Educational Psychology

Principle of Classroom Management
Maintain momentum in the lesson, deal with behavioral problems by using the mildest intervention that will work, and resolve minor problems before they become bigger problems.
Important principle of educational psychology
make abstract ideas by using many examples, relate the content of instruction to the student’s background, state rules, give examples, and restate ideas
What makes a good teacher
1. The ability to carry out all tasks involved in effective instruction
2. Warmth, enthusiasm and caring
3. Subject matter knowledge and understanding how children learn
doing things for the purpose; teachers who use intentionality plan their actions based on the outcomes they want to achieve.
Good teaching
decision making, self knowledge and self regulation, reflection, application of educational research
Teacher efficoag
teachers impact on students is the belief that what he or she does makes a difference
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Critical Thinking
evaluation of conclusions through logical and systematic examination of the problem, the evidence, and the solution.
21st century learning
1.core subjects and 21st century themes: language arts, mathematics, science, global awareness, and financial literacy
2. learning an innovation skills: creativity, critical thinking, and problem solving
3. information, media, and technology skills
4. Life and career skills such as initiative and self direction
simply principles that have been thoroughly tested and found to apply in a wide variety of situations.
explanation of the relationship between factors such as the effects of alternative grading systems or students motivation
a set of principles that explains and relates certain phenomena
a special program that is the subject of an experiment
something that can have more than one variable
procedure use to test the effect of a treatment
laboratory experiment
experiment in which conditions are highly controlled
internal validity
the degree to which an experiments results can be attributed to the treatment in question rather than other factors.
randomized field experiment
experiment conducted under realistic conditions in which individuals are assigned chance to receive different practical treatments or programs
experimental group
group that receives treatment during an experiment.
control group
group that recieves no special treatment during an experiment
external validity
degree to which results of an expeirment can be applied to real life situations.
single case experiment
experiment that studies a treatment’s effect on one person, or one group by contrasting behaviors before, during, and after application of the treatment
an important limitation on the single-case experiment
is that it can be used only to study outcomes that can be measured frequently. Most single case studies involve observable behaviors such as talking and being out of the seat.
correlational study
research into the relationships between variables as they naturally occur
positive correlation
relationship in which high levels of one variable corresponds to high levels of another
negative correlation
relationship in which high levels of one variable corresponds to low levels of another
uncorrelated variables
variables for which there is no relationship between levels of once compared to another
action research
research carried out by educators in their own classroom or schools
Which of the following conclusions can be drawn only from an experimental study?
teachers can help students understand classroom material better if they occasionally stop to ask questions that students must answer (a cause and effect relationship is implied here: Teacher questions promote greater student learning).
Teacher decision making must be based in part on research because?
Common sense and experience occasionally lead to unwarranted or innacurate conclusions. Common sense is often sensible but sometimes what seems sensible is actually inaccurate or in some ways harmful to students. Systematic research can enhance student and teacher growth through professional development, the introduction of new methods of communication, and many other aspects of teaching.
Many theories about learning and childrens development continue to be revised as new research results come in. Given the dynamic nature of theories, should teachers use them and if so how?
Teachers can find them quite useful in identifying and developing effective classroom practices. Theories tend to summarize the results of many research studies and so can be quite useful even in their unfinished forms.
orderly and lasting growth adaptation and chance over the course of a lifetime
continuous theories of development
theories based on the belief that human development progresses smoothly, and gradually from infancy to adulthood
Jean piaget
the most influential developmental psychologist in the history of psychology based his earliest theories on his own children. He explored both why and how mental abilities can change over time. Development depends in large part on the child’s manipulation of and active infraction with the environment. Knowledge comes from action.
discontinuous theories of development
theories describing human development as occuring through a fixed sequence of distinct, predictable stages governed by inborn factors
cognitive development
gradual, orderly changes by which mental processes become more complex and sophisticated
mental patterns
the process of adjusting schemes in response to the enviorment by means of assimilation or accommodation
modifying existing schemes to fit new situations
learning depends on equlilbration
the process of rest during balance between present understanding and new experiences
view of cognitive development that emphasizes the active role of learners in building their own understanding of reality
4 stages of Piaget
concrete operational
formal operational
birth to two years- formation of concept of “object permanence” and gradual progression from reflective behavior to goal- directed behavior
2 to 7 years development of the ability to use symbols to represent objects in the world. Thinking remains egocentric and centered
concrete operational
7-11 years improvement in ability to think logically. New abilites include the use of operations that are reversible. Thinking is decentered, and problem solving less restricted by egocentrism. Abstract thinking is not possible.
formal operational
11 years to adult abstract and purely symbolic thinking possible. Problems can be solved through the use of systematic experimentation
sensorimotor stage
stage during which infants learn about their surroundings by using their senses and motor skills
inborn automatic response to stimuli
object permanence
understanding an object exists even if it’s out of sight.
Which of the following statements best expresses the text author’s view of the importance of subject matter knowledge in effective teaching?
It is a good start; necessary but not sufficient
Knowledge of how to transmit information and skills to students is
at least as important as knowledge of what to teach
From educational psychology we know that:
mixed ability grouping is more effective than same ability grouping
Ideas that explain relationships between factors are called:
What is the main purpose of theory development
theories synthesize laws and principles
The following statement about educational psychology
progress in how we come to understand behavior and learning is a slow and uneven process.
