is the correct way to punctuate this sentence?

NOT: Conservationists are considering urban runoff and they are tracking population growth, but the magnitude of the situation has not been determined.
Which is a compound-complex sentence?
While they were walking on campus, Dwayne admired the buildings, and Michelle imagined attending classes in this beautiful place.
According to The Elements of Style, which sentence is written in active voice?
The workers took precautions while digging along power lines.
assent:
1. (noun) an agreement
2. (verb) to express agreement
ascent:
1. (noun) an upward slope or incline
2. (verb) to climb
Read the sentence.
The measure passed with a majority _________.

Which word correctly completes the sentence?

assent (noun)
While she slept the alarm kept ringing in Jamie’s ear.

According to The Elements of Style, what is the correct way to revise this sentence?

While she slept, the alarm kept ringing in Jamie’s ear.
The animals’ habitat was in the direct path of the forest fire.

Which type of phrase or clause is underlined in the sentence?

noun phrase
accept:
1. (verb) to take, to receive
except:
1. (verb) to leave out, to exclude

Which sentence contains correct word usage?

The restaurant will only accept deliveries through the back entrance.
Which sentence contains gender-neutral language?
Recycling helps preserve the Earth for all humankind.
While revising your media analysis paragraph, remove
any ideas that do not fit or reinforce your overall viewpoint.
The last step in evaluating the media analysis paragraph is to ensure that you have
written a conclusion based on the thesis.
Which step must you complete before writing a media assessment paragraph?
finding strong supporting details to prove your point
Which best describes the persuasive media technique used in this advertisement?
flattery, because it implies that the viewer has the power to stop the flu
The “Read Books, Share the Love” advertisement effectively convinces people to read more books. The advertisement targets parents of young children. In the ad, a mother and father are reading a book to their two young children. Most parents certainly would want their children to do well academically. This ad effectively encourages literacy.

Which of the following revisions would most improve this paragraph?

discussing techniques used in the ad
I believe that the “Read Books, Share the Love” advertisement effectively uses the association technique to convince people to read more books. The advertisement targets parents who perhaps could easily associate the children in the picture with their own children. In the ad, a mother and father are reading a book to their two young children. It seems that this has a positive connotation of intimacy and love. Maybe the image implies that reading is not just intellectually beneficial, but that it creates a closer bond between parents and their children. Because of this association technique, parents are persuaded to read to their children. Most parents certainly would want their children to do well academically and feel loved at the same time. Therefore, this ad effectively encourages literacy.

Which revision would most likely improve this paragraph?

the elimination of passive language
Which best describes the persuasive media technique used in this advertisement?
universal appeal, because it references commonly held values about home and family
The ad features a brightly colored banner and a couple of twenty-somethings sitting comfortably together, smiling happily, and sharing a set of headphones to listen to music. Certainly the ad will catch the attention of and appeal to young adults.

In this excerpt, the writer is

NOT: analyzing the advertising methods of the ad.
Which of the following slogans best exemplifies the flattery technique?
“You’re the best there is! Shouldn’t your breakfast cereal also be the best? Morning Bran!”
When writing a media response paragraph, ensure that your thesis statement
NOT: is more analytical than interesting. OR does not state why the ad campaign was effective.
The “Read Books, Share the Love” advertisement effectively uses the association technique to convince people to read more books. The advertisement targets parents who could easily associate the children in the picture with their own children. This has a positive connotation of intimacy and love. The image implies that reading is not just intellectually beneficial, but that it creates a closer bond between parents and their children. Because of this association technique, parents are persuaded to read to their children. Most parents certainly would want their children to do well academically and feel loved at the same time. Therefore, this ad effectively encourages literacy.

Which of the following revisions would most improve this paragraph?

NOT: a strong topic sentence OR a discussion of the techniques used in the ad
Examine a Department of Education advertising campaign that promotes universal literacy. Analyze the campaign to discover the target audience and the advertising techniques used. Then evaluate the effectiveness of these advertising techniques. Write a formal paragraph in which you explain how the advertising campaign promotes literacy to its audience and how effective it is in doing so.

The purpose of the response paragraph will be to

analyze the Department of Education’s literacy ad campaign.
Which best describes the target audience of this advertisement?
young adults who want to stay healthy
Which of the following slogans best exemplifies the bandwagon technique?
“America has fallen in love with Morning Bran Cereal. Isn’t it time you fall in love too?”
The ad features a brightly colored banner and a couple of twenty-somethings sitting comfortably together, smiling happily, and sharing a set of headphones to listen to music. Certainly the ad will catch the attention of and appeal to young adults.

In this excerpt, the writer is

NOT: providing a thesis that reflects topic and viewpoint.
Which persuasive media technique is used most in this advertisement?
universal appeal
An exceptional media response paragraph must include
a strong conclusion based on the thesis.
“I think I’d make a good Handicapper General.”
“Good as anybody else,” said George.
“Who knows better’n I do what normal is?” said Hazel.
“Right,” said George. He began to think glimmeringly about his abnormal son who was now in jail, about Harrison, but a twenty-one-gun salute in his head stopped that.

How does the dialogue between George and Hazel develop Kurt Vonnegut’s message that advanced technology dehumanizes individuals?

Hazel and George do not discuss their feelings about the arrest of their son.
emit:
1. (verb) to produce, to voice
omit:
1. (verb) to leave something out, to forget

Which sentence contains correct word usage?

