EMT – Brady’s Emergency Care 12th Edition

Designated Agent
p. 16 – An EMT or other person authorized by a Medical Director to give medications and provide emergency care. Such authorization is an extension of the Medical Director’s license to practice medicine.
Evidence-Based
p. 16 – description of medical techniques or practices that are supported by scientific evidence of their safety and efficacy, rather than merely on supposition and tradition.
Medical Direction
p. 15 – Oversight of the patient-care aspects of an EMS system by the Medical Director
Medical Director
p. 15 – A physician who assumes ultimate responsibility for the patient-care aspects of the EMS system
911 System
p. 8 – A system for telephone access to report emergencies. A dispatcher takes the info and alerts EMS/FD/PD as needed
Patient Outcomes
p. 16 – the long-term survival of patients
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Protocols
p. 15 – Lists of steps, such as assessments and interventions, to be taken in different situations. Are developed by the Medical Director.
Quality Improvement
p. 13 – A process of continuous self-review with the purpose of identifying and correcting aspects of the system that require improvement.
Standing Orders
p. 16 – A policy or protocol issued by a Medical Director that authorizes EMTs and others to perform particular skills in certain situations.
Enhanced 911
p. 8 – Has the capability of automatically identifying the caller’s phone number and location
Off-Line Medical Direction
Standing orders issued by the Medical Director that allow EMTs to give certain medications or perform certain procedures without speaking to the Medical Director or another physician.
On-Line Medical Direction
Orders given directly by the on-duty physician to an EMT in the field by radio or telephone.
Contamination
p. 25 – The introduction of dangerous chemicals, disease, or infections materials.
Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM)
p. 39 – A comprehensive system that includes education and resources to both prevent stress and to deal with stress appropriately when it occurs.
Decontamination
p. 42 – The removal or cleansing of dangerous chemicals and other dangerous or infectious materials
Hazardous Material Incident
p. 41 – The release of a harmful substance into the environment
Multiple-Casualty Incident (MCI)
p. 38 – A single incident when there are multiple patients.
Pathogens
p. 23 – The organisms that cause infection, such as viruses and bacteria.
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
p. 24 – Equipment that protects the EMS worker from infection and/or exposure to the dangers of rescue operations
Standard Precautions
p. 23 – A strict form of infection control that is based on the assumption that all blood and other body fluids are infectious.
Stress
p. 36 – A state of physical and/or psychological arousal to a stimulus
Ryan White CARE Act
p. 32 – Requires a designated official within every emergency response organization to gather information about airborne or bloodborne disease exposures.
This type of Hepatitis has no vaccine
Hepatitis C
Acute Stress Reaction
p. 36 – Occurs simultaneously with or shortly after a critical incident
Delayed Stress Reaction (PTSD)
p. 36 – May occur at any time, days to years, following a critical incident.
Cumulative Stress Reaction ( Burnout)
p. 36 – Occurs as a result of prolonged recurring stressors in work or private life.
The 5 Stages of Grief
p. 40 – (In Order) Denial, Anger, Bargaining, Depression, Acceptance
Actions Required to Respond to Danger
p. 43 – Plan, Observe, React
3 Rs of Reacting to Danger
p. 44-45 – Run, Radio, Reevaluate Situation
Bariatric
Having to do with patients who are significantly overweight or obese
Body Mechanics
The proper use of the body to facilitate lifting and moving and prevent injury
Direct Carry
A method of transferring a patient from bed to stretcher, during which thwo or more rescuers curl the patient to their chests, then reverse the process to lower the patient to the stretcher
Direct Ground Lift
A method of lifting and carrying a patient from ground level to a stretcher in which two or more rescuers kneel, curl the patient to their chests, stand, then reverse the process to lower the patient to the stretcher
Draw-sheet method
A method of transferring a patient from bed to stretcher by grasping and pulling the loosened bottom sheet of the bed
Extremity Lift
A method of lifting and carrying a patient during which one rescuer slpis hands under the patient’s armpits and grasps the wrists, while another rescuer grasps the patient’s knees.
Power Grip
Gripping with as much hand surface as possible in contact with the object being lifted, all fingers bent at the same angle and hands at least 10 inches apart.