Following statement best sums up the role of research in teaching
No theory, research, or book can tell teachers what to do in a given situation
A math teacher randomly assigns one group of students to use computers and one gorup to use work sheets when learning fractions. The teacher than compares the two groups by giving both groups a test of fraction knowledge, what type of research was conducted
Studies demonstrating that differences in findings can be attributed to the treatment given are said to have high
internal validity
In some situations a randomized field experiment may not be possible, because teachers cannot be assigned to treatments. In such cases equivalence of experimental and control groups may be established using matching, rather than random assignment. Compared with the randomized field experiement, the field experiment that using matches has
lower internal validity
In single case experiments, examination of graphed results would generally be used for
deciding about weather results are clear enough to accept
Which of the following examples depicts a negative correlation
students who were absent the least prior to a math test had the highest score
A researcher has completed a study correlating middle school student’s science intrests and science achievement. The results of the study will show:
The degree of relationship between two variables
A type of research in which an observer studies natural events as they occur in a social setting is called
descriptive research
Why would a researcher conduct an ethnographic study
to explore a new context for conducting research
initiative and self direction are exemplified by which category of 21st century skills
life and career skills
During this type of research a school employee would try out a new strategy, collect data, and debrief with other personnel on it’s effective components
action research
A good example of talking teaching would be to
join a book club
Descriptive research has less objectivity than
experimental research
Which of the following sentences would probably be easiest for a preschooler to interpret correctly
Mommy went shopping because we needed food.
Normal language development patterns would anticipate that most children have mastered the basics of pronunciation, syntax, and vocabulary in their native language by age
5-6 years
In Piagets theory of scheme is best described as
an action or thought that is frequently used in response to particular environmental experiences
Irene knows how to count to 10. She counts the coins she has in her pocket (2 quarters, 5 dimes, and 3 nickles) and says “I have 10 cents” from piagets perspective Irene is
assimilating the counting tasks to the way she has counted objects in the past.
Tweleve year old Martin is whispering to himself as he works on a different math problem. From Vygotskys perspective, which one of the following is the best explanation of martins behavior?
Martin is engaged in self talk, which should help him solve the problem successfully.
From Vygotskys perspective, play activities are very important for children’s cognitive development because they
enable children to practice adults roles and conform to common standards for behavior. In Vygotskys view, the pretend play of young children allows them to “stretch” themselves and explain certain skills as they “Try on” a variety of adult roles. (doctor, parent, teacher, etc).
Which of the following statements about development is accurate
children are not miniature adults; their thinking is qualitatively different.
Development psychologist jean piaget introduced terms to psychology drawn directly from
Accoring to Piaget “Knowledge comes from action” which of the following statement best explains Piagets adage
Development depend in large part on an individuals manipulation or an interaction with an enviorment.
Which of the following best describes Piaget’s idea of equilibrium
You find that what you expect to happen actually does happen
A teacher often begins his lectures by presenting students with two ideas or observations that apparently conflict. he feels that this works because presenting a paradox arouses student’s interest. From Piaget point of View the teacher is making use of the students
Four year old Kenny visits the lecture hall and says ” Daddys classroom is bigger than the whole world” Piaget would attribute this preschool childs illogical thinking to
a difficulty focusing on two ideas at once
During which of the following stages of Eriksons theory of psychosocial development do teachers and peers take on increasing importance while the influence of the parents decreases
Industry versus inferiority
A student is caught walking about during a test, a behavior that breaks the class rule. Another student in Piagets autonomus stage of morality is likely to react in which of the following ways
to listen to the offender’s rationale for the behavior
One student sees another cheats on a test. The first student reasons that cheating is acceptable behavior because the teacher wasn’t looking. What level or moral reasoning is the student exhibiting
The third grade teacher has told a group of students to go to the cabinet and take a box of crayons that they may use during the year. A student who is the last one in line is faced with a moral dilemma of whether to take several boxes, since no one is watching. The student makes the decision that it would not be proper because the rule did not allow for anyone to take more than one box. This behavior reflects which level or moral reasoning
A student does not really think about plagiarism as a true injustice to her fellow students. She believes it is acceptable because her close friends say that plagiarism is just a survival skill that everybody uses. Applying Kohlberg’s theory of moral development what level best identifies the student’s judgement about plagiarism
According to Graves, how many more words does the average student add each year to his or her respective vocabulary
preoperational stage
stage at which children learn to represent things in the mind
the concept that certain properties of an object ( such as weight) remain the same regardless of change in other properties (such as length)
paying attention to only one aspect of an object or situation
the ability to perform a mental operation and then reverse ones thinking to return to the starting point
believing that everyone views the world as you do
concrete operational stage
stage at which children develop the capacity for logical reasoning and understanding of conservation but can use these skills only in dealing with familiar situations
inferred reality
the meaning of stimuli in the context of relevant information
arranging objects in sequential order according to one aspect, such as size, weight, and volume
a skill learned during the concrete operational stage of cognitive development in which individuals can mentally arrange and compare objects.
formal operational stage
stage at which one can deal abstractly with hypothetical situations and reason logically
Educational implication of Piagets theory
1. Focuses on the process of children’s thinking, not only it’s products
2. Recognition of the crucial role of children’s self-initiated, active involvement in learning activites
3. A deemohasis on practices aimed at making children adult like in their thinking
4. Acceptance of individual differences in developmental progress.
see cognitive development in terms of specific types of tasks instead of overall stages
Vygotsky work is based on two key ideas
1. He proposed that intellectual development can be understood only in terms of historical and cultural contexts children experience
2. He believed that development depends on the sign system
Vygotskys theory suggests
learning precedes development
Sign system
symbols that cultures create to help people think, communicate, and solve problems
Self regulation
the ability to think and solve problems without the help of others
Stages or self regulation and independent thinking
1. Learning that actions and sounds have meaning
2. Develop internal structures and self regulation involve practice
3. The use of signs to think and solve problems without the help of others.
Private speech
children’s self-talk, which guides their thinking and action; eventually interalized as silent inner speech
the zone of proximal development
describes tasks that a child has not yet learned but is capable of learning at a given time
support for learning and problem solving might include clues, reminders, encouragement, breaking the problem down into steps, providing examples, or anything else that allows the student to grow in independence as a learner.
supports the use of cooperative learning strategies in which children work together to help one another.
Vygotsky’s classroom theories
1. Instruction can be planned to provide practice within the zone of proximal development for individual children or groups of children. For example, hints and prompts that helped children during preassessment could form the basis of instructional activities.
2. Scaffolding provides hints and prompts at different levels. In scaffolding, the adults does not simplify the task, but the role of the learner is simplified ” through the graduated intervention of the teacher”.