The teacher will omit the lowest score in order to increase the averages.
Which excerpt from “Harrison Bergeron” best illustrates irony?
And she had to apologize at once for her voice, which was a very unfair voice for a woman to use. Her voice was a warm, luminous, timeless melody.
Which best explains how the title of A Rumor of War can be considered a paradox?
Wars are far too real and large scale to ever be considered merely rumors.
Imagine you are writing an ad slogan for a new type of breakfast cereal using the media technique of association. In order for the slogan to be effective, it should
associate the cereal with something good and create positive feelings about the cereal.
The year was 2081, and everybody was finally equal. They weren’t only equal before God and the law. They were equal every which way. Nobody was smarter than anybody else. Nobody was better looking than anybody else. Nobody was stronger or quicker than anybody else. All this equality was due to the 211th, 212th, and 213th Amendments to the Constitution, and to the unceasing vigilance of agents of the United States Handicapper General.

Vonnegut uses satire in this excerpt by

describing a society that has taken the idea of equality too far.
Which persuasive media technique is used in this advertisement? (Milk)
association
Which event is described in both “Ambush” and “Facing It”?
the death of a soldier
Self-scourged, like a monk, with a throne for wages,
Stripped like the iron-souled Hindu sages,
Draped like a statue, in strings like a scarecrow,
His helmet-hat an old tin pan,
But worn in the love of the heart of man.

The author most likely uses the allusions in this excerpt to

illustrate Appleseed’s humble station.
emerge:
1. (verb) to come up, appear
immerge:
1. (verb) to sink into, immerse

Which sentence contains correct word usage?

A beautiful rainbow emerged from behind the storm clouds.
In my hungry fatigue, and shopping for images, I went into the neon fruit supermarket, dreaming of your enumerations!

Which statement best reflects the feeling conveyed in this stanza?

The superficial lighting and large market create a feeling of isolationism.
According to “Introduction to Cultural Rebellion: Mid-Twentieth-Century Voices,” which aspect of modern society was a target of protest by postwar authors in a variety of genres?
the reality of new and possible future war
You came to love your life, to love and respect the mere fact of it, but often you became heedless of it in the way that somnambulists are heedless. Being good meant staying alive, and sometimes that was only a matter of caring enough at any given moment.

Based on the excerpt, which best describes a good soldier?

a soldier who is always vigilant
emanate:
1. (verb) to come from, originate
eminent:
1. (adjective) of high standing, well-known
immanent:
1. (adjective) within something, innate
imminent:
1. (adjective) about to occur, pending

Read the sentence.
The fire burning out of control put the neighborhood in __________ danger.

Which word best completes the sentence?

imminent
Examine a Department of Education advertising campaign that promotes universal literacy. Analyze the campaign to discover the target audience and the advertising techniques used. Then evaluate the effectiveness of these advertising techniques. Write a formal paragraph in which you explain how the advertising campaign promotes literacy to its audience and how effective it is in doing so.

What should he use to write his response paragraph?

an analysis of the impact of the advertising campaign
They’re not from here. Ladies don’t come to church dressed in pants. And everybody knows men aren’t supposed to wear shorts.

Which of the following statements best explains the irony expressed in this excerpt?

NOT: While the narrator expresses disdain for the tourists’ choice of clothes, their outfits are, in fact, perfectly suitable for church.
Which of the following phrases best defines the word “assimilation”?
the absorption of differing ethnic groups into a dominant culture
They’re not from here. Ladies don’t come to church dressed in pants. And everybody knows men aren’t supposed to wear shorts.

Which of the following statements best describes the irony in the narrator’s observation that the couple is “not from here”?

The narrator is not from “here” either.
Which of the following statements best represents the model of assimilation?
NOT: Though Stella missed her native Italy, she also loved America, and she was determined to embrace her new country while also preserving her old one.
“Por favor,” says the lady. “¿Un foto?” pointing to her camera.
“Si.”
She’s so busy taking Junior’s picture, she doesn’t notice me and Keeks.
“Hey, Michele, Keeks. You guys want gum?”
“But you speak English!”
“Yeah,” my brother says, “we’re Mericans.”

Which of the following statements best explains the irony in this excerpt?

The woman assumes that the narrator’s brother is native to the region, but he is actually an American.
Which of the following is an example of cultural heritage?
the language one speaks
Which of the following excerpts from Sandra Cisneros’s story “Mericans” best reveals the influence of Mexican culture on the children?
“Maybe and most probably my little brother is imagining he’s a flying feather dancer, like the ones we saw swinging high up from a pole on the Virgin’s birthday.”
Which of the following excerpts from Sandra Cisneros’s story “Mericans” best reveals the influence of American culture on the children?
“‘I’m Flash Gordon. You’re Ming the Merciless and the Mud People.’ I don’t mind being Ming the Merciless, but I don’t like being the Mud People.”
“¿Quieres chicle?” the lady asks in a Spanish too big for her mouth.
“Gracias.” The lady gives him a whole handful of gum for free, little cellophane cubes of Chiclets, cinnamon and aqua and the white ones that don’t taste like anything but are good for pretend buck teeth.
“Por favor,” says the lady. “¿Un foto?” pointing to her camera.
“Si.”
She’s so busy taking Junior’s picture, she doesn’t notice me and Keeks.

Which statement best describes the irony of the woman’s actions?