Power Lift
A lift from a squatting position with weight to be lifted close to the body, feet apart and flat on the ground, body weight on or just behind the balls of the feet, and the back locked-in. The upper body is raised before the hips, also called the squat-lift position.
Recovery Position
For unresponsive patients with NO suspected spinal injury – on their side so that vomit/oral secretions can drain out the mouth
Stair Chair
For moving patients around tight corners and up/down stairs. Places patient in a sitting position.
Spine Board (Backboard)
Used for patients in the supine/prone or standing positions and need spinal immobilization.
Scoop Stretcher
Splits into two pieces vertically, allowing the patient to be “scooped” by pushing the halves together under them. Does not have any support directly under the spine and is not recommended for patients with spinal injury.
Basket/Stokes Stretcher
Can be moved to move a patient from one level to another or over rough terrian. Should be lined with a blanket prior to placing patient in it, unless patient is on a backboard.
Flexible/Reeves Stretcher
Made of canvas or rubberized/flexible material, with or without wooden slats sewn into pockets, carrying handles on each side. Also may be known as Mega Movers or Shamu Tarps.
Vest-Type Extrication Device
AKA Kendrick Extrication Device, used for immobilizing patients who are found in a seated position
Emergency Move
Performed if the scene is hazardous, care of life-threatening conditions requires repositioning of the patient, or you must reach other patients. If possible, move the patient in line with the long axis of their body.
Urgent Move
Required when the patient must be moved quickly for treatment of an immediate threat to life. Performed WITH spinal precautions.
Non-Urgent Moves
Used when there is no urgent threat to life or scene hazards.
Abandonment
Leaving a patient after care has been initiated and before the patient has been transferred to someone with equal or greater medical treatment
Advance Directive
A DNR order; instructions written in advance of an event.
Assault
Placing a person in fear of bodily harm.
Battery
Causing bodily harm or restraining a person.
Confidentiality
The obligation not to reveal information obtained about a patient except to other health care professionals involved in the patient’s care, or under subpoena, or in a court of law, or when the patient has signed a release of confidentiality.
Consent
permission from the patient for care or other action by the EMT
Crime Scene
The location where a crime has been committed or any place that evidence relating to a crime may be found
Do Not Resuscitate (DNR) Order
a legal document, usually signed by the patient and his physician, which states that the patient has a terminal illness and does not wish to prolong life through resuscitative efforts.
Duty to Act
An obligation to provide care to a patient
Ethical
Regarding a social system or social or professional expectations for applying principals of right and wrong
Expressed Consent
consent given by adults who are of legal age and mentally competent to make a rational decision in regard to their medical well being
Good Samaritan Laws
A series of laws, varying in each state, designed to provide limited legal protection for citizens and some health care personnel when they are administering emergency care
HIPAA
the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, a federal law protecting the privacy of patient-specific health care info and providing the patient with control over how this info is used/distributed.
Implied Consent
the consent it is presumed a patient or patient’s parent/guardian would give if they could, such as for an unconscious patient or a parent who cannot be contacted when care is needed.
In Loco Parentis
In place of the parents, indicating a person who may give consent for care of a child when the parents are not present or able to give consent
Liability
being held legally responsible
Libel
false or injurious information in written form
Moral
regarding personal standards or principles of right and wrong
Negligence
a finding of failure to act properly in a situation in which there was a duty to act, that needed care as would reasonably be expected of the EMT was not provided, and that harm was caused to the patient as a result.
Organ Donor
A person who has completed a legal document that allows for donation of organs and tissues in the event of death
res ipsa loquitur
A Latin term meaning “the thing speaks for itself”
Safe Haven Law
a law that permits a person to drop off an infant or child at a police, fire, or EMS station or to deliver the infant or child to any available public safety personnel. The intent of the law is to protect children who may otherwise be abandoned or harmed.
Scope of Practice
a set of regulations and ethical considerations taht define the scope, or extent and limits, of the EMT’s job.
Slander
false or injurious information stated verbally
Standard of Care
for an EMT providing care for a specific patient in a specific situation, the care that would be expected to be provided by and EMT with similar training when caring for a ptient in a similar situation.
