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Emotional Intelligence

Essay Topic:

An investigation of the employee perceptions on the relationship between employee job satisfaction and the leader’s emotional intelligence among the workers of Eskom in Alice Town 1INTRODUCTION For organisations to survive in today’s changing world they should maintain their competitive advantage through the use of the whole workforce. In order for the change to take place, the employees, and the leaders should be adaptive to the environment, effective working and the continuous improvement of the processes and systems they use to achieve the objectives.

Being able to get the results within the set time frames and those that are considered proper in their industries will make up an effective leader (Goleman, 2000). Great leaders are the ones that are able to direct their subordinates and they are able to make the best of us be visible and ignite our passion. When we simply explain why leaders are so effective we talk of the ideas they bring to the organisation, their vision and the strategy they apply in achieving objectives. But according to Goleman; Boyatzis and McKee (2000) great leaders are the ones that work through their emotions.

Emotional intelligence has been identified as the most important element that leads to effective leadership; this was recognised through some researchers.

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Goleman (1998) has said that, “the most effective leaders are alike in one crucial way; they all have a high degree of what has come to be known as emotional intelligence”. He further says that “sine qua non” of leadership is the emotional intelligence (1998). Until recently, many organisations are beginning to acknowledge the importance of emotional intelligence, it is said to be important as an individual’s IQ to his/her effectiveness (Druskat & Wolff, 2001).

Although the concept of Emotional Intelligence (EI) has been identified as an important element in an organisation but still it is under-researched (Ashkanasy & Daus, 2002). EI can be defined as the abilities to be able to recognise and regulate the emotions one has and those in others, and with that information be in a position to make use of the emotions to direct one’s thinking and actions (Mayer, Salovey and Caruso, 2008). According to research that has been conducted, it shows that emotionally intelligent leaders are able to attain effectiveness from the employees.

Those leaders who are effective manage their own feelings and direct them towards the objectives of the organisation, furthermore, they are able to accept the feelings of others (Cherniss, & Goleman; 2001). Nevertheless, according to Palmer, Walls, Burgess and Stough (2001), the contribution that emotional intelligence has given to leadership is still relatively unknown regardless of much interest in this relationship. The craving that the world of organisations is having is to have a leader who is compelling and inspired to do their work (Burns, 1978).

Until the twentieth century that is when leadership was studied scientifically. What determines leadership was the main focus of the study (Yukul, 1998). Sources of power of the leaders, behaviour that is exhibited by the leaders, traits that make up good leaders and also the abilities they have as leaders were the areas that were focused on in social sciences. A new base of the influence of leadership was established during the beginning of the 1980’s, and it was said to be emotional intelligence (Yukul, 1998). The achievements of organisations are believed to be influenced by the emotional intelligence of the leaders.

With the utilisation of the link between emotions and leadership, Sosik and Megerian (1999) studied the relationship between transformational leadership performance, emotional intelligence and leader effectiveness. This study elaborated the influence of quite a few aspects of emotional intelligence on leader effectiveness. Goleman’s book titled Emotional Intelligence which was published in 1995 helped in the growing of the concept of emotional intelligence and its effects on the leaders and the organisation; he further supported his views in his second book, Working with Emotional Intelligence (1998).

The concern on the impact of emotional intelligence continues today. Salovey and Mayer (1990) began with the scholarly study in the early 1990’s after they had defined it. According to Mayer, Caruso, and Salovey (2000) they defined emotional intelligence as the ability to express one’s emotions; to recognise and appraise emotions more precisely and adapt to the changes that will be taking place; the definition also covers the ability to be aware of one’s emotions and what causes them; and also the ability to regulate the emotions in oneself and in others.

Remarkable attention to the concept of emotional intelligence was only accorded during the previous decade but in the early 1920s the concept was discussed. In the 1920s Thorndike became the first psychologist who looked at social intelligence but as time passed and with the addition of information, the concept became known as the emotional intelligence (Goleman, 2000). The publication of Goleman’s book in 1995 made the public conscious of the concept of emotional intelligence (Geher & Renstrom, 2004).

What made people to be more interested in the concept was that they grew conscious of that emotional intelligence had an effect on the job performance, satisfaction, and other several areas of life (Bar-On, 2007). A competitive company should make use of emotional intelligence as it is the key in the work environment. A small portion of Goleman’s book addressed the need for emotional intelligence in the workplace. Persuasion of further information about the concept was developed by practising managers because of the face validity of the concept.

From the interests that were shown when Goleman just put a small portion of emotional intelligence in the workplace, he decided to come up with a new book in which he was more concentrated on the emotional intelligence in the workplace. As a result he worked toward the provision of answers because of the manifestation of emotional intelligence in the workplace. Emotional competence was defined by Goleman as “a learned capability based on emotional intelligence that results in outstanding performance at work,” of which he proposed that the competencies of social and emotional fell under this definition (Goleman, 1998).

From the above we can draw a meaning that an emotionally intelligent leader is someone who is competent enough to deal with emotion-laden information and use the information for determining required behaviour among the employees. From the time when emotional intelligence was introduced, there has been a lot of debate and dialogue surrounding the topic in the research community. The proposed research study will seek to examine further how employees perceive the emotional intelligence of the leaders on their job satisfaction. 2STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Although of note research has been conducted on leadership and job satisfaction, research on emotional intelligence is still relatively thin and the relationship between the emotional intelligence of the leader and the job satisfaction of the employee is less significant thus far. Emotional intelligence is an important factor in organisational effectiveness; the leaders are supposed to have greater emotional intelligence for them to be able to manage the organisation more effectively. The emotional intelligence of the leaders has an effect on the job satisfaction of the employees but not much research has been conducted to show as such.