She assumes that the children speak Spanish instead of English.
What is one way that Sandra Cisneros captures the idea of multicultural voices in American literature in the short story “Mericans”?
through the creation of the blended title, “Mericans”
I don’t really want to talk about my father but I end up telling Minnie how he used to take me horseback riding on our ranch, strapping me in his saddle with a leather seat belt he designed just for me. Dad’s family owned casinos in Cuba, and had one of the largest ranches on the island. There were beef cattle and dairy cows, horses, pigs, goats, and lambs. Dad fed them molasses to fatten them, and gave the chickens corn and sorghum until they laid vermilion eggs, rich with vitamins. He took me on an overnight inspection once. We camped out under a sapodilla tree and listened to the pygmy owls with their old women’s voices. My father knew I understood more than I could say. He told me stories about Cuba after Columbus came. He said that the Spaniards wiped out more Indians with smallpox than with muskets.

How does the structure of the excerpt add meaning to the passage?

NOT: It uses several narrators to share their points of view about past and present life in Cuba.
I was only two years old when I left Cuba but I remember everything that’s happened to me since I was a baby, even word-for-word conversations. I was sitting in my grandmother’s lap, playing with her drop pearl earrings, when my mother told her we were leaving the country. Abuela Celia called her a traitor to the revolution. Mom tried to pull me away but I clung to the Abuela and screamed at the top of my lungs. My grandfather came running and said, “Celia, let the girl go. She belongs with Lourdes.” This was the last time I saw her.

How does the structure of the excerpt add meaning to the passage?

NOT: It provides characterization for Celia as it reveals her physical appearance. OR It describes the setting of the ranch owned by Pilar’s Cuban grandparents to explain family values. OR It manipulates the chronological order of events to reveal the close relationship between Pilar and her father.
Which complex narrative structure is underutilized by Cristina Garcia in Dreaming in Cuban?
the use of unconventional textual features
If it were up to me, I’d record other things. Like the time there was a freak hailstorm in the Congo and the women took it as a sign that they should rule . . . Why don’t I know anything about them? Who chooses what we should know or what’s important? I know I have to decide these things for myself. Most of what I’ve learned that’s important I’ve learned on my own, or from my grandmother.

What does the excerpt reveal about Cristina Garcia?

Her background in journalism has helped her research and use realistic details in her fiction.
This diagram is best used for helping a reader
monitor comprehension of a text.
Which sentence from Cristina Garcia’s Dreaming in Cuban is an example of magic realism?
Abuela Celia and I write to each other sometimes, but mostly I hear her speaking to me at night just before I fall asleep.
Students who have read a section of a text and do not understand it should
ask themselves when comprehension was lost.
That’s it. My mind’s made up. I’m going back to Cuba. I’m fed up with everything around here. I take all my money out of the bank, $120, money I earned slaving away at my mother’s bakery, and buy a one-way bus ticket to Miami. I figure if I can just get there, I’ll be able to make my way to Cuba, maybe rent a boat or get a fisherman to take me. I imagine Abuela [grandmother] Celia’s surprise as I sneak up behind her. She’ll be sitting in her wicker swing overlooking the sea and she’ll smell of salt and violet water. There’ll be gulls and crabs along the shore. She’ll stroke my cheek with her cool hands, sing quietly in my ear.

The complex narrative structure used in the excerpt is an example of

NOT: unconventional text features.
Which best describes why Cristina Garcia chose a multi-narrative structure for Dreaming in Cuban?
to illustrate that there is not just one single Cuban identity
My mother says that Abuela Celia’s had plenty of chances to leave Cuba but that she’s stubborn and got her head turned around by El Líder. Mom says “Communist” the way some people says “cancer,” low and fierce.

Which element from this excerpt best characterizes Garcia’s story as one of magic realism?

connecting Celia with Latin American history
Excerpt 1: My grandfather came running and said, “Celia, let the girl go. She belongs with Lourdes.”
Excerpt 2: “Pilar doesn’t hate you, hija. She just hasn’t learned to love you yet.”

Which statement best synthesizes the ideas in these two excerpts?

NOT: Jorge wants more than anything to build a closer relationship with his granddaughter. OR Jorge values his relationship with his daughter more than the one with his wife.
OR Jorge wants his family to value their Cuban background and stay together.
Which strategy would be least useful for helping students monitor comprehension of a text as they are reading?
skimming the text to reach the conclusion
Lourdes buys a round box of sticky dates and considers the centuries of fratricide converging on this street corner in Brooklyn. She ponders the transmigrations from the southern latitudes, the millions moving north.

Which strategy would best help Pierre understand the excerpt?

looking up unfamiliar words in the sentence
Which sentence from Cristina Garcia’s Dreaming in Cuban is an example of magic realism?
Abuela Celia and I write to each other sometimes, but mostly I hear her speaking to me at night just before I fall asleep.
If it were up to me, I’d record other things. Like the time there was a freak hailstorm in the Congo and the women took it as a sign that they should rule . . . Why don’t I know anything about them? Who chooses what we should know or what’s important? I know I have to decide these things for myself. Most of what I’ve learned that’s important I’ve learned on my own, or from my grandmother.

What does the excerpt reveal about Cristina Garcia?

Her background in journalism has helped her research and use realistic details in her fiction.
Lourdes considers herself lucky. Immigration has redefined her, and she is grateful. Unlike her husband, she welcomes her adopted language, its possibilities for reinvention. Lourdes relishes winter most of all—the cold scraping sounds on sidewalks and windshields, the ritual of scarves and gloves, hats and zip-in coat linings. Its layers protect her. She wants no part of Cuba, no part of its wretched carnival floats creaking with lies, no part of Cuba at all, which Lourdes claims never possessed her.