Tort
A civil, not criminal, offense; an action or injury caused by negligence from which a lawsuit may arise
Abdominal Quadrants
four divisions of the abdomen used to pinpoint the location of a pain or injury – RUQ, LUQ, RLQ, LLQ
Acetabulum
pelvic socket into which the boll at the proximal end of the femur fits to form the hip joint
Acromioclavicular joint
the joint where the acromion and the clavicle meet
Acromion Process
The highest portion of the shoulder
Anatomical Position
the standard reference position for the body in the study of anatomy. In this position, the body is standing erect, facing the observer, with arms down at the sides and the palms of the hands forward.
Anatomy
the study of body structure
Anterior
front of the body or body part
Aorta
large blood vessel in mammals through which blood travels from the left ventricle to all parts of the body except the lungs
Appendix
a small, fingerlike tube near the junction of the large and small intestines; contains a mass of white blood cells that contribute to immunity
Arteriole
the smallest kind of artery
Artery
any blood vessel carrying blood away from the heart
Atria
the two upper chambers of the heart- the receiving areas that pool incoming blood.
Automaticity
The ability of the heart to generate and conduct electrical impulses on its own.
Autonomic Nervous System
the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs (such as the heart). Its sympathetic division arouses; its parasympathetic division calms
Bilateral
on both sides
bladder
round sac-like organ of the renal system used as a reservoir for urine
blood pressure
measurement of the force exerted by the heart against the arterial walls when the heart contracts and relaxes
brachial artery
artery of the upper arm, site of the pulse checked during infant CPR
bronchi
the two large sets of branches that come off the trachea and enter the lungs. Right and Left Bronchi
Calcaneus
Heel Bone
Capillary
smallest blood vessel; brings nutrients and oxygen to the tissues and absorbs carbon dioxide and waste products
Cardiac Conduction System
a system of specialized muscle tissues which conduct electrical impulses that stimulate the heart to beat
Cardiac Muscle
Striated, involuntary muscle found only in the heart
cardiovascular system
the body system that consists of the heart, blood vessels, and blood, and that carries needed substances to cells and carries waste products away from cells.
Carotid Arteries
large neck arteries, one on each side of the neck, that carry blood from the heart to the head
Carpals
wrist bones
Central Nervous System (CNS)
brain and spinal cord
central pulses
carotid and femoral pulses, which can be felt in the central part of the body
Clavicle
collarbone
compound
word formed from two or more whole words, such as small + pox = smallpox
coronary arteries
blood vessels that supply the myocardium (heart muscle)
cranium
top, back, and sides of the skull
cricoid cartilage
ring-shaped structure that forms the lower portion of the larynx
dermis
second (inner) layer of skin, rich in blood vessels and nerves, found beneath the epidermis
diaphragm
muscular structure that divides the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity. A major muscle of respiration.
Diastolic Blood Pressure
pressure in the arteries when the left ventricle is refilling
Systolic Blood Pressure
pressure in the arteries when the left ventricle is contracting
Digestive System
body system the breaks down food and absorbs nutrients
Distal
farther away from the torso
Proximal
closer to the torso
Dorsal
referring to the back of the body or the back of the hand or foot. A synonym for Posterior
Dorsalis Pedis Artery
artery supplying the foot, lateral to the large tendon of the big toe
Endocrine System
system of glands that produce hormones that help to regulate many body activities and functions
Epidermis
outer layer of skin. Primarily made up of dead/dying cells
epiglottis
leaf shaped structure that prevents food and foreign matter from entering the trachea
epinephrine
a hormone produced by the body. As a medication, it dilates respiratory passages and is used to relieve severe allergic reactions.
exhalation
passive process where the intercostal muscles and diaphragm relax and the chest cavity decreases in size, causing air to flow out of the lungs
femoral artery
the major artery supplying the leg
femur
thigh bone
fibula
lateral and smaller bone of the lower leg
Fowler position
sitting position
Gallbladder
sac on the underside of the liver that stores bile
humerus
upper arm bone between shoulder and elbow
hypoperfusion
Inadequate perfusion of the cells and tissues of the body caused by insufficient flow of blood through the capillaries.