3. Cooperative learning acvitives can be planned with groups of children at different levels who can help each other learn.
is the development of the myelin sheath. As neurons develop their axons have no sheath. This myelin sheath grows over time and makes the brain much more efficient at transmitting messages.
Piagets first stage of moral development
heterinomous morality also known as the stage of “moral realism” or “morality of constraint”
Piagets second stage of moral development
Morality of cooperation
Kohkbergs three levels of moral reasoning
1. Preconventional
3. Postconventional
Kohlber stage 1
which is one of the preconventional level or morality, is very similar in form and content to Piaget’s stage of heteronomous morality
Kohlberg stage 2
Children’s own need and desires become important, yet they are aware of the intrests of other people
Kohlberg stage 3
Conventional level or morality. Here morality is defined in terms of cooperation with peers, just as it was in Piagets stage of autonomous morality. This is the stage at which children have unquestiong belief that one should ” do unto others as you would have them do unto you”. Because of these decreseases in egocentrism that accompanies concrete operations, children are cognitively capable of putting themselves in someone else’s shoes. They can consider the feelings of other when making moral decisions. No longer do they simply do what will not get them punished (stage 1) or what makes them feel good (stage 2)
Stage 4
societys rules and laws replace those of the peer group. A desire for social approval no longer determines moral judgements. Laws are followed without question, and breaking the law can never be justified. Most adults are probably at this stage
Stage 5
post conventional level or morality. A level or moral reasoning attained by 25% of adult, according to Kohlberg in which these is a realization that the laws and values or a society are somewhat arbitrary and particular to that society. Laws are seen as necessary to preserve the social order to ensure the basic rights to life and liberty
stage 6
one’s ethical principles are self-chosen and based on abstract concepts such as justice and the equality and value of human rights. Laws that violate these principles can and should be disobeyed because ” justice is above the law”.
Mildred Parten identified four categories of play
1. Solitary play
2. Parallel play
3. Associative Play
4. Cooperative play
Susan Harter’s work indentified eight distinct aspects of adolescent concept
1. Scholastic competence
2. Job Competence
3. Athletic competence
4. Physical appearance
5. social acceptance
6. Close friendshops
7. Romantic appeal
8. conduct
Marsh identified five distinct self concepts
1. Academic verbal
2. academic mathematical
3. Parent relations
4. same sex
5. opposite sex
psychosocial theory
a set of principles that relates to social environment to psychological development
psychosocial crisis
according to erikson, the set of critical issues that individual must address as they pass through each of life eight stages
heteronomous morality
in Piagets theory of moral development, the stage at which children think that rules are unchangeable and that breaking them leads automatically to punishment
autonomous morality
in piagets theory of moral development the stage at which a person understands that people make rules and that punishments are not automatic
moral dilemmas
in Kohlberg’s theory of moral reasoning, hypothetical situations that require a person to consider values of right and wrong
preconventional level or morality
stages 1 and 2 in Kohlbergs model of moral reasoning, in which individuals make moral judgements in their own interests.
conventioanl level or morality
stages 3 and 4 in Kohlberg’s model of moral reasoning, in which individuals make moral judgements in consideration of others
people who are equal in ages or status
prosocial behaviors
actions that show respect and caring for others
solitary play
play that occurs alone
parallel play
play in which children engage in the same activity side by side but with very little interaction of mutual influence
associative play
play that is much like parallel play, but with increased levels of interaction in the form of sharing, turn-taking, and general interest in what others are doing.
cooperative play
play in which children join together to achieve a common gial
a person’s perception of his or her own strengths, weaknesses, abillities, attitudes, and values
self esteem
the value each of us places on our own characteristics, abilities, and behaviors.
social comparison
the process of comparing onself to other to gather information and to evaluate and judge’s one’s abilities, attitudes, and conduct.
the tendency to analyze one’s own thoughts
an adolescent’s premature establishment of an identity based on parental choices, rather than his or her desires
identity diffusion
inability to develop a clear direction or sense of self
experimentation with occupational and ideological choices without definite commitment
identity achievement
a state of consolidation reflecting conscious, clear-cut decisions concerning occupation and ideology
developmental stage at which a person become capable of reproduction
Every day before dismissal, a fifth grade teacher reads a chapter from a Harry Potter book to help his students settle down before leaving for the day. He occasionally stops to ask question such as ” why do you think Hermonie said that” or ” what must Harry be feeling right now?”. What aspect of the students development is the teacher most likely to be fostering in asking such questions
The development of theory of mind. By asking students to think about the characters thoughts and feelings, the teacher is fostering development of perspective taking and theory or mind. However, the teacher should keep in mind that some parents may object to Harry potter books because of the books emphasis on magic and witchcraft. If such is the case, the teacher should choose books with which parents feel more comfortable.
Kira has been diagnoised as having a learning disability in written expression. Although she’s in fifth grade, she has trouble with spelling, easy vocabulary and creative story writing. Which one of the following ways of helping Kira is most consistent with the textbook’s reccomendations for enhancing students self esteem
Help Kira understand that her reading and writing difficulties are due to a specific problem in her brain. When students have long-standing difficulties in certain domains, discovering that their failures are due to a disability can help repair some of the damage
The teachers described here hope to positively impact the overall self esteem of all their students which one of the following activies is likely to do so
Ms. Caruse teaches her students how to do the butterfly stroke in swimming. If ms. Caruso teaches the butterfly stroke with attention to the students needs and individual improvement, provides proper scaffolding, and is encouraging yet honest, her students should experience positive changes in the way they seem themselves
brenda is developing a good understanding of the rules associated with playing kickball, according to Piaget Brenda is in the stage of
heteronomous morality. According to the text heteronomous means ” being subject to rules imposed by others”. Children at this age play games and use and follow rules to give the game direction and to minimize disputes between players
According to eriksons psychosocial theory of development
conflict resolutin in the early years set the stage for accomplishments in later stages. Erikson’s theory suggests that conflicts are resolved in order, and the direction of that resolution affects the way people tackle later conflicts. For example, a child who resolves the first conflict in favor of mistrust may struggle with intimacy later in life
The primary developmental task for an adolescent in Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development is to focus on
the establishment of a healthy identity. According to Erikson, the conflict defining this stage is identity verses role confusion.