Which sentence is an example of magic realism?

She wants no part of Cuba, no part of its wretched carnival floats creaking with lies, no part of Cuba at all, which Lourdes claims never possessed her.
I am of Latinoamerica, rooted in the history of my continent:
I speak from that body.

In these two lines, the speaker is showing how

culture is embedded in a person’s identity.
all wanting the comfort
of spoken Spanish, to gaze upon the family portrait
of her plain wide face, her ample bosom
resting on her plump arms, her look of maternal interest
as they speak to her and each other
of their dreams and their disillusions—

Which best describes the role of the speaker?

The speaker is describing a scene in the third person as a sentimental observer.
Which excerpt from “The Latin Deli: An Ars Poetica” is an example of an allusion?
Suspiros, Merengues, the stale candy of everyone’s childhood
In the poem “The Latin Deli: An Ars Poetica,” which description suggests that the speaker is fond of the shopkeeper?
the woman’s look of maternal interest as others talk
I am new. History made me. My first language was spanglish.
I was born at the crossroads
and I am whole.

The author’s word choice helps to reflect a tone of

pride.
I am not african. Africa is in me, but I cannot return.
I am not taína. Taíno is in me, but there is no way back.
I am not european. Europe lives in me, but I have no home there.

What does this passage reveal about the speaker of the poem?

It shows that she embraces all parts of her heritage by refusing to be classified as one in particular.
I am Caribeña, island grown. Spanish is in my flesh,
ripples from my tongue, lodges in my hips:
the language of garlic and mangoes,
the singing in my poetry, the flying gestures of my hands.

Based on the imagery in the passage, how does the speaker feel when she is speaking Spanish?

proud and expressive
she is the Patroness of Exiles…
who spends her days selling canned memories
while listening to the Puerto Ricans complain
that it would be cheaper to fly to San Juan
than to buy a pound of Bustelo coffee here,
and to Cubans perfecting their speech
of a “glorious return” to Havana…
to Mexicans who pass through, talking lyrically
of dólares to be made in El Norte—

The Puerto Ricans, Cubans, and Mexicans in the passage help to create the image that

NOT: the woman who runs the deli speaks many languages.
I do not believe we should have to leave out the crucial elements of our language and culture to contribute to American literature, but, unfortunately, this is a conclusion I am forced to reach. I have been writing for a quarter century, and have been a published author for eighteen years. As a writer, I was part of the Chicano Movement which created a new literature in this country.

Which best describes how Anaya effectively uses rhetoric in the excerpt to convince readers that his conclusion is justified?

Anaya establishes his credibility as a published Chicano author by discussing his career experience.
An immigrant and the daughter and granddaughter of immigrants.
I speak English with passion: it’s the tongue of my consciousness,
a flashing knife blade of crystal, my tool, my craft.

In this passage, what is the speaker’s relationship with the English language?

She uses it naturally and with great skill because it is a part of her heritage.
I am a child of the Americas,
a light-skinned mestiza of the Caribbean,
a child of many diaspora, born into this continent at a crossroads.

How does the word “crossroads” help to develop the author’s tone?

It is imagery that describes the merging of different cultures.
At a neighborhood fair in Texas, somewhere between the German Oom-pah Sausage Stand and the Mexican Gorditas booth, I overheard a young man say to his friend, “I wish I had a heritage. Sometimes I feel—so lonely for one.” And the tall American trees were dangling their thick branches right down over his head.

Which best explains how Nye’s text structure helps establish her voice in the excerpt?

Nye relates a story about something she heard to emphasize the point she wants to make about heritage.
I do not believe we should have to leave out the crucial elements of our language and culture to contribute to American literature, but, unfortunately, this is a conclusion I am forced to reach. I have been writing for a quarter century, and have been a published author for eighteen years. As a writer, I was part of the Chicano Movement which created a new literature in this country.

Which type of rhetoric is used most in the excerpt to convince readers that Anaya’s conclusion is accurate?

an appeal based on the author’s character
In other cases, the censoring has been direct and brutal. On February 28, 1981 the morning newspaper carried a story about the burning of my novel, Bless Me, Ultima. The book was banned from high school classes in Bloomfield, New Mexico, and a school board member was quoted as saying: “We took the books out and personally saw that they were burned.”

Which best describes the rhetorical appeal used to illustrate the destructive nature of censorship?

factual evidence is used to appeal to the reader’s sense of logic
My friend had concluded that if he took his language and culture out of his poetry, he stood a better chance of receiving a fellowship. He took out his native language, the poetic patois of our reality, the rich mixture of Spanish, English, pachuco and street talk which we know so well. In other words, he took the tortillas out of his poetry, which is to say he took the soul out of his poetry.
At a neighborhood fair in Texas, somewhere between the German Oom-pah Sausage Stand and the Mexican Gorditas booth, I overheard a young man say to his friend, “I wish I had a heritage. Sometimes I feel—so lonely for one.” And the tall American trees were dangling their thick branches right down over his head.

Which best states how the structures of both excerpts engage the reader?

v
My friend had concluded that if he took his language and culture out of his poetry, he stood a better chance of receiving a fellowship. He took out his native language, the poetic patois of our reality, the rich mixture of Spanish, English, pachuco and street talk which we know so well. In other words, he took the tortillas out of his poetry, which is to say he took the soul out of his poetry.

Which best explains how Anaya’s text structure establishes his voice in the excerpt?