ilium
superior and widest portion of the pelvis
inferior
away from the head, usually compared with another structure that is closer to the head
inhalation
active process in which the intercostal muscles and the diapgragm contract, expanding the size of the chest cavity and causing air to flow into the lungs
insulin
hormone produced by the pancreas or taken as a medication by many diabetics
involuntary muscle
muscle that responds automatically to brain signals but cannot be consciously controlled
ischium
the lower, posterior portions of the pelvis
joint
the point where two bones come together
kidneys
organs of the renal system used to filter blood and regulate fluid levels in the body
large intestine
muscular tube that removes water from waste products received from the small intestine and moves anything not absorbed by the body toward excretion from the body
Larynx
voice box
lateral
to the side, away from the body’s midline
ligament
tissue connecting bone to bone
liver
largest organ of the body, producing bile to assist in breakdown of fats and assisting in the metabolism of various substances in the body
lungs
organs where exchange of atmospheric oxygen and waste carbon dioxide take place
malleolus
protrusion on each side of the ankle – lateral and medial
mandible
lower jaw bone
manubrium
superior portion of the sternum
maxillae
two fused bones that form the upper jaw
medial
toward the body’s midline
metacarpals
hand bones
metatarsals
foot bones
mid-axillary line
line drawn vertically from the middle of the armpit to the lateral malleolus / ankle
mid-clavicular line
vertical line through the center of each clavicle
midline
imaginary line drawn through the center of the body dividing it into right and left halves
muscle
tissue that can contract to allow movement of a body part
musculoskeletal system
the system of bones and skeletal muscles that support and protect the body and permit movement
nasal bones
nose bones
nasopharynx
area directly posterior to the nose
nervous system
brain, spinal cord, nerves that govern sensation, movement, thought
orbits
eye sockets
oropharynx
area directly posterior to the mouth
ovaries
egg-producing organs in the female reproductive system
palmar
referring the the palm of the hand
pancreas
gland located behind the stomach that produces insulin and juices that assist in digestion of food in the duodenum of the small intestine
patella
kneecap
pelvis
basin shaped bony structure that supports the spine and is the point of proximal attachment for lower extremities
penis
organ of male reproduction responsible for sexual intercourse and the transfer of sperm
perfusion
The supply of oxygen to and removal of wastes from the cells and tissues of the body as a result of the flow of blood through the capillaries.
Peripheral Nervous System
All those nerves that lie outside the brain and spinal cord. The sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body
Peripheral Pulses
radial, brachial, posterior tibial, and dorsalis pedis pulses, which can be felt at peripheral points of the body
phalanges
toe bones and finger bones
pharynx
oropharynx and nasopharynx combined – directly behind the mouth and nose
physiology
study of body function
plane
flat surface formed when slicing through a solid object
plantar
referring to the sole of the foot
plasma
fluid portion of the blood
platelets
components of the blood; membrane-enclosed fragments of specialized cells
posterior
back of the body or body part
posterior tibial artery
supplies the foot, behind the medial ankle
prone
lying face down
pubis
anterior portion of the pelvis
pulmonary arteries
vessels that carry de-oxygenated blood from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs
pulmonary veins
vessels that carry oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart
pulse
rhythmic beats caused as waves of blood move through and expand the arteries
radial artery
artery of the lower arm. felt when taking the pulse at the wrist
recovery position
lying on the side, also known as lateral recumbent position
red blood cells
carry oxygen to and carbon dioxide away from the cells
renal system
regulates fluid balance and blood filtration. Also called urinary system.
reproductive system
responsible for human reproduction
respiration (cellular)
process of moving oxygen and carbon dioxide between circulating blood and the cells
respiratory system
A system of organs, functioning in the process of gas exchange between the body and the environment, consisting especially of the nose, nasal passages, nasopharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs.
scapula
shoulder blade
small intestine
The muscular tube between the stomach and the large intestine, divided into the duodenum, the jejunum, and the ileum, which receives partially digested food from the stomach and continues digestion. Nutrients are absorbed by the body through its walls.
spleen
organ located in left upper abd quadrant, blood filtration system and reservoir for blood reserves
sternum
breastbone
stomach
muscular sac between esophagus and small intestine that initiates digestion
subcutaneous layers
fatty layers found below dermis
superior
towards the head
supine
laying on the back
tarsals
ankle bones
tendon
tissue that connects muscle to bone
testes
male reproductive organs – used for sperm production
thorax
chest
thyroid cartilage
wing-shaped plate of cartilage that sits anterior to the larynx and forms the Adam’s apple.