Erikson once used the word “exhilarated” to describe stage 3, of preschool child. This description is consistent with the text’s statement that, when the child resolves the crisis of initative versus guilt the outcome is a sense of
according to Piaget, during which stage or moral development will the subject begin to weigh consequences of his or her actions
heteronomous morality
self-esteem refers to how an individual
evaluates his or her strengths
the trend to use social comparison information to evaluate the self appears to correspond with development changes in
academic self-esteem
controversial children are children who are
names ad equally liked and disliked
teachers who provide opportunites for feedback and practice are demonstrating which approach of social skill development
gavin has developed a solid understanding of the rules associated with playing checkers, according to Piaget, Gavin has moved beyound the stage of
heteronomous morality
a belief about your strength, weaknesses, abilities, attitues, and values is known as
self concept
which of the following statements best reflects conventional morality
I do not want to break any traffic laws.
response to intervention
Policies in which struggling children are given intensive assistance and evaluated for possible special-education services only if they fail to respond.
Tier 1 prevention
refers to whole-class strategies to help all children succeed.
tier 2 immediate intervention
the idea in response to intervention is to provide such students with assistance targeted to their needs, rather than considering special education
Tier 3 Intensive Intervention
tier 3 refers to more intensive intervention for students who have not made sufficient progress in tiers 1 and 2. These individuals are at risk for special education or retention.
full inclusion
arrangement whereby students who have disabilities or are at risk receive all their instruction in a general education setting, support service are brought to the student.
never streaming
which avoids the mainstreaming/special-education dilemma by focusing attention on intensive early intervention that is capable of bringing students who are at risk to performance levels high enough to remove any need for special-education services
the language, attitudes, ways of behaving, and other aspects of life that characterize a group of people
socioeconomic status
a measure of prestige within a social group that is most often based on income and education
Epistein and colleagues 6 types of involvement schools might partner with parents
1. Parenting
2. communication
3. volunteering
4. Learning at home
5. decision making
6. collaborating
Rich Rothestein observations about the gaps between middle class and disadvantaged children
1. Vision
2. Hearing
3. Lead exposure
4. Asthma
5. Medical Care
6. Nutrition
ethnic group
a group within a larger society that sees itself as having a common history, social, and cultural heritage, and traditions, often based on race, religion, language, or national identity
a history, culture, and sense of identity shared by a group of people
visible genetic characteristics of individuals that cause them to be seen as members of the same broad group
underrepresented group
an ethnic or social group members of which are less likely than other groups to experience economic security or power
brown vs board of education topeka
case on the grouns that separate education was inherently unequal
brown v board of education
did away with legal segregation, but it was many years before large numbers of racially different students were attending school all together
language minority
in the United States, native speakers of any language other then english
limited english minority
possessing limited mastery in english
english learners
students in U.S. schools who are not native speakers of english
bilingual education
instruction program for students who speak little or no english in which some instruction is provided in the native language
English immersion
the most common instructional placement for english learners is some form of english immersion, in which ELs are taught primarily or entirely in Englsih. This is the sink or swim approach
Transitional bilingual education
a common but declining alternatives for English learners is transitional bilingual education, programs which children are taught reading or other subjects in their native language for a few years and then transitioned to english usually in the 2nd, 3rd, or 4th grades.
paired bilingual education
in paired bilingual models, children are taught reading or other subjects in both their home language and in English, usually at different times of the day.
two-way bilingual education
two-way, or dual language, models teach all students both in English and in another language, usually Spanish. That is, English proficient students are expected to learn spanish as spanish proficient students learn english
multicultural education
education that teachers the value of cultural diversity
Banks five key dimensions of multicultural education
1. content integration
2. knowledge construction
3. prejudice reduction
4. equity pedagogy
5. an empowering school culture
content integraton
involves your use of examples, data, and information from a variety of culture
knowledge construction
helping students understand how the knowledge we take in is influenced by our origins and point of view.
prejuide reduction
a critical goal of multicultural education; involves development of positive relationships and tolerant attitudes among students of different backgrounds
equity pedagogy
teaching techniques that facilitate the academic success of students from different ethnic and social class groups
empowering school culture
a school culture in which the institution’s organization and practices are conducive to the academic and emotional growth of all students.
boy crisis
boys are more likely than girls to be assigned to special education, to be held back, to drop out, and to be in trouble with the law
sex-role behavior
socially approved behavior associated with one gender as opposed to the other.
gender bias
stereotypical views and different treatments of males and females often favoring one gender over another
general aptitude for learning often measured by the ability to deal with abstractions and to solve problems
alfred binet
devised the first measure of intelligence in 1904
Charles Spearman claims
that although there were, or course, variations in a person’s abilities from task to task, these was a general intelligence factor, or “G” , that exsisites across all learning situations
sternberg describes three types of intellectual abilities
analytical, practical, and creative
multiple intelligences
gardners theory of intelligence, a person’s nine seperate abilities: logical/ mathematical, linguistic, musical, naturalist, spatial, bodily/kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and esistential.
Which of the following is incorrect regarding Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences
the controversy over MI has made it unpopular in educational circles. According to our text in recent years Gardner’s multiple-intelligence theory has been very popular in education but it has also been controversial.