Anaya relates a story about a poet he knows to support his point of view.
My friend had concluded that if he took his language and culture out of his poetry, he stood a better chance of receiving a fellowship. He took out his native language, the poetic patois of our reality, the rich mixture of Spanish, English, pachuco and street talk which we know so well. In other words, he took the tortillas out of his poetry, which is to say he took the soul out of his poetry.
At a neighborhood fair in Texas, somewhere between the German Oom-pah Sausage Stand and the Mexican Gorditas booth, I overheard a young man say to his friend, “I wish I had a heritage. Sometimes I feel—so lonely for one.” And the tall American trees were dangling their thick branches right down over his head.

Which best states how the structures of the excerpts are similar?

Each relates an anecdote to appeal to the reader’s emotions.
My friend had concluded that if he took his language and culture out of his poetry, he stood a better chance of receiving a fellowship. He took out his native language, the poetic patois of our reality, the rich mixture of Spanish, English, pachuco and street talk which we know so well. In other words, he took the tortillas out of his poetry, which is to say he took the soul out of his poetry.
At a neighborhood fair in Texas, somewhere between the German Oom-pah Sausage Stand and the Mexican Gorditas booth, I overheard a young man say to his friend, “I wish I had a heritage. Sometimes I feel—so lonely for one.” And the tall American trees were dangling their thick branches right down over his head.

Which structural element is used in the excerpt by Anaya but not in the excerpt by Nye?

NOT: pathos OR anecdote OR tone
Which of the following best summarizes one central idea of the passage from “Mother Tongue”?
The expression of experience through language is more powerful when different forms of English are accepted.
For me, reading has always been a path toward liberation and fulfillment. To learn to read is to start down the road of liberation, a road which should be accessible to everyone. No one has the right to keep you from reading, and yet that is what is happening in many areas in this country today. There are those who think they know best what we should read. These censors are at work in all areas of our daily lives.

Which best describes the rhetoric used in this excerpt to increase the reader’s awareness of censorship?

a strong opinion is presented to appeal to the reader’s sense of justice
At a neighborhood fair in Texas, somewhere between the German Oom-pah Sausage Stand and the Mexican Gorditas booth, I overheard a young man say to his friend, “I wish I had a heritage. Sometimes I feel—so lonely for one.” And the tall American trees were dangling their thick branches right down over his head.

Which best explains how Nye’s word choice helps establish her voice in the excerpt?

Nye creates a powerful image of trees to support her opinion that living among a variety of cultures is an American heritage.
Lately, I’ve been giving more thought to the kind of English my mother speaks. Like others, I have described it to people as “broken” or “fractured” English. But I wince when I say that. It has always bothered me that I can think of no other way to describe it other than “broken,” as if it were damaged and needed to be fixed, as if it lacked a certain wholeness and soundness.

Which best summarizes the central idea in the excerpt?

NOT: A, B, OR C
Just last week, I was walking down the street with my mother, and I again found myself conscious of the English I was using, the English I do use with her. We were talking about the price of new and used furniture and I heard myself saying this: “Not waste money that way.” My husband was with us as well, and he didn’t notice any switch in my English. And then I realized why. It’s because over the twenty years we’ve been together I’ve often used that same kind of English with him, and sometimes he even uses it with me. It has become our language of intimacy, a different sort of English that relates to family talk, the language I grew up with.

What can be inferred from the excerpt?

Tan believes that nonstandard English can be an important part of family culture.
And sure enough, the following week there we were in front of this astonished stockbroker, and I was sitting there red-faced and quiet, and my mother, the real Mrs. Tan, was shouting at his boss in her impeccable broken English.

The inference suggested by this excerpt is that nonstandard forms of English

can be as effective as the standard form of English.
I am a writer. And by that definition, I am someone who has always loved language. I am fascinated by language in daily life. I spend a great deal of my time thinking about the power of language—the way it can evoke an emotion, a visual image, a complex idea, or a simple truth. Language is the tool of my trade. And I use them all—all the Englishes I grew up with.

Which best summarizes the central idea in the excerpt?

Tan enjoys thinking about language and using different forms of English.
Yet some of my friends tell me they understand 50 percent of what my mother says. Some say they understand 80 to 90 percent. Some say they understand none of it, as if she were speaking pure Chinese. But to me, my mother’s English is perfectly clear, perfectly natural. It’s my mother tongue. Her language, as I hear it, is vivid, direct, full of observation and imagery. That was the language that helped shape the way I saw things, expressed things, made sense of the world.

How does Tan build a central idea of her story in the excerpt?

Tan discusses her mother’s English to support the idea that the language of one’s childhood is a person’s deepest, truest form of expression.
Those tests were constructed around items like fill-in-the-blank sentence completion, such as “Even though Tom was ______, Mary thought he was _____.” And the correct answer always seemed to be the most bland combinations of thoughts, for example, “Even though Tom was foolish, Mary thought he was ridiculous.” Well, according to my mother, there were very few limitations as to what Tom could have been and what Mary might have thought of him. So I never did well on tests like that.

What can be inferred from the excerpt?

Tan believes that achievement tests give inadequate measurements of language ability.
Which of the following best summarizes one central idea of the passage from “Mother Tongue”?
The way a person speaks English is not a good measure of intellectual ability.
Lately, I’ve been giving more thought to the kind of English my mother speaks. Like others, I have described it to people as “broken” or “fractured” English. But I wince when I say that. It has always bothered me that I can think of no other way to describe it other than “broken,” as if it were damaged and needed to be fixed, as if it lacked a certain wholeness and soundness.