Thus this study seeks to explore how the employees perceive the emotional intelligence of their leaders how it affects their job satisfaction. 3SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY Effective leaders are the ones that are able to put into use their emotional intelligence to manage effectively themselves, others, and their organisation (Caruso, & Salovey, 2004; Goleman, 1998). The know-how of what emotional intelligence does to the leadership and its effects on the job satisfaction may offer important ideas to the leaders and their trainers on the degree to which they need to familiarise themselves with the construct.

The more individuals and leaders are on familiar terms with themselves, the better, because they will understand how they are perceived by others and the reason why others react as they do. Ineffective behaviour and trying out new ideas can only be reduced by familiarising oneself with the emotions of the people that surround you (Hunsaker, 2001). Emotional intelligence is not only concerned with the maintaining of pleasant relationships; it also covers the ability to cover one’s own emotions and the emotions of the others in such a way that the organisational objectives are met.

Emotional intelligence competencies are not inborn talents, but they are learned abilities and they develop as people grow old in years (Goleman 2002). The base for effective performance in the workplace nowadays is considered to be the emotions and emotional intelligence unlike in the previous years when employees were told to leave their emotions back home when coming to work. From the time when the publication of Emotional Intelligence (Goleman, 1995) was done, the business writings in this area have exploded.

The scholarly support of the claims prepared in these books however is behind the business leader’s perceptions of the impact of high emotional intelligence on their effectiveness and success. For many years employees were seen as satisfied with their jobs if the salary they are getting is sufficient enough for their survival. Although much research has been done on what satisfies people on their job, such as the passion for the job they do, the benefits they get from the job among other things; not much research has been done on how emotional intelligence of both the employee and the leader affect the job satisfaction of the employee.

A study of the emotional intelligence of the leader and its effects on the job satisfaction of the employee will help us understand what satisfies employees besides financial and non-financial things. 4OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY ?To study and explore the relationship between employee job satisfaction and leaders’ emotional intelligence ? To offer some recommendations to organisations on how they can put into practice emotional intelligence in their leaders for job satisfaction of the employees ? To determine the employee perceptions on the emotional intelligence of the leader 5HYPOTHESES

H0: there is a positive relationship between the emotional intelligence of the leader and the job satisfaction of the employee. H1: there is a negative relationship between the emotional intelligence of the leader and the job satisfaction of the employee. 6THEORATICAL FRAMEWORK 6. 1 Theory of Emotional Intelligence: Trait Approach Goleman (1995) suggested that emotional intelligence is made up of five competencies; he was building his work on the work of Mayer and Salovey. The competencies may be categorised into five domains; all the five competencies affect how people react and take in the events that would be occurring in an organisation.

The domains are as follows: Self-awareness This is the ability to be aware of and be able to express one’s own emotions; and this considered to be the foundation of emotional intelligence. The implication behind is that an individual is able to have an understanding of his or her needs, weaknesses, strengths, emotions, and what drives them. When a person is self-aware, they would be able to determine what effect their emotions have on themselves, also on other workmates and as well as on their job satisfaction and performance. A leader who would have this ability will be open to constructive criticism.

Self-regulation Management of internal states, impulses and resources that’s what is involved under this ability (Goleman, 1995). To make it clearer, an individual would be trying to realise what is behind or what has caused a feeling, seeing to it that feelings they would be having will be appropriate for that situation and also finding ways to deal with negative emotions such as sadness and anger. Basically this component is about an individual controlling their emotions to the desired level and using them in a functional way.

Innovation, adaptability, conscientiousness, trustworthiness, and self control all covered in under this element according to Goleman (1995). Motivating oneself This element is concerned with the directing of emotions towards the goal, controlling of emotions as an individual and taking time on getting satisfied. Although people work for money or status, motivating oneself refers to the passion and drive to work for reasons that go further than the need for money or status. When an individual is motivated enough they would pursue goals with persistence.

Creative challenges and learning new stuff about a job are some of the characteristics of a highly self-motivated person. Normal behaviour is compromised of exploring new approaches of doing their work and the set procedures are challenged for the good of the organisation (Salovey & Mayer, 1990). Social skills It is the emotional management of others, social competence and handling relationships. Building of rapport among people, discovery of a familiar ground, networking is built and managing relationships are all a result of social skills.

For people to be able to build rapport with other people they should have social skills according to Salovey and Mayer (1990). A social skilled person is able to direct people to the position that is considered necessary for goal achievement. 7LITERATURE REVIEW 7. 1 Definition of Emotional Intelligence In spite of the fact that the study of emotional intelligence is relatively novel, definitions and theorists seeking to explain the concept of emotional intelligence are many.

Gardener (1983) described two types of intelligences which he named interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligences and they are closely related to what later became known as emotional intelligence. Mayer and Salovey (1993) a decade later protected emotional intelligence as an intelligence that was related to, but at the same time different from, social intelligence which was outlined by E. L. Thorndike (1920). Mayer, DiPaolo, and Salovey (1990) stated “emotional intelligence involves the accurate appraisal and expression of emotions in oneself and others and the regulation of emotion in a way that enhances living”.

Four basis of emotional intelligence were identified by Cooper (1997) whom he named emotional alchemy, emotional depth, emotional fitness, and emotional literacy. Weisinger (1998) further described emotional intelligence as the “intelligence use of emotions: you purposely make your emotions work for you by using them to help direct your behaviour and thinking in ways that improve your results”. Emotional intelligence was defined as “a general construct encompassing emotional, personal, and social abilities that influence one’s overall capability to effectively cope with environmental demands and pressures” by McCallum and Piper (2000).