tibia
medial/larger bone of the lower leg
torso
trunk of the body, body without the head and extremities
trachea
windpipe, structure that connects the pharynx to the lungs
Trendelenburg (shock) Position
feet and legs higher than the head
Ulna
medial bone of the forearm
ureters
tubes connecting kidneys to bladder
urethra
tube connecting bladder to vagina or penis for urine excretion
uterus
female organ of reproduction used to house the developing fetus
vagina
female organ of reproduction used for both sexual intercourse and as an exit from the uterus for the fetus
valve
structure that opens closes to permit the flow of a fluid in only one direction
vein
any blood vessel returning to the heart
venae cavae
superior and inferior vena cava – two major veins that return blood from the body to the right atrium
ventilation
process of moving gases between inhaled air and the pulmonary circulation of blood
ventral
referring to the front of the body – synonym for anterior
ventricles
two lower chambers of the heart – Right Ventricle sends de-oxygenated blood to the lungs, Left Ventricle sends oxygenated blood to the body
venule
smallest kind of vein
vertebrae
33 bones of the spinal column
white blood cell
blood component that helps the body fight infection
xiphoid process
inferior portion of the sternum
zygomatic arches
bones that form the structure of the cheeks
voluntary muscle
muscle that can be consciously controlled
aerobic metabolism
The cellular process in which oxygen is used to metabolize glucose. Energy is produced in an efficient manner with minimal waste products.
anaerobic metabolism
The cellular process in which glucose is metabolized into energy without oxygen. Energy is produced in an inefficient manner with many waste products.
cardiac output
amount of blood ejected from the heart in 1 minute (heart rate x stroke volume)
chemoreceptors
chemical sensors in the brain and blood vessels that identify changing levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide
dead air space
air that occupies the space between the mouth and alveoli but that does not actually reach the area of gas exchange
dehydration
abnormally low amount of water in the body
edema
swelling associated with the movement of water into the interstitial space
electrolyte
a substance that, when dissolved in water, separates into charged particles
FiO2
fraction of inspired oxygen; the concentration of oxygen in the air we breathe
hydrostatic pressure
pressure within a blood vessel that tends to push water out of the vessel
hypersensitivity
exaggerated response by the immune system to a particular substance
metabolism
the process through which an organism changes food into energy
minute volume
amount of air breathed in during each respiration multipled by the # of breaths per minute
patent
open and clear, free from obstruction (in reference to an airway)
pathophysiology
study of how disease processes affect the body
plasma oncotic pressure
the pull exerted by large proteins in the plasma portion of blood that tends to pull water from the body into the bloodstream
shock
inability of the body to adequately circulate blood to the body’s cells to supply them with oxygen and nutrients. Also called hypoperfusion. A life threatening condition
stretch receptors
sensors in blood vessels that identify internal pressure
stroke volume
the amount of blood ejected from the heart in one contraction
systemic vascular resistance (SVR)
the pressure in the peripheral blood vessels that the heart must overcome in order to pump blood into the system
tidal volume
the volume of air moved in one cycle of breathing
V/Q match
ventilation/perfusion match. This implies that the alveoli are supplied with enough air and that the air in the alveoli is matched with sufficient blood in the pulmonary capillaries to permit optimum exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide
adolescence
Ages 13-18 years, OR the transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence.
bonding
the sense that needs will be met
early adulthood
19-40 years
infancy
birth to 1 year
late adulthood
ages 61 and older
middle adulthood
from 41-60 years
Moro reflex
when startled, an infant throws his arms out, spreads his fingers, then grabs with fingers and arms
Palmar reflex
when you place your finger in an infants palm, he will grasp it
preschool age
3-5 years
rooting reflex
when you touch a hungry infant’s cheek, he will turn his head toward the side touched
scaffolding
building on what one already knows
school age
6-12 years
sucking reflex
when you stroke a hungry infant’s lips, he will start sucking
temperament
the infant’s reaction to his environment
toddler phase
stage of life from 12-36 months
trust vs. mistrust
concept developed from an orderly, predictable environment vs. a disorderly, irregular environment