What best supports the inference that Tan believes nonstandard English is no less valid than standard English?

NOT: A, B, or C
I’ve heard other terms used, “limited English,” for example. But they seem just as bad, as if everything is limited, including people’s perceptions of the limited English speaker.

How does Tan build a central idea of her story in the excerpt?

Tan expresses an opinion to support the idea that people who speak nonstandard forms of English are unfairly judged in negative ways.
And sure enough, the following week there we were in front of this astonished stockbroker, and I was sitting there red-faced and quiet, and my mother, the real Mrs. Tan, was shouting at his boss in her impeccable broken English.

Which information from the excerpt best supports the inference that all forms of English can be effective forms of communication?

Tan uses the word “impeccable” to describe her mother’s English.
Which of the following best summarizes one central idea of the passage from “Mother Tongue”?
All forms of the English language are meaningful and purposeful.
And sure enough, the following week there we were in front of this astonished stockbroker, and I was sitting there red-faced and quiet, and my mother, the real Mrs. Tan, was shouting at his boss in her impeccable broken English.

What can be inferred from the excerpt?

Nonstandard forms of English can be as effective as the standard form of English.
How does Michio Kaku illustrate the need for organization of the Internet in “Why No Policeman on the Block?”
by using Netscape’s success as an example
DNA samples from insects preserved in amber can date back to before the time of the dinosaurs, which died out 65 million years ago. George Poinar of Oregon State University, for example, has even extracted muscle tissue from a 125-million-year-old Lebanese weevil. This is, says Poinar, “the best preserved protein on the face of the earth.” So far, DNA has been successfully extracted from about a half dozen ancient samples in amber.

Select the most accurate summary of Kaku’s argument.

Amber has allowed scientists to study DNA that has been preserved over millions of years.
Hawthorne . . . marveled that this mysterious substance called electricity could transmit signals across thousands of miles and make inert machines spring suddenly to life.

What is the meaning of the underlined term?

inactive
Sejnowski rejected the usual top-down approach to reproducing human speech. He threw out the fat dictionaries of pronunciation and programs brimming with the rules of phonetics and the tedious list of exceptions to all the previous rules, which had no rhyme or reason. Instead, he replaced all this with a surprisingly simple neural circuit.

What is the author’s purpose for including this statement?

to praise Sejnowski’s innovation
How does Michio Kaku establish the importance of allowing the public to access scientific research in “Why No Policeman on the Block?”
by contrasting secret government projects with public successes
How does Michio Kaku develop the idea of how the Internet will evolve in “The Intelligent Planet”?
by presenting a metaphor of a dirt road being paved
Only in the last decade, with the ending of the Cold War, have these technologies finally been fully released to the public domain.

What is the meaning of the underlined term?

open society
How does Michio Kaku develop the idea of future Internet intelligence in “The Intelligent Planet”?
by comparing the Internet to a magic mirror
Any neophyte surfing the Net for the first time will be frustrated by the fact that it has no intelligence whatsoever; like a newborn baby, it is a blank slate. Worse, there are no rules or traffic cops, no regulations or even directory of the Internet.

What is the author’s purpose for including this statement?

to prove that the Internet needs improvement
What is meant by the term “Magic Mirror” as it is used in “The Intelligent Planet”?
NOT: A, B
We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. —That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, —That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government.

Which best describes the language in this excerpt?

NOT: C
Which phrase best defines the denotative meaning of a word?
the literal meaning of the word
Tortillas are delicious round flatbreads made with cornmeal or wheat flour. Although they are most often used in tacos, enchiladas, and tostadas, tortillas can __________ any dish.

If the purpose of this paragraph is to persuade readers to eat tortillas, which word or phrase best fits in the blank?

enhance
Tortillas and poetry. They go hand in hand. Books nourish the spirit, bread nourishes our bodies. Our distinct cultures nourish each one of us, and as we know more and more about the art and literature of the different cultures, we become freer and freer. . . .
I don’t know anyone who doesn’t
like to sample different ethnic foods, the breads of many many groups; just as many of us enjoy sampling books from different areas of the world. I travel to foreign countries, and I know more about myself as I learn more about my fellow human beings. Censorship imposes itself in my path of knowledge, and that activity can be justified by no one.

Which of these changes would make this excerpt more argumentative?

including words that address logic and reason
O ye that love mankind! Ye that dare oppose, not only the tyranny, but the tyrant, stand forth! Every spot of the old world is overrun with oppression. Freedom hath been hunted round the globe. Asia, and Africa, have long expelled her—Europe regards her like a stranger, and England hath given her warning to depart. O! receive the fugitive, and prepare in time an asylum for mankind.

Which best describes the tone of this excerpt?

emotional and passionate
Britain, with an army to enforce her tyranny, has declared that she has a right (not only to TAX) but “to BIND us in ALL CASES WHATSOEVER,” and if being bound in that manner, is not slavery, then is there not such a thing as slavery upon earth. . . .
. . . Neither have I so much of the infidel in me, as to suppose that He has relinquished the government of the world, and given us up to the care of devils; and as I do not, I cannot see on what grounds the king of Britain can look up to heaven for help against us: a common murderer, a highwayman, or a house-breaker, has as good a pretence as he.

