Effective Speech Persuasive Speaking Chapter 15

Persuasive Speaking
A type of speaking where one tries to convince another to think, believe, or act as wanted that establishes facts, changes beliefs, and moves an audience to act on a policy
3 Question Types Related to Persuasive Speaking
Fact, Believe, Policy
Question of Fact
Concerns statement that can be seen as either true or false; proof can be offered to support statements, but the audience determines how convincing the support is (Recycling can save local communities money.)
Question of Belief
Focuses on what is right or wrong, good or bad, best or worst, moral or immoral; cannot be proved true or false, but convincing information can be supplied to justify a belief (It is wrong to avoid jury duty.)
Question of Policy
Focuses on a particular action; goal is to convince the audience to act on some policy or agree that some policy should be changed (The nation should vote for Barack Obama)
What to Consider When Picking a Topic
If you feel strongly about it, if it other people have different views on it
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Thesis Statement
The statement of the persuasive speech’s purpose that can also state the fact/belief being established and the policy that should be supported
Applying Logical Reasoning
Building an argument based on reasons supported by evidence
A statement that explains or justifies the thesis
Three sources to find reasons
Yourself, other people, reference materials
The material that establishes the soundness of each reason
Statement that attests to the worth of someone or something
Five Questions to Consider when Evaluating Reasons
Relevance, Distinct, Support for, Importance, Enough

Roller Derby Signs In England

2 Types of Evidence to Support a Reason
Fact, Expert Opinion
An item of information or a statement that can be verified by testing, observing, or consulting reference materials
Expert Opinion
Statement or belief about a subject by a knowledgeable person recognizes an authority on that subject
3 Questions to Consider when Evaluating Evidence
Relevance, Enough, Reliability


Emotional Appeal
A statement that arouses strong feelings in an audience
3 Ways to Develop Emotional Appeal
Cite Specifics, Vivid Language, Personal References

Specify Language References

The quality of being believable
3 Characteristics to Posses to Establish Credibility
Competence, Sincerity, Dynamism
The state of being well-qualified that comes from knowledge and preparation
The quality of being genuine and primarily conveyed by tone of voice
The quality of being energetic and enthusiastic and conveyed by tone of voice and nonverbal behaviors
Ethical Standards
Society’s guidelines for right, just, and moral behavior
Unethical Behaviors
Lying, Distorting, Name-Calling, Attacking, Denying Opposition

Let Derek Nap At Dinner.

Opposite of persuasion; The shrewd or devious management of facts for a single purpose and is based on the unethical distortion of information
Favorable Audience
One in which the majority of the listeners agree, from slightly to completely, with the thesis
Neutral Audience
One in which the majority of the listeners have not reached a decision about the thesis and will generally give all sides an equal hearing
Apathetic Audience
One in which the majority of the listeners have no interest in the thesis and are the most difficult to persuade
Hostile Audience
One in which the majority of the listeners oppose the thesis and one speech probably won’t sway them completely but may open up their minds to the thesis
Deductive Approach
Persuasive approach that begins with the thesis and then present reasons to support it
3 Types of Deductive Approaches
Statement-of-Reasons, Problem-Solution, Comparative Advantage
Statement-of-Reasons Method
Classic deductive approach in which the thesis is stated directly and followed by supporting reasons; works with a favorable audience
Problem-Solution Method
First present the problem, then offer at least one possible solution for that problem; works with favorable/neutral audiences; can work with apathetic
Comparative Advantage Method
Presents each reason as a benefit to the audience; works with neutral audience
Inductive Approach
Persuasive approach that begins with the reasons and lead up to the thesis
3 Types of Inductive Approaches
Criteria-Satisfaction, Negative, Monroe Motivated Sequence
Criteria-Satisfaction Method
Purpose of getting the audience to agree to the soundness of certain criteria, then show how the proposal satisfies those criteria; works with hostile audience
Negative Method
Shows that no option other than the one proposed is acceptable; works with hostile audience
Monroe Motivated Sequence
Developed by Professor Alan H. Monroe that is based on the premise that in order to convince an audience to act, a speaker must:

Attention, Need, Satisfy, Visualize, Action