Kunnanatt (2004) described emotional intelligence as “the sum total of the mental capabilities that allow a person in accepting his or her own and others” emotions correctly, in real time, and in using these emotions intelligently to create personally and socially enviable transactional outcomes. There are numerous definitions of EI, but all of them are complementary in the sense that all have the aim of understanding the abilities and traits related to one’s own and others’ emotions.

Martinez (1997) provides a brief definition that illustrates emotional intelligence as being “an array of non-cognitive skills, capabilities and competencies that influence a person’s ability to cope with environmental demands and pressures”. What this is demonstrating is that emotional intelligence, complementary some other traditional concepts of intelligence, is not thought to be entirely cognitive, but to a certain extent include skills that help one in coping with day-to-day living in the world.

The researcher is going to use the theoretical framework that was proposed by Goleman (2002) for the purpose of this study to explain emotional intelligence. Under that framework, emotional intelligence is defined within four domains namely, self-awareness, self-management, social awareness, and relationship management. To further explain those domains several abilities are explained top outline the essence of each domain.

Within the domains of self-awareness and self-management main concentration will be put on the individual’s personal competence, while the other two, relationship management and social competence, concentrate on an individual’s social well being. 7. 2 Job Satisfaction definition Many definitions of the concept have been formulated over time. Job satisfaction can be simply defined as the extent to which employees are happy with their work. According to Amold and Feldman (1986, p. 86) they described job satisfaction as “the amount of overall affect that individuals have toward their job”.

Basically this means that an individual feels positive about their work and they appreciate it, in general, they will like their job. McCormick and IIgen (1980) said that a job satisfaction is an individual’s attitude towards his or her work and they continued by saying that the emotional response to the job is what is called the attitude which may be positive or negative. Another scholar Beck (1983) also talked of job satisfaction saying that as jobs are made up of many elements, the attitudes we develop are a summation of how we feel about the job.

For us to determine the level of job satisfaction we have compare the good features and the bad features for us to be able to come up with a conclusion whether the satisfaction is high or low. 8Research Methodology Research methodology is a way to systematically resolve the research problem. It may be understood as a science of studying how research is completed scientifically. In it we study the range of steps that are generally adopted by researchers in studying his research along with the logic behind them. Research design refers to the steps that researchers follow to complete their study from start to finish.

It includes asking research questions based on theoretical orientation, selection of respondents, data collection and reporting of the results (Marvasti, 2004). This research will utilize a quantitative design. According to Blanche, Durrheim and Painter (2006) quantitative researchers collect data in the form of numbers and use statistical types of data analysis. 8. 1 Population of the study According to McClendon (2004), the population of the study is the total number of possible units or elements that are included in the study.

A population is considered to be any group of people, events, or things that are of interest to the researchers and that they wish to investigate (Sekaran, 2000). It is the aggregate of all units that have a chance of being included in the sample to be studied. The population of the study will comprise of the employees who work at Eskom in Alice Town. 8. 2 Sample and Sampling procedure Gray (2004) defines a sample as a set of objects, occurrence or individuals selected from a parent population for a research study.

A sample is a subset of the population in question and consists of a selection of members from the particular population (Sekaran, 2000). Sampling is described as the selection of a proportion of the total number of units of interest for the ultimate reason of being able to draw general conclusions about the total number of units (Parasuraman, 1986). . The research at hand will use the probability random sampling procedure, whereby all the population units have an equal chance of being selected; all respondents to the research will have an equal chance of being included in the sample.

To be more precise the sample will be determined by stratified sampling, the population is divided into homogeneous, mutually exclusive groups called strata, and then independent samples are selected from each stratum. Stratified sampling ensures an adequate sample size for sub-groups in the population of interest. After the population is stratified, each stratum becomes an independent population. The sample size for each stratum will be decided. Systematic random sampling will be used to sample within each stratum. 8. 3 Data collection method

Data for this research will be collected through questionnaires. The questionnaires will be handed to individual employees in person and collected the same way. The use of questionnaires has the advantage of precision and comparability of responses, and allow for more detailed analysis, as this permits for information to be collected from a larger sample. The questionnaire to be used will be semi-structured, and will contain both closed-ended questions (questions that require direct answers) and open-ended questions (questions that allow for brief explanations on the issue of concern).

The questions will cover areas such as the behaviour of leaders; it will also cover factors such as emotional literacy, self-esteem/self-regard, self-management, change resilience, and the integration of head and heart. 8. 4 Data analysis Data analysis is the conversion of meaningless data into valuable information that can be easily understood, it involves the reduction of accumulated data to a manageable size, developing summaries, looking for patterns and applying statistical techniques.

It also includes the interpretation of research findings in the light of the research questions and determines if the results are consistent with the research hypotheses and theory (Cooper & Schindler, 2003). The data will be analysed through statistical analysis. Some of the tools that will be used include descriptive, correlation and regression analysis. Descriptive statistics (means, standard deviations, and frequencies) will be used to describe idealised attributes, idealised behaviour and intellectual stimulation. Also it will be used to describe emotional literacy, self-management, and employee performance appraisal. Proposed outline of the study Chapter 1: Introduction and Background This chapter will provide a background of the study in relation to the problem that led to the research. The chapter will include the problem of the statement of the research problem, objectives and hypotheses, the significance of the study, theoretical framework, the definitions of key concepts, delimitation of the study. Chapter 2: Review of Related Literature Outlines relevant performance literature, and concludes with research and empirical studies identifying the correlation between employee job satisfaction and leader’s emotional intelligence.