The words “slavery,” “devils,” and “murderer” evoke a sense of

anger and injustice
What type of language should be used in a critical analysis essay?
formal
Tortillas and poetry. They go hand in hand. Books nourish the spirit, bread nourishes our bodies. Our distinct cultures nourish each one of us, and as we know more and more about the art and literature of the different cultures, we become freer and freer. . . .
I don’t know anyone who doesn’t like to sample different ethnic foods, the breads of many many groups; just as many of us enjoy sampling books from different areas of the world. I travel to foreign countries, and I know more about myself as I learn more about my fellow human beings. Censorship imposes itself in my path of knowledge, and that activity can be justified by no one.

Which phrase from the excerpt best helps the reader identify the author’s purpose?

“I know more about myself as I learn more about my fellow human beings”
I know this for a fact, because when I was growing up, my mother’s “limited” English limited my perception of her. I was ashamed of her English. I believed that her English reflected the quality of what she had to say. That is, because she expressed them imperfectly her thoughts were imperfect.

Which word best describes Tan’s language in this excerpt?

coversational
Tortillas and poetry. They go hand in hand. Books nourish the spirit, bread nourishes our bodies. Our distinct cultures nourish each one of us, and as we know more and more about the art and literature of the different cultures, we become freer and freer. . . .
I don’t know anyone who doesn’t like to sample different ethnic foods, the breads of many many groups; just as many of us enjoy sampling books from different areas of the world. I travel to foreign countries, and I know more about myself as I learn more about my fellow human beings. Censorship imposes itself in my path of knowledge, and that activity can be justified by no one.

Which phrase from the excerpt best uses persuasion?

NOT: A, B, D
I have been a nurse for twenty years. In that time, I have seen a great number of patients suffer because they did not have health insurance. One of the worst cases was a young mother of two who was diagnosed with early stage skin cancer. Because she could not afford treatment, the cancer spread from her skin to other parts of her body. By the time I saw her for the first time, the cancer had reached her brain, and she could no longer be helped. This sort of thing should not happen to anyone. A strong universal health care system could prevent instances like this from occurring.

Which addition would make the paragraph more objective and effective?

the use of facts and statistics to support the anecdote
As you read a potential source for a compare-and-contrast paragraph, you should first assess
the argument’s claims, reasons, and evidence.
I have been a nurse for twenty years. In that time, I have seen a great number of patients suffer because they did not have health insurance. One of the worst cases was a young mother of two who was diagnosed with early stage skin cancer. Because she could not afford treatment, the cancer spread from her skin to other parts of her body. By the time I saw her for the first time, the cancer had reached her brain, and she could no longer be helped. This sort of thing should not happen to anyone. A strong universal health care system could prevent instances like this from occurring.

What makes this appeal from the paragraph convincing?

I have been a nurse for twenty years.

It shows the writer’s credibility.
An effective thesis statement establishes the focus of a compare-and-contrast paragraph by
orienting and engaging the audience as well as setting the tone for the piece.
The outline for a strong compare-and-contrast paragraph must include
details from both editorials to support each point.
A paragraph that effectively compares two editorials must
contain supporting details from both editorials.
Uninsured people are less likely to receive medical care and more likely to have poor health status. The cost of poor health among uninsured people was almost $125 billion in 2004 (Hadley & Holahan, 2004).
The financial burden of medical care is also high for uninsured individuals; almost 50% of personal bankruptcy filings are due to medical expenses (Jacoby, et al., 2000). Uninsured individuals report more problems getting care, are diagnosed at later disease stages, and get less therapeutic care.

To support the claim that the lack of health insurance is a financial burden, the author uses

evidential support, such as facts, figures, and statistics.
Because she didn’t have health insurance, my Auntie Gloria’s diabetes went untreated for a number of years; this led to more extensive and serious health problems.

This statement uses what type of evidence to support a claim that a universal health care system is desirable?

NOT: A, C
Logos, pathos, and ethos are
rhetorical appeals
I have been a nurse for twenty years. In that time, I have seen a great number of patients suffer because they did not have health insurance. One of the worst cases was a young mother of two who was diagnosed with early stage skin cancer. Because she could not afford treatment, the cancer spread from her skin to other parts of her body. By the time I saw her for the first time, the cancer had reached her brain, and she could no longer be helped. This sort of thing should not happen to anyone. A strong universal health care system could prevent instances like this from occurring.

Which rhetorical appeal is used in the text, “One of the worst cases was a young mother of two who was diagnosed with early stage skin cancer”?

NOT: A
The last step before writing a compare-and-contrast paragraph is
creating an outline.
When writing a compare-and-contrast essay, it is important to ensure that the
prompt is logically answered
An argument based on logic and reason rather than emotion and personal opinion is best described as
objective
Which is a common and effective structure for a paragraph that compares two editorials?
NOT: A, C
1. __________
2. First point
A. Editorial one
B. Editorial two
3. Second point
A. Editorial one
B. Editorial two
4. __________

Which best fills the blank beside number 4 in the outline?

Conclusion
The thesis statement of a strong compare-and-contrast paragraph should combine
the topic with the writer’s viewpoint.
I have been a nurse for twenty years. In that time, I have seen a great number of patients suffer because they did not have health insurance. One of the worst cases was a young mother of two who was diagnosed with early stage skin cancer. Because she could not afford treatment, the cancer spread from her skin to other parts of her body. By the time I saw her for the first time, the cancer had reached her brain, and she could no longer be helped. This sort of thing should not happen to anyone. A strong universal health care system could prevent instances like this from occurring.

What makes this appeal from the paragraph convincing?

I have been a nurse for twenty years.