What SES and educational achievement are examined in research studies, results indicate that:
While social class was a strong predictor of children’s starting point in kindergarten, their gains in reading from then on depended more on their schools and neighborhoods
table 4.1 of your text mentions a study by Thompson & Hickey that classifies income levels into six groups. According to their groupings, which of the following correctly pairs income with class level
lower middle class= income from $30,000 t0 $100,000
Which of the following characteristics may help define an individuals ethnicity
place of origin
the academic self-concepts of African Americans, and expectations they have of themselves tend to be
at least as high as those of their white classmates
one of the efforts that teachers can undertake to have their classrooms reflect cultural diversity is to
try to understand culturally diverse parents and extended families
studies of achievement and ability difference between makes and females indicate that
there are no male-female differences in arithmetic skills
which of the following statements concerning gender roles is false
most gender roles are based upon biological differences
high school females tend to
underestimate their skills in language and math
studies showing thed effects of schooling in raising intelligence scores support an interpretation of intelligence as
enviormentally influenced
the first step in a multicultural education is for an administrator and teacher to
examine bias
multiple intelligences have been defined into how many categories
behavioral learning theories
explanations of learning that emphasize observable changes in behavior
social learning theories
learning theories that emphasize not only reinforcement but also the effects of cues on thought and of thought on action
learning to walk is mostly a
developmental progression
the adolescent sex drive is
not learned
a child’s anxiety on seeing a doctor with a needles is definitely
learned behavior
a change in an individual that results from experience
enviormental conditions that activate the sense; the singular stimulus
unconditioned stimulus
a stimulus that naturally evokes a particular response
unconditional response
a behavior that is prompted automatically by a stimulus
neutral stimuli
stimuli that have no effect on a particular response
conditioned stimulus
a previously neutral stimulus that evokes a particular response after having been paired with an unconditioned stimulus
classical conditioning
the process of repeatedly associating a previously neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus in order to evoke a conditioned response
skinner proposed another class of behavior, which he labeled operant behaviors because
they operate on the environment in the apparent absence of any unconditioned stimuli, such as food.
Skinner’s work focused on the
relation between behavior and consequences.
operant conditioning
the use of unpleasant consequences to control the occurrence of behavior.
Skinner box
an apparatus developed by B.F. skinner for observing animal behavior in experiments of operant condition
When a teacher reinforces a student who raises her hand to speak she is using
operant conditioning
pleasurable consequences are called
unpleasant consequences are called
pleasant or unpleasant conditions that follow behaviors and affects the frequency of future behaviors
a pleasurable consequence that maintains or increases behavior
Three basic categories of secondary reinforcers
1. is social reinforcers such as praise, smile, hugs or attention. When a teacher recognized a student, she is inadvertently giving the student a social reinforce: her own attention.
2. Activity reinforcers such as access to toys, games, or fun activities
3. Token (or symbolic) reinforcers such as money, grades, stars, or points that can exchange for other reinforcers.
primary reinforce
food, water, or other consequences of basic need
secondary reinforce
a consequence that people learn to value through it’s association with a primary reinforce
positive reinforce
pleasurable consequence given to strengthen behavior
negative reinforce
release from an unpleasant situation, given to strengthen behavior
premack principle
rule stating that enjoyable activities can be used to reinforce participation in less enjoyable activities.
If a teacher says “if you get an A on tomorrow’s test, you won’t have to do homework for the rest of the week” she is using
negative reinforcement (escape from an unpleasant consequence, assuming homework is unpleasant).
intrinsic reinforcers
behaviors that a person enjoys engaging in for their own sake, without any reward
consequences that weaken behavior are called
unpleasant consequences used to weaken behavior
aversive stimulus
an unpleasant consequence that a person tries to avoid or escape
presentation punishment
an aversive stimulus following a behavior, used to decrease the chance that the behavior will occur again
example of removal punishment
loss of privilege, have to stay in during recess, or receiving detention after school
Example of response cost
involves charging a cost to students who are behaving inappropriately, such as a minute of detention after school for every minute off track.
removal punishment
withdrawl of a pleasant consequence that may be reinforcing a behavior, designed to decrease the chances that the behavior will recur
response cost
procedures or charging misbehaving students against their free time or other privileges
time out
procedure for removing a student from a situation in which misbehavior was being reinforced
immediate feedback serves at least two purposes:
1. First it makes clear the connection between behavior and consequences
2. second, it increases the informational value on feedback
the teaching of a new skill or behavior by means of reinforcement for small steps toward the desired goal
the weakening and eventual elimination of a learned behavior as reinforcement is withdrawn.
extinction burst
the increase in levels of a behavior in the early stages of extinction
schedule of reinforcement
the frequency and predictability of reinforcement
One common form of fixed ratio schedule gives reinforcement for each behavior this is called
continuous reinforcement (CRF) or FR1
giving correct answers in class is also usually
continuous reinforcement
fixed-ratio (fr) schedule
reinforcement schedule in which desired behavior is rewarded following a fixed number of behaviors
variable-ratio schedule
reinforcement schedule in which desired behavior is rewarded follow an unpredictable number of behaviors
variable-ratio schedules tend to produce
high and stable rates of behavior
in fixed-interval schedule the
final examination is a classic example
fixed-interval (fi) schedule
reinforcement schedule in which desired behavior is rewarded following a constant amount of time
variable-interval (VI) schedule
reinforcement schedule in which desired behavior is rewarded following an unpredictable amount of time
Variable interval schedules are very effective for maintaining a high rate of behaviors while being highly
resistant to extinction
continuation (of behavior)
Stimulus discrimination
the ability to behave one way in the presence of one stimulus- “it’s math time”- and a different way in the presence of another stimulus “it’s time for music”
antecendent stimuli
events that precede behaviors
signals as to which behavior (s) will be reinforced or punished
perception and responses to difference in stimuli
carryover of behaviors, skills, or concepts from one setting or task to another.
Bandura noted that the Skinnerian emphasis on the effects of the consequences of behavior largely ignored the phenomena of
No-trial learning
because students do not have to go through a shaping process but can reproduce the correct response immediately
imitation of other’s behavior
Bandura’s analysis of observational learning four phases
attentional, retention, reproduction, and motivational phases
attention phase
the first phase in observational learning is paying attention to a model. In general, students pay attention to role models who are attractive, successful, interesting, and popular. This is why so many students copy the dress, hairstyle, and mannerisms of pop culture stars. In the classroom you gain the students attention by presenting clear and interesting cues, by using novelty or surprise, and by motivating students
retention phase
once teacher have student’s attention, it is time to model the behavior they want students to imitate and then give students a chance to practice or rehearse. For example, you might show how to write the letter A. The students would imitate your model by trying to write A’s themselves
during the reproduction phase, students try to match their behavior to the model’s. In the classroom the assessment of student learning takes place during this phase. For example, after seeing the letter A modeled and practicing it several times, can the student reproduce the letter so that is looks like your model?
