Source of insulin
Beta islet cells from the pancreas
Source of glucagon
Alpha islet cells from the pancreas
What are insulin and glucagon involved with?
Both insulin and glucagon are critical in the regulation of blood glucose level.
What happens when blood glucose level is high?
The pancreas secretes insulin (this is usually after eating).
What does insulin then do?
It stimulates and promotes the uptake of glucose by liver cells, muscle cells, and adipose tissue cells.
How do the liver and muscle cells store glucose?
The liver stores glucose as glycogen, as do muscle cells, which also build protein.
What happens in regard to fat cells?
In fat cells, the breakdown of glucose supplies glycerol for the formation of fat.
What happens as a result of these actions?
; these actions of insulin lower the blood glucose level, returning the body to homeostasis.
What happens when the blood glucose level is low?
The pancreas secretes glucagon (this is usually before eating).
What does glucagon then do?
Glucagon stimulates the liver to break down fat to glycerol and fatty acids, which the liver takes up and uses as substrates for glucose formation, thus raising the blood glucose level.
What is the source of parathyroid hormone (PTH)?
The parathyroid glands.
What is the source of calcitonin?
From the cells of the thyroid gland.
What are PTH and calcitonin involved with?
Both PTH and calcitonin work together to regulate the blood calcium level.
What happens when the blood calcium level is high?
The thyroid secretes calcitonin.
What does calcitonin then do?
It promotes the uptake of Ca2+ by reducing the activity and number of osteoclasts; once the blood calcium returns to normal, calcitonin secretion is inhibited, so this is negative feedback.
What happens when the blood calcium level is low?
The parathyroid glands release PTH into the blood.
What does PTH then do?
Promotes osteoclast activity and releasing of calcium from the bones. PTH also promotes reabsorption of calcium by the kidneys, effectively lessing its excretion.
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