It shows the writer’s credibility.
Which best defines the term empirical evidence?
evidence based on experience and observation
Which best describes the claim of a compare-and-contrast paragraph?
NOT: C
Yet some of my friends tell me they understand 50 percent of what my mother says. Some say they understand 80 to 90 percent. Some say they understand none of it, as if she were speaking pure Chinese. But to me, my mother’s English is perfectly clear, perfectly natural. It’s my mother tongue. Her language, as I hear it, is vivid, direct, full of observation and imagery. That was the language that helped shape the way I saw things, expressed things, made sense of the world.

Which best summarizes the central idea of the excerpt?

Nonstandard forms of English are valid, complete languages.
With Newton’s mechanics came powerful machines, and eventually the steam engine, the motive force which reshaped the world by overturning agrarian society, spawning factories and stimulating commerce. . . .

What is the meaning of the underlined term?

ideas generated by Newton
There are those walking to church on their knees. Some with fat rags tied around their legs and others with pillows, one to kneel on, and one to flop ahead. There are women with black shawls crossing and uncrossing themselves. There are armies of penitents carrying banners and flowered arches while musicians play tinny trumpets and tinny drums.

What cultural element is revealed in this excerpt?

religion
plain ham and cheese
that would cost less at the A&P, but it would not satisfy
the hunger of the fragile old man lost in the folds
of his winter coat, who brings her lists of items
that he reads to her like poetry, or the others,
whose needs she must divine, conjuring up products
from places that now exist only in their hearts—
closed ports she must trade with.

Which best describes how the author’s word choice affects the tone of the poem?

The tone is nostalgic because the people have “hunger” for items from “places that now exist only in their hearts.”
Which is the best definition of the term “magic realism”?
a narrative genre characterized by its use of fantastic or mythic elements in otherwise realistic fiction
My friend had concluded that if he took his language and culture out of his poetry, he stood a better chance of receiving a fellowship. He took out his native language, the poetic patois of our reality, the rich mixture of Spanish, English, pachuco and street talk which we know so well. In other words, he took the tortillas out of his poetry, which is to say he took the soul out of his poetry.
At a neighborhood fair in Texas, somewhere between the German Oom-pah Sausage Stand and the Mexican Gorditas booth, I overheard a young man say to his friend, “I wish I had a heritage. Sometimes I feel—so lonely for one.” And the tall American trees were dangling their thick branches right down over his head.

Which best states how the structures of both excerpts support ideas about cultural diversity?

Each incorporates non-English words.
I am a writer. And by that definition, I am someone who has always loved language. I am fascinated by language in daily life. I spend a great deal of my time thinking about the power of language—the way it can evoke an emotion, a visual image, a complex idea, or a simple truth. Language is the tool of my trade. And I use them all—all the Englishes I grew up with.

How does Tan build a central idea of her story in the excerpt?

Tan references her work with language to build the idea that all forms of English are purposeful and meaningful.
When evaluating your compare-and-contrast paragraph, it is essential to ensure that
you answered the prompt logically.
In other cases, the censoring has been direct and brutal. On February 28, 1981 the morning newspaper carried a story about the burning of my novel, Bless Me, Ultima. The book was banned from high school classes in Bloomfield, New Mexico, and a school board member was quoted as saying: “We took the books out and personally saw that they were burned.”

Which type of rhetoric most shows how powerful people use censorship to silence the powerless?

an appeal to logic
Which of the following excerpts from Sandra Cisneros’s story “Mericans” best reveals a blending of cultures?
“‘Hey, Michele, Keeks. You guys want gum?’
‘But you speak English!’
‘Yeah,’ my brother says, ‘we’re Mericans.'”
When evaluating sources for a compare-and-contrast paragraph, you can tell if a source’s argument is objective if it
appeals to logic and reason rather than emotion.
According to the speaker’s perspective in the poem “The Latin Deli: An Ars Poetica,” what is poetic about the deli?
the emotional attachment to things that are reminders of heritage
Of course, neural networks still have a long way to go before they can model the human brain. As physicist Heinz Pagels has said: “The difference between a real neuron and the model neurons . . . is like the difference between a human hand and a pair of pliers.” But the fact that a simple neural network can speak at all is remarkable, indicating that perhaps human abilities can be simulated by electronics. . . .

Which is the most accurate summary of Kaku’s argument?

The simulated speech of neural networks suggests the potential for other electronic simulations.
I have been a nurse for twenty years. In that time, I have seen a great number of patients suffer because they did not have health insurance. One of the worst cases was a young mother of two who was diagnosed with early stage skin cancer. Because she could not afford treatment, the cancer spread from her skin to other parts of her body. By the time I saw her for the first time, the cancer had reached her brain, and she could no longer be helped. This sort of thing should not happen to anyone. A strong universal health care system could prevent instances like this from occurring.

What makes this appeal from the paragraph convincing?

One of the worst cases was a young mother of two who was diagnosed with early stage skin cancer.

It uses a specific example as evidence.
But the few wondrous shells and pebbles picked up by Newton and other scientists on the seashore helped to trigger a marvelous chain of events. A profound transformation occurred in human society. With Newton’s mechanics came powerful machines, and eventually the steam engine, the motive force which reshaped the world by overturning agrarian society, spawning factories and stimulating commerce, unleashing the industrial revolution, and opening up entire continents with the railroad.

Select the most accurate summary of Kaku’s argument?

Newton’s discoveries led to the invention of machines and the beginning of an industrialized society.