Motivational phase
the final stage in observational learning process is motivation. Students will imitate a model because they believe that doing so will increase their own chances to be reinforced. In the classroom the motivational phase of observational learning often entails praise or grades given for matching your model. Students pay attention to the model, practicing and reproducing it because they have learned that this is what you like and they want to please you. When a child makes a recognizable A you say “nice work!”.
Vicarious learning
learning based on observation of the consequences of others behaviors
rewarding or punishing one’s own behavior
cognitive behavior modification
procedures based on both behavioral and cognitive principles for changing one’s own behavior means of self-talk and self-instruction.
The steps involved in self-instruction by Meichenbaum
1. An adult model performs a task while talking to self out loud (cognitive modeling).
2. The child performs the same task under the direction of the model’s instructions (overt, external guidance)
3. The child performs the task while instructing self aloud (ovet self-guidance)
4. The child whispers the instruction to self as he or she goes through the task (faded, overt self-guidance)
5. The child performs the task while guiding his or her performance via private speech (overt self-instruction)
A teacher praises students in her third grade classroom for raising their hands before speaking. Which type of reinforcer is the teacher using?
The teacher is using a secondary reinforcer, in this case praise, which is a social reinforce to encourage students to raise their hands during reading instruction.
What is an example of negative reinforcement?
The process of removing something unpleasant to reinforce a desired behavior. Gia completes her English paper, Gia gets rid of something unpleasant: she no longer has the assignment hanging over her head.
Mr.Luther and Ms.Sperry both assign homework every day. Ms.Sperry collects homework from students on Tuesday and Thursdays,and Mr. Luther collects homework every day. Both teachers score and return homework the day after collecting it. For the students who are successful in Mr. Luther’s class, this practice best illustrates
a fixed-interval reinforcement schedule. Mr. Luthers homework practice is on a predictable schedule. The student is reinforced when the homework is returned. This is a fixed-interval schedule.
If you saw your students engaging in risky behavior that could prove harmful to their physical health, you would want to use the reinforcement schedule with a fast response rate and the greatest persistence, so you would use a:
Variable-ratio schedule. Yes, if you are interested in a fast response and persistence, you should use a variable-ratio reinforcement schedule with your students. To encourage persistence of response, variable schedules are most appropriate. A ratio schedule is preferable to an interval schedule because risky behaviors occur sporadically- it is necessary to reinforce each behavior regardless of the interval between behaviors.
Alysia has always had difficulty with test taking. As she entered the classroom for her bilology final, she began to shake. This is an example of the principles of:
classical conditioning. Classical conditioning focuses on the learning of involuntary emotional or psychological responses such as fear or salivation, which are automatic responses to stimuli
A scientist sets up an experiment involving a rat and feeding apparatus. The apparatus is set up to deliver a food pellet each time the rat happens to press the bar. The food reward conditions the rat’s behavior, strengthing or reinforcing the behavior of pressing the bar. Behaviorists would call this which type of conditioning
Operant conditiong. Behaviorists would refer to this type of conditioning as operant conditioning because it focuses on the relation between behavior and its consequences.
In skinner’s theory of operant condition an operant is:
a voluntary behavior produced by a person or animal. Operants are defined as voluntary (and generally goal directed) behaviors emitted by a person or animal.
Which one of the following statements best describes the process of extinction
Gradual decrease of a learned response that is not followed by reinforcement. From the perspective of operant conditioning theorists, responses that are no longer followed by either extrinsic or intrinsic reinforcement decrease in frequency
Mr. Witherspoon smiles every time he introduced a new math problem. over time, Mr. Witherspoons’ gesture of smiling is paired with math problems. What principle discussed occurs as a result of mr.witherspoon’s habit of smiling while teaching math
contiguity. The principle of contiguity states that whenever two or more sensations or events occur together often enough, they will be associated.
A central goal of instruction is
to help students learn particular information, skills, and concepts
In Pavlov’s experiments with dogs, the following identifies the role of the bell (or tone), prior to conditioning:
neutral stimulus
in classical conditioning, the object or event that automatically elicits a behavior before the conditioning takes place is referred to as the
unconditioned stimulus
which of the following is a secondary reinforce
what type of reinforce is being encountered when students enjoy taking a field trip (which is the reward itself)
What type of reinforce is a gold star that a student recieves as a reward for completing her homework
The belief behind this discipline strategy is that students want to be part of the social setting
time out
Which of the following terms is defined as follows: applying unpleasant stimuli to decrease a target behavior
presentation punishment
Which of the following positions regarding punishment have behavior learning theorists taken?
1. Some theorists have claims that the effects of punishment are temporary.
2. Punishment produces aggression
3. Punishment causes individuals to avoid settings in which it is used
4. When punishment is necessary it should take the mildest possible form
At his locker, Rick is describing his weekend to Tony, using Very colorful and innapropriate language. Tony gestures down the hall to let Rick know that Sherri is approaching. Rick continues his story but instantly cleans up his language, sounding like a completely different person while sherri walks by. Rick’s adjustment of his behavior is based on:
As the similarity between two sets of stimuli increases
Discrimination becomes more difficult and generalization easier.
Which of the following illustrates Bandura’s concept of self regulation
students engage in a desired activity after judging a previous work as well done
“if at first you don’t succeed, try, try again” May result in which defined characteristic of classroom management
extinction burst.