This chapter will provide a comprehensive literature review of emotional intelligence and job satisfaction. How ineffectiveness of leaders has led to the adaptation emotional intelligence in organisations. Chapter 3: Research Methodology and Design This chapter describes the research methodology applied in the study. The research methods, techniques and sampling procedures followed are discussed in this chapter. Chapter 4: Data Analysis and Research Results This chapter presents the results of the research. It focuses on the empirical interpretation and analysis of the research results, using quantitative and qualitative analysis.

Tables and graphs shall be used to illustrate the research results. Chapter 5: Conclusions and Policy Recommendations Chapter 5 reviews the results in light of previous research, discusses limitations and implications of this research, recommendations for further studies also provided and finally provides a research conclusion. 10 Delimitation of the study The purpose of demarcating a study is to make it more manageable and focused. Due to the logistical constraints covering the entire South Africa, the study will focus only on the employees of ESKOM in Eastern Cape, Alice town, South Africa. 1Timeframe and budgetary constraints. The study will be carried out over a period of six months and the expected amount of money that will be used for expenses is ±R3 000. 12Ethical considerations Several ethical issues should be addressed while collecting data. Permission to carry out the study at the municipal employees will be sought through the University management. They will be a covering letter from the University. Before collecting the data, if someone does not want to participate, they will not be forced to respond to questions. Informed consent is the goal of the researcher.

More so, treating the information given by the respondent as strictly confidential and guarding respondents’ privacy will be one of the primary responsibilities of the researcher. Chapter 2: LITERATURE STUDY 2. 1 INTRODUCTION An assessment of the literature in the field of emotional intelligence and leadership found that the two areas had been independently linked to performance. The primary focus of this chapter is to provide a theoretical perspective of emotional intelligence through a detailed study prior to research conducted on its various components and facets.

The aim of this study is to investigate the employee perceptions on the emotional intelligence of the leader in relation to their job satisfaction. Does the emotional intelligence of the leader affect the job satisfaction of the employee? Thus this chapter provides an explanation on the research held covering emotional intelligence and job satisfaction and what were the employee perceptions before the introduction of the emotional intelligence among the leaders. 2. 2 EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE Until 1970s, emotions and intelligence were treated and studied as separate concepts.

The concept of emotional intelligence (EI) received more concentration after increased interest being shown in the impact of emotions on thought process (Mayer, 2001). Many psychologists have a preference of using the term “emotion” as an alternative of “feeling” because it is supposed to be more objective on account of its biological base (Wierzbicka, 1999). Rosaldo (1984) believes that “emotions are thoughts somehow “felt” in flushes, pulses, “movements” of our livers, minds, hearts, stomachs, skin. They are embodied thoughts. Emotions subsist in a context; they are related to the situation, and one’s goals, needs and wants. According to Brown et al, (2003) the three main reasons why emotions are so vital in the work context are as follows: “they play a role in career development, they control one’s actions and they motivate a person to act”. Furthermore, emotions play a part in the decision making, the decisions may be related to career or the routine decision making so people have to be aware of their emotions and of the people around before making decisions that will affect them in the long run. Decisions are strongly conditioned by somatic state-bodily sensations-that enable people to make value judgements” (Ashkanasy, Zebre & Hartel, 2002). According to Mayer, Caruso and Salovey (1999) “emotions are internal events that coordinate many psychological subsystems including physiological response, cognitions and conscious awareness”. While on the other hand, intelligence is described as the “ability to profit from experience, acquire knowledge, think abstractly, act purposefully, or adapt to changes in the environment” (Wade & Tarvis, 2006). Wechsler (1958) defines intelligence as “…. he aggregate or global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, to think rationally and to deal effectively with his environment”. Highly intelligent individuals are not only regarded as less destructive, more open and motivated, but they are also assumed to having a tendency of superiority in verbal, social and other intelligences (Mayer et al. , 2004). From several researches conducted, it was discovered that IQ is the stronger predictor of job and academic performance than EI; however, it is EI that allows us to make a distinction between a potential star and an average leader (Emmerling & Goleman, 2003).

Many still argue that EI has a far better predictive validity than IQ (Goleman, 1995). With EI a person is able to actively and effectively deal with with the environment which impacts on one’s job satisfaction. There are numerous definitions of EI, but all of them are complementary in the sense that all have the aim of understanding the abilities and traits related to one’s own and others’ emotions.

For intelligences, such as EI, they need to include the three criteria in order to be regarded as true intelligence: 1. They should be Conceptual (can be described as a set of abilities) 2. They should be Correlational (the measures correlate with other measures which reflect similar skills and abilities). 3. They should be Developmental (it develops with age and experience but only up to some point). Mayer et al. 1999) conducted a study that demonstrated that EI met all the criteria listed above. According to Bar-On (2000) “people who are emotionally and socially intelligent are able to understand and express themselves, to understand and relate well to others, and to successfully cope with demands of daily life”. Salovey and Mayer (1990) view EI as “ the subset of social intelligence that involves the ability to monitor one’s own and others’ feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them and to use this information to guide one’s thinking and actions”.

In other words, EI involves being competent to observe, be familiar with and be aware of one’s own emotions and the emotions of others and to make a distinction between one’s own emotions and those of others. Orme (2001) highlights the following as some of the important key points of emotional intelligence: 1. Emotional Intelligence can be learned and developed-Emotional intelligence can be enhanced, in spite of the current level of emotional intelligence. Given the appropriate support, activities and commitment, emotional intelligence can be enhanced at any age in life. 2.

There are some differences between men and women- According to Dr. Bar-on (2001) “Women are more aware of their emotion, demonstrate more empathy, relate better interpersonally, and act more socially responsible than men; on the other hand, men appear to have better self-regarded, are more independent, cope better with stress, are more flexible, solve problems better and are more optimistic than women”. 3. Emotional intelligence affects our ability to make decisions- It may not be entirely realised but most of the decisions that we make are made through the pathway of emotions. . Emotional intelligence is reflected in relationships- People with high emotional intelligence tend to enjoy close relationships, and are comfortable with themselves and others, as they will be aware of their own emotions and those of others. 5. Emotional intelligence increases with life experience-Research by Dr. Reuven Bar-on confirmed that emotional intelligence increases with age, peaks in the age group of forty to forty-nine and then levels out. 2. 3 Historical Development of Emotional Intelligence

The foundation of the study of emotional intelligence began in the early workings of the study of emotion and the study of intelligence, the history of the development is not extensive; it dates back to the beginning of the 20th century. The initial research around the topic of emotion was in the sociological and psychological domains. In the 1920s Thorndike (1921) became the first psychologist to investigate social intelligence, which over time and with additional information became known as emotional intelligence.

Social intelligence can be defined as “the ability to understand and manage people” (Thorndike & Stein, 1937). During that time, the definition covered many areas and it was broad which made it not easy to take apart social intelligence from it.. EI is viewed as an even broader concept than social intelligence but is far more focused on emotions (Mayer et al. , 2000). These two topics of research (intelligence and emotion) were undertaken independently until the early 1990’s when “emotional intelligence” was first defined (Salovey & Mayer, 1990).

This was initially described as a “type of social intelligence that involves the ability to monitor one’s own and others emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use the information to guide one’s thinking and actions” (Salovey & Mayer, 1990). The connection of emotion to intelligence was made through the social intelligence construct. Emotional Intelligence got off to a start when Goleman wrote his book titled Emotional Intelligence in 1995, which to this day is the most popular book on EI (Russell & Barchard, 2002).

Goleman’s theory is not the same with the previously developed models as it focuses on EI in the work context and in the light of job performance. His theory suggests that social and emotional competencies are crucial in outstanding job performance (Emmerling & Goleman, 2003). For the past decade and dating back, extensive research has been conducted on the concept of EI, credit goes to researchers such as Goleman and Bar-On who made it possible to explore the concept in the work context and also its influence on school and work performance.

Interpersonal and intrapersonal competencies are the two combinations that make up emotional intelligence, the two competencies are personal intelligences, emotional intelligence changes as people grow in years and also it can be developed through coaching and training (Bar-On, 2007; Goleman , 2001). Gardner (1983) defined interpersonal intelligence as the ability to understand other people: what motivates them, how they work, how to work cooperatively with them.

Intrapersonal intelligence is a correlative ability turned inward. It is a capacity to form an accurate, veridical model of one-self and to be able to use that model to operate effectively in life. 2. 3. 1 Theories of Emotional Intelligence Gardner (1983) provides the foundation upon which EI is based as he referred to inter-personal and intra-personal intelligence. EI is mainly made up of two major subgroups which are ability and trait based EI.

Some perceive this as being a problem of having several theories explaining one concept as this may become a puzzle to the researchers, however on the other hand, this may be viewed as an opportunity to discover various facets of the construct (Emmerling & Goleman, 2003). 2. 3. 1. 1 The Ability Approach Salovey and Mayer (1990) defined emotional intelligence focusing on the abilities that were involved in the concept. It was defined as “the ability to monitor one’s own and others’ feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use this information to guide one’s thinking and action” (1990, p. 89). The definition is made up of three mental processes: •Being able to express the emotions in oneself and others. •Being able to regulate the emotions one has and also of others; and •Making use of the emotion to think Salovey and Mayer (1990) wanted to find out the reason why other people were successful in both life and work as compared to others though they will be having same intelligence levels. A distinction between the two was done and it named “emotional intelligence”.

It means being able to realise the emotions and their relationships and give them a meaning, and to solve problems basing on them. The processes of dealing with oneself and those pertaining to others are subdivisions of the first mental processes as stated above. In the second mental process we have regulation of emotions which also has two subdivision that cover oneself and others in the regulation of emotions. Being able to motivate, redirect attention, thinking creatively, and flexible planning makes up the third mental process which is utilisation of emotions (Mayer & Salovey, 1993; 1995).

Nevertheless, earlier definitions and the one above of emotional intelligence were only more concerned about the abilities of the individual to perceive and regulate emotion without considering the feelings. A revision of the original definition was done, and emotional intelligence was re-defined as relating to the ability to observe more precisely, assess, and communicate emotion; the ability to have a know-how of emotions and the emotional knowledge; promotion of emotional and intellectual growth through the ability of regulating emotions; thoughts facilitation through the access or generation of feelings (Mayer & Salovey, 1997).

One’s emotional intelligence was said to be made up of four building blocks that were identified in the new definition (Weisinger, 1998): Emotion expressing, appraising and perceiving ability Emotions need to be expressed naturally, so individuals need the ability to have an understanding of his or her deep emotions. When a person has great ability in this area they will be able to accept their own emotions before others do so (Wong & Law, 2002).

Facial expression and the ability to categorize one’s own feelings through the use of words are known as emotional self-appraisal (Abraham, 1999). Expressing of emotions verbally or non-verbally to others and the awareness of the emotions people will be having or have experienced are the ones that differentiate people. Good decision making and better judgements are generated from being able to precisely appraise one’s own emotions. Effective communication and accomplishment of objectives is ensured through the accurate expression of the emotions of individuals (George, 2000).

The ability to determine and conveying or communicating exactly the emotions of others is being able to appraise and express others’ feelings. Non-verbal cues are where most of the appraisal of emotion comes from, that is the body language we apply in different situations. Understanding is the basis upon which one is able to gauge the feelings in others, re-experiencing the feelings and after going through all that, which is when an individual will be able to come up with a socially adaptive response (Abraham, 1999).

Understanding or empathy is a fundamental skill that makes it possible for individuals to provide social support and maintain positive interpersonal relationships (Batson, 1987). Generation or accessing of feelings on demand when they can facilitate understanding of oneself or others’ feelings ability People should be able to use the emotional intelligence in a functional way rather than only being aware and being able to express oneself. Emotions assist people in directing attention to the important concerns while also signalling what should be attended (George & Brief, 1996).

Individuals are also able to anticipate how to respond if a certain event was to occur through the use of emotions and decision makers are further aided in making decisions (Damasio, 1994). Knowledge that is derived from emotions and understanding of emotions ability Emotions change and evolve over time, also they have consequences and they are determined certain events in our lives, being aware of all that will be known as the knowledge of the emotions. Human beings are different and their awareness and understanding of different situations, events, and people are also different.

As emotions change over time, leaders have to be conscious about such changes for them to have empathy of the normal reactions of the subordinates during those situations (George, 2000). Promotion of emotional and intellectual growth through regulation of emotions ability Emotional intelligence involves a more practical aspect in regard to feelings; emotions and moods management of one’s own and of others (George, 2000). Successful management of emotions and moods differs from a person to another. For one to be able to manage his or her moods and motions, they should have knowledge of what the emotions are, knowledge of what has caused such emotions to develop and whether they are appropriate for such situations they would be facing and the levels of flexibility of the emotions and moods they would be encountering (George, 2000). 2. 3. 1. 2 Trait Approach Goleman (1995) suggested that emotional intelligence is made up of five competencies; he was building his work on the work f Mayer and Salovey. The competencies may be categorised into five domains; all the five competencies affect how people react and take in the events that would be occurring in an organisation.

The domains are as follows: Self-awareness This is the ability to be aware of and be able to express one’s own emotions; and this considered to be the foundation of emotional intelligence. The implication behind is that an individual is able to have an understanding of his or her needs, weaknesses, strengths, emotions, and what drives them. When a person is self-aware, they would be able to determine what effect their emotions have on themselves, also on other workmates and as well as on their job satisfaction and performance. A leader who would have this ability will be open to constructive criticism.

Self-regulation Management of internal states, impulses and resources that’s what is involved under this ability (Goleman, 1995). To make it clearer, an individual would be trying to realise what is behind or what has caused a feeling, seeing to it that feelings they would be having will be appropriate for that situation and also finding ways to deal with negative emotions such as sadness and anger. Basically this component is about an individual controlling their emotions to the desired level and using them in a functional way.

Innovation, adaptability, conscientiousness, trustworthiness, and self control all covered in under this element according to Goleman (1995). Motivating oneself This element is concerned with the directing of emotions towards the goal, controlling of emotions as an individual and taking time on getting satisfied. Although people work for money or status, motivating oneself refers to the passion and drive to work for reasons that go further than the need for money or status. When an individual is motivated enough they would pursue goals with persistence.

Creative challenges and learning new stuff about a job are some of the characteristics of a highly self-motivated person. Normal behaviour is compromised of exploring new approaches of doing their work and the set procedures are challenged for the good of the organisation (Salovey & Mayer, 1990). Empathy/Understanding People have different feelings about things, and they should be able to appreciate the differences that exist, also for them to develop good working relationships they should be sensitive to others’ feelings and concerns.

From the definition this element is about understanding other people’s emotions. With knowledge of other people’s emotions an individual is able to treat other people in accordance to their emotional reactions. The element of understanding is more essential in the leadership process, the reasons being: work places are now using teams so the leaders have to be aware of the emotions of the team members, and also the need to retain the skilled people because of their scarcity.

There are people who seem to understand, they will be sensitive to the details exhibited by the body language, and they pay attention to and hear the unspoken word, further they understand that there many cultures and ethnics (Salovey & Mayer, 1990). Social skills It is the emotional management of others, social competence and handling relationships. Building of rapport among people, discovery of a familiar ground, networking is built and managing relationships are all a result of social skills.

For people to be able to build rapport with other people they should have social skills according to Salovey and Mayer (1990). A social skilled person is able to direct people to the position that is considered necessary for goal achievement. Emotional intelligence alone does predict or predict strong enough the levels of performance of an individual (Goleman, 1998), however, the competencies that are required for achieving success can be predicted by the use of emotional intelligence. He further stated that there is a difference between motional intelligence and emotional competence, he believed that emotionally intelligent are the ones that are able to be trained of the competencies needed to carry out one’s job. 2. 4 The works of Bar-On Darwin’s early works on the importance of emotional expressions for survival were the foundations upon which the model by Bar-On was developed (Bar-On, 2007). Furthermore, the works of Thorndike on the social intelligence influenced the work of Bar-On, also the non-cognitive intelligence work by Wechsler and study of interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligences by Gardener had a part to play in the development of his work (Bar-On, 2007).

People that are emotionally and socially intelligent are defined according to Bar-On (1997) as people who have the ability identify and communicate their own emotions and further to that they have to be aware of the emotions of others. Personality theory is the one that is being made use of in explaining emotional intelligence (Goleman, 2001). According to Goleman (2001) he believes that interpersonal, intrapersonal and competencies are the ones that make up emotional intelligence.

In accordance with Bar-On (2007) for a person to be determined as emotionally intelligent, they should be in a capacity to be aware and understand other’s emotions, feelings and needs. A list of 15 competencies was complied by Bar-On; the competencies were believed to have an impact on the emotional intelligence of individuals. The competencies were named as follows: emotional self-awareness, assertiveness, self-regard, self actualisation, independence, empathy, intrapersonal relationship, social responsibility, problem solving, reality testing, flexibility, stress tolerance, impulse control, happiness, and optimism (Bar-on, 1997; 2007).

To further simplify the competencies 5 subgroups were created to categorise the competencies namely: intrapersonal, interpersonal, adaptability, stress management emotional intelligence and general mood. . The mixed emotional intelligence model by Bar-On is important in this research as it was his approach that highlighted the importance and significance of emotional intelligence among the leaders for their success. 2. Definition of Emotional Intelligence Even though the study of emotional intelligence is still relatively new, scholars and definitions trying to explain and describe EI abound. McCallum and Piper (2000) came up with a definition of EI in which they said it is “ a general construct encompassing emotional, personal, and social abilities that influence one’s overall capability to effectively cope with environmental demands and pressures” (p. 123).

Lane (2000) also defined EI and he described it as “the ability to use emotional information in a constructive and adaptive manner” (p. 171). Kunnanatt (2004) draw up his own definition and said that EI is “the total of the mental capabilities that enable a person in understanding his or her own and others’ emotions correctly, in real time, and in using these emotions intelligently to produce personally and socially desirable transactional outcomes” (p. 490).

Although the concept of emotional intelligence has many definitions, they all have a common argument amongst them which is the whether a person is in a position to utilise his or her emotional ability to be able to work, live and recount most successfully in a social world as humans are social animals and they need other people to survive. For the purpose of this research, the researcher is going to make use the theoretical framework proposed by Goleman. Goleman et al. (2002) proposed a theoretical framework to describe and explain EI.

In that framework, four domains are used in defining the concept of EI; EI is broken down into those four domains. The domains are as follows: 1) self-awareness; 2) self-management; 3) social awareness; and 4) relationship management. The domains can be grouped into two: the one that addresses the social competence of an individual which is covered by social awareness and relationship management and the other addresses the personal competence of an individual and covered by self-awareness and self-management.

Self-awareness includes three personal competencies namely, emotional self-awareness, accurate self-assessment and self-confidence according to Goleman et al. (2002). Self-awareness is defined as the “ability to honestly reflect on and understand one’s emotions, strengths, challenges, motives, values, goals, and dreams” (Palmer, 2000). This acts as the foundation upon which the other three are built on. A person has to first know and understand oneself for them to be able to manage one’s emotions, and more precisely assess emotions in others.

With these competencies in mind, a leader is able to know personal limitations and strengths to further the job satisfaction of the subordinates. Self-management has competencies such as emotional self-control, transparency, adaptability, achievement and initiative. According to Goleman et al. (2002), self-management is the same as an ongoing inner conversation and “is the component of emotional intelligence that frees us from being a prisoner of our feelings. It allows the mental clarity and concentrated energy that leadership demands, and what keeps disruptive emotions from throwing us off track”. P. 46). Self-management makes it possible for people to reach their personal goals, and also for managers to lead an organisation to realising its objectives. Being open to others and correctly managing one’s emotions and of others’ will help an individual in building trust with the other members. These competencies are the main ingredients in helping to build healthy working relationships and an organisational culture. The competencies that make up social awareness are empathy, organisational awareness and service.

Under social awareness we will be talking about being aware of the emotions and needs of others. Goleman et al. (2002) pointed out the following: When a leader knows how others feel in the moment, they would be able to do and say what’s appropriate for that point in time without provoking the subordinates. Being socially aware allows a leader to know when to capitalise on the momentum of the group and when to back down, also they are able to change the strategy of the organisation without burdening the subordinates.

Developing others, influence, change catalyst, conflict management, teamwork and collaboration are some of the competencies that make up relationship management. Goleman et al. , (2002, p. 52) came to the conclusion that “with relationship skills, leaders are able to put their emotional intelligence to work”. 2. 6 EI and Leadership The studies on the impact of emotional intelligence on the performance of individuals in organisations are still relatively new and remain uncommon among researchers.

According to Dulewicz and Higgs (2000) they argued that not much research has been done on the application of emotional intelligence in the working environment, their argument was based on that emotional intelligence was only an extensive scientific and research evidence by other researchers such as Salovey and Mayer (1990). In accord with the above authors was Rozell, et al. (2000), they stated that unanswered questions regarding the application of emotional of intelligence in the organisational ontext were still available, although there were claims were found in the study of the relationship between emotions and behaviour that is exhibited in the workplace. It is still relatively unknown the extent to which emotional intelligence affects effective leadership of an organisation according to Palmer, et al. (2001). Regardless of much interest in the relationship between emotional intelligence and effective leadership, they are of the opinion that not much research has been conducted or published to support the relationship. In support of the argument, Ashkanasy and Daus (2002, p. ) assert that “the connection between emotional intelligence and leadership is intuitive”. According to Lourens (2001) state that in the organisational context the applications of emotional intelligence and the concept of emotional intelligence are acquiring popularity even though some authors are of the opinion that there is limited research about the relationships that exist. Downing (1997) also supports that emotional intelligence is of importance in the organisation. Organisations are found in changing environments and the changes are happening rapidly, the growth in interest of the emotional intelligence is accredited to those changes.

As change is associated with emotional conflict, organisations need to have people who are emotionally intelligent. In the previous years, people were not allowed to bring their emotions to the work environment, with the increased interest in emotional intelligence this is no longer the case. The importance of emotional intelligence was also recognized by Blackman (2001, p. 626) who stated that “when one considers that where individuals become more emotionally intelligent, they can build and emotionally intelligent organisation with everyone taking the responsibility for their own emotional development”.

For effective management of relationships, a flatter structure organisation and one in which the members are empowered are more desirable. A successful leader is someone who is able to pass on a judgement or make a decision which will be free from fixed ideas about a situation. According to Goleman (1998) he said that managers are characterised by one common thing which is high level of emotional intelligence. Leaders who are in a position to manage their own emotions are the ones that are able to adapt to an environment and also to make the environment as fair as possible and develop trust among the members (Goleman, 1998).