Which of the following forms of assessment would be a prime example of a fixed-interval schedule
frequent short quizzes
which phase of observational learning best represents the modeling of desired behavior based on the teacher’s likes and dislikes
motivational phase
which schedule allows for a constant number of behaviors required for reinforcement
information-processing theory
cognitive theory of learning that describes the processing, storage, and retrieval of knowledge in the mind
sensory register
component of the memory system in which information is received and held for a very short periods of time
a person’s interpretation of stimuli
active focus on certain stimuli to the exclusion of others
short-term or working memory
the component of memory in which limitied amounts of information can be stored for a few seconds
mental repetition of information, which can improve its retenition
long-term memory
components of memory in which large amounts of information can be stored for long periods of time
episodic memory
a part of long term memory that stores images or our personal experience
semantic memory
a part of long-term memory that stores facts and general knowledge
procedural memory
a part of long term memory that stores information about how to do things
flashbulb memory
important events thats are fixed mainly in visual and auditory memory
mental networks related concepts that influence understanding of new information; the singular is schema
levels-of-processing theory
explanation of memory that links recall of a stimulus with amount of mental processing it receives.
dual code theory of memory
theory suggesting that information coded both visually and verbally is remembered better than information coded in only one of those two ways.
inhibition of recall of certain information by the presence of other information in memory
retroactive inhibition
decreased ability to recall previously learned information, caused by learning of new information
proactive inhibition
decreased ability to learn new information, caused by interference from existing knowledge
proactive facilitation
increase ability to learn new information based on the presence of previously acquired information
retroactive facilitation
increased comprehension of previously learned information because of the acquisition of new information
primary effect
the tendency for items at the beginning of a list to be recalled more easily than other items
regency effect
the tendency for items at the en of the list to be recalled more easily than other items
a level of rapidity and ease such that tasks can be performed or skills utilized with little mental effort.
missed practice
technique in which facts or skills to be learned are repeated often over a concentrated period of time
distributed practice
technique in which items to be learned are repeated at intervals over a period of time
a learning process in which individuals carry out tasks
verbal learning
learning of words ( or facts expressed in words)
paired-associate learning
learning of items in linked pairs so that when one member of a pair is presented, the other can be recalled.
serial learning
memorization of a series of items in a particular order
free-recall learning
learning of a list of items in any order
mental visualization of images to improve memory
devices or strategies for aiding the memory
keyword method
a strategy for improving memory by using images to link pairs of items
loci method
a strategy for remembering lists by picturing items in familiar locations
pegword method
a strategy for memorization in which images are used to link lists of facts to familiar set of words or numbers
initial-letter strategies
strategies for learning in which initial letters of items to be memorized are made into a more easily remembered word or phrase.
rote learning
memorization of facts of associations that might be essentially arbitrary
meaningful learning
mental processing of new information that relates to previously learned knowledge
inert knowledge
learned information that could be applied to a wide range of situations but whose use is limited or restricted, often artifical, applications
schema theory
theory stating that information is stored in long-term memory in schemata ( networks of connected facts and concepts), which provides a structure for making sense of new information
knowledge about one’s own learning or about how to learn ( thinking about thinking)
metacognitive skills
methods for learning, studying, or solving problems
self-questioning strategies
learning strategies that call on students to ask themselves who, what, where, and how questions as they read material
note taking
a study strategy that requires decisions about what to write
writing brief statements that represent the main idea of the information being read
representing the main points of material in hierarchical format
concept mapping
diagramming main ideas and then connections between them
PQ4R Method
a study strategy that has students preview, question, read, reflect, recite, and review material
advance organizers
activities and techniques that orient students to the material before reading or class presentation
images, concepts, or narratives that compare new material to information students already understnad
the process of connecting new material to information or ideas already in the learner’s mind
which component of memory best fits the description “in one ear and out the other”
sensory register
one of the educational implications of the sensory register is that
without attention, information received by the senses is quickly lost, and will not be remembered.
which of the following statements about attention is accurate
attention is a limited resource
the process of maintain a thought in a working memory is called
schemata consist of
frameworks for organizing ideas in memory
an example of proactive facilitation would be
learning spanish first, which may help an enligh-speaking student learn italian ( a language similiar to spanish)
As the chair or the language department, you suggest that your new teacher of Chiense consider introduicing a process to help students learn the vocabulary more easily. Which approach would be most appropriate for you to suggest, according to the text
keyword method
a student remembers a long list of outdoor sculptures by imaging each piece on top of a different campus building, along campus drive. What memory strategy is being used
loci method
about half of the class (group A) knows more about the democratic party while the other half ( group B) knows more about the republicans. The teacher presents a weeklong lesson on both parties. Which of the following is likely based on schema theory
group A will learn more about the Democrats than will group B
According to research, which of the following statements about note taking are true
1. It can be effective for certain types of material because it can require mental processing of main ideas.
2. The effects of note taking have been found to be inconcsistent
3. Note taking that requires some mental processing is more effective than simply writing down what was read
a teacher planned to take a class to the art museum for the first time. Before the trip, the teacher shared prints illustrationg how the artwork at the museum is group into historical periods. When the actual visit took place, students saw many works of art ( for the first time) and were amazed at how readily they were learning to recognize them. The orientation process students experiences is referred to as
an advance organizer
what is the term used by cognitive psychologists to refer to process of thinking about material to be learned in a way that connects the material to information or ideas already in the learner’s mind
according to research, which of the following have been identified as advantages of note taking
it requires mental processing
this phase of memory capacity can hold up to seven times
short term.
learners with exceptionalities
any individuals whose physical, mental, or behavioral performance is so different from the norm-either higher or lower- that additional services are needed to meet the individuals needs
the limitation of a function, such as cognitive processing or physical or sensory abilities
a condition imposed on a person with disabilities by society, the physical enviorment, or the person’s attitude
mental retardation
a condition, usually present at birth, that results in below average intellectual skills and poor adaptive behavior
intelligence quotient
an intelligence test score that should be near 100 for people for average intelligence
intermittent level or support
supports on an as needed basis. Characterized by episodic nature, a person not always needing supports, or short-term supports neeed during life span transitions ( job loss or an acute medical crisis), intermittent supports may be high or low intensity when provided
limited level of support
an intensity of supports characterized by consistency over time, time-limities but not of an intermittent nature, might require fewer staff members and less cost than more intense levels of support ( time-limited employment training or transitional supports during the school to adult period)
extensive support
supports characterized by regular involvement ( daily) in at least some environments (such as work at home) and not time limited (longterm support and long term living support)
pervasive support
supports characterized by their constancy, high intensity, provided across environments, potential life-sustaining nature. Pervasive supports typically involve more staff members and intrusiveness than do extensive or time-limited supports.
learning disabilities
disorders that impede academic progress of people who are not mentally retarded or emotionally disturbed
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
a Disorder characterized by difficulties maintaing attention because of limited ability to concentrate, includes impulsive actions and hyper active behavior.
speech disorders
oral articulation problems, occuring most frequently among children in the early elementary school grades
language disorders
impairments in one’s ability to understand language or to express ideas in one’s native language
emotional and behavioral disorders
exceptionable characterized by problems with learning, interpersonal relationships, and control of feelings and behavior.