Being able to motivate oneself towards goal achievement, seeking of challenging work and having the power to do things better than they were done before, we can say such a leader would be emotionally intelligent. Organisational and individual success is determined by the levels of emotional intelligence of the people. What this implies is that, when all the parties’, i. e. the organisation and individual, emotional intelligence is developed both parties will benefit in the long run.

Langley (2000) is in agreement with the view as he said that the subordinates of the managers will be engaging in the work with passion, and on the other hand, managers would be receptive and open to the needs of the employees. In the field of Industrial Psychology, the investigation on the effectiveness of emotional intelligence on effective leadership is gaining a drive according to many authors and researchers (Miller, 1999; Palmer, et al. , 2001; Watkin, 2000). According to Abraham (2000), with regard to the above, said that when a leader is emotionally intelligent would be more committed to the organisation.

To further the idea was Goleman (2000) who said that when a leader is emotionally intelligent they would be better performers in the workplace, whereas Miller (1999) says emotionally intelligent leaders bring great success to an organisation. In addition, an emotionally intelligent leader, through the use of interpersonal relationships, builds trust and teamwork in other employees, their decision making is enhanced by the use of their emotions and also functioning of the organisation is improved when leaders make use of their positive emotions (George, 2000).

The study of EI has increased the need and interest in the effects of EI on leaders’ performance in the workplace, both individually and in the organisation as a whole (Gardner & Stough, 2002). Goleman (1998, p. 94) said that “to be leaders, is more art than science…most effective leaders are alike in one crucial way: they all have a high degree of what has become to be known as emotional intelligence”. A closer look at the statement it might seem as he was saying IQ is not relevant; however, it means that without EI, regardless of high a leader’s IQ is, one cannot become a successful leader.

A person is affected both positively and negatively by their own emotions. With EI one is capable of handling their emotions in a more appropriate way and this minimises the consequences of overreacting in particular scenarios (Bagshaw, 2000). When emotions are managed in a correct way, they can lead to successful outcomes. However, the failure by leaders to control their own emotions, the quality of work, thinking and decision making process and the interaction with others will be sabotaged (Palmer et al. 2006). With emotions leaders are able to build trust, flexibility and integrity within a team for the development of the team and the organisation as a whole. More often, people are human beings and they are usually motivated by their own emotions and those of others around them, with that in mind, people who are emotionally intelligent are in a better position to motivate their own actions and those of their subordinates (Palmer et al. , 2006).

From the above it is clearly seen that leaders require good emotional intelligence for them to be able to lead the organisation in the right direction, with the rapidly increasing market environment, leaders are supposed to be emotionally intelligent to adapt to such changes and instil the change in the employees. 2. 7 Emotional intelligence and gender In the vicinity of emotional intelligence, women have an inconsequential plus over men (Mayer, Caruso & Salovey, 1999). Nonetheless, Bar-On (2000), was of the opinion that there was no difference that existed of the emotional and social competence of men and women.

He theorises that women are more understanding and also that they are very aware of emotions, they are more socially responsible than men and their interpersonal relationships are better. In contrast, men are seen as better people to cope with stress than women, self-regard and also those they are independent and flexible as compared to women. In most cases when the ratings of females and males are analysed, there are more similarities than differences looking at how emotionally intelligent are they. Basically we can say that emotional intelligence cannot be differentiated using gender. . 8 Emotional intelligence and age When people grow their emotional intelligence also develops, as people would be able to put in perspective their own emotions and those of others unlike IQ which only develops until the teen years. Emotional intelligence can also be developed by the experiences people grow through in their lifetimes. According to Goleman (1998) studies that were tracking how people live with emotional intelligence have shown that people’s competencies develop as they grow older. Looking at the studies done in the previous years, the studies uggest that as people grow old so does the emotional and social intelligences. 2. 9 JOB SATISFACTION The concept of job satisfaction is receiving increased consideration from the organisations nowadays, the reason being of its importance in the organisational effectiveness, this was recognized some time ago. With that in mind, managers feel with honour responsible for the maintenance of high levels of job satisfaction among the staff. Many organisations know that having a workforce that is highly satisfied with their work will contribute immensely towards the survival and effectiveness of the organisation.

The significance of job satisfaction in the workplace is underscored by its inextricable connection to a person’s entire life. Too many people, if not all, job is an important part of their lives, a part of our life satisfaction is derived from the satisfaction we get from the job. The feelings and behaviour that people exhibit on their job is also contributed by the nature of the environment outside the job (Hadebe, 2001). 2. 10 JOB SATISFACTION DEFINITIONS Many definitions of the concept have been formulated over time. Job satisfaction can be simply defined as the extent to which employees are happy with their work.

According to Amold and Feldman (1986, p. 86) they described job satisfaction as “the amount of overall affect that individuals have toward their job”. Basically this means that an individual feels positive about their work and they appreciate it, in general, they will like their job. McCormick and IIgen (1980) said that a job satisfaction is an individual’s attitude towards his or her work and they continued by saying that the emotional response to the job is what is called the attitude which may be positive or negative.

Another scholar Beck (1983) also talked of job satisfaction saying that as jobs are made up of many elements, the attitudes we develop are a summation of how we feel about the job. For us to determine the level of job satisfaction we have compare the good features and the bad features for us to be able to come up with a conclusion whether the satisfaction is high or low. Megginson, Mosley and Pietri (1982) stated that job satisfaction is a feeling that people get when they feel excellent about their jobs. We that feeling, people tend to improve their performance and he turn into b