Quay and Werry noted four general categories
conduct disorder, anxiety-withdrawl, immaturity, and socialized-aggressive disorder
conduct disorders
socioemotional behavioral disorders that are indicated in individuals who, for example, are chronically disobedient or disruptive
a category of disability that significantly affects social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication, and educational performance.
sensory impairments
problems with the ability to receive information through the body’s senses
vision loss
degree of uncorrectable inability to see well
acceleration programs
rapid promotion through advanced studies for students who are gifted and talented
enrichment programs
programs in which assignments or activities are designed to broaden or deepen the knowledge of students who master classroom lessons quickly
special education
programs that address the needs of students with mental, emotional, or physical disabilites
public law 94-142
federal law enacted 1975 requiring provision of special-education services to eligible students
individuals with disabilities education act (IDEA)
p.l. 101-476, a federal law enacted in 1990 that changed the name of P.L. 94-142 and broadened services to adolescents with disabilities
least restrictive environment
provision in idea that requires students with disabilities to be educated alongside peers without disabilities to the maximum extent possible.
mainstreaming or inclusion
the temporal, instructional, and social integration of eligible children having exceptionalities with peers who do not have exceptionalities based on an ongoing, individually determined educational planning and programming process.
Individualized Education Program (IEP)
a program tailored to the needs of a learner with exceptionalities
process in which professionals work cooperatively to provide educational services.
Dave took an intelligence test and received an IQ score of 62. He was classified as mentally retarded. Of the following, which is the best informed reaction to Dave’s classification?
The classification cannot be considered valid unless adaptive skills are also assessed
Unlinke past AAMR classification, current AAMR definitions of mental retardation use all except which of the following to categorize individuals?
IQ Scores
Definitions of learning disabilities have recently been significantly changed by
Response to intervention
Which of the following statements regarding visual impairments is true
A person whose field of vision is significantly narrower than a normal person’s could be considered legally blind.
Research on the effects of gifted programs on achievement has indicated that
Acceleration programs are more effective than enrichment programs.
A special education teacher suggests that an extra step be added to instructions for a science task, to make the task clearer to a student with a learning disability. This modification is an example of:
A format adaptation
Children with Asperger syndrome may exhibit which of the following?
Social relationships
Research on the gifted and talents student supports which of the following conclusions?
More can be gained through acceleration
Student-centered instruction
because of the emphasis on student as active learners, constructivist strategies are often called student-centered instruction. In a student- centered classroom the teacher becomes the “guide on the side” instead of the “sage on the stage”, helping students to discover their own meaning instead of lecturing and controlling all classroom activities
constructivist theories of learning
theories that state learners must individually discover and transform complex information, checking new information against old rules and revising rules when they no longer work
cognitive apprenticeship
the process by which a learner gradually acquires expertise through interaction with an expert, either an adult or an older or more advanced peer
situated learning
issued to describe learning that takes place in real-life, authentic tasks. This perspective emphasizes learning in depth, rather than learning that is a mild wide and an inch deep
students begin with complex problems to solve then work out or discover ( with your guidance) the basic skills required. For example, students might be asked to write compositions and only later learn about spelling, grammar, and puntuation.
traditional method of teaching in which basic skills are gradually built into more complex skills
discovery learning
a constructivist approach to teaching in which students are encouraged to discover principles for themselves
guided discovery learning
teacher plays a more active role, giving clues, structuring portions of an activity, or providing outlines
self-regulated learners
students who have knowledge of effective learning strategies and how and when to use them
mediated learning
assisted learning; an approach in which the teacher guides instruction by means of scaffolding to help students master and internalize the skills that permit higher cognitive functioning
reciprocal teaching
a small group teaching method based on principles of question generation; through instruction and modeling, teachers foster meta cognitive skills primarily to improve the reading performance of students who have poor comprehension
cooperative learning
instructional approaches in which students work in a small mixed-ability group
Student Teams Achievement Divisions (STAD)-
Students quiz scores are compared to their own past averages, and points are awarded on the basis of the degree to which students meet or exceed their own earlier performances. These points are then summed to form team scores, and teams that meet certain criteria may earn certificates or other rewards. In a related method called teams -Games-tournaments (TGT) student play games with members of other teams to add points to their team scores.
Cooperative integrated reading composition (CIRC)
a comprehensive program for teaching reading and writing in the upper elementary grades, students work in four-member cooperative learning teams.
A cooperative learning model in which students are assigned to six-member teams to work on academic material that has been broken down into sections for each member
learning together
a cooperative learning model in which students in four or five member heterogeneous groups work together on assignments
group investigation
a cooperative learning model in which students work in small groups using cooperative inquiry, group discussion, and cooperative planning and projects, afterward making presentations to the whole class on their findings
peer-assisted learning strategies
a structured cooperative learning method in which students work in pairs taking turns as teacher and learner, using specific metacognitive strategies
cooperative scripting
a study method in which students work in pairs and take turns orally summarizing sections of material to be learned.
project-based learning or active learning
involves students working in groups to create a report, experiment, mural, or other product
collaborative learning methods
project-based learning methods focus on problems that typically have less clear expected outcomes or instructional objectives and other approaches
problem solving
the application of knowledge and skills to achieve certain goals
means-ends analysis
a problem solving technique that encourages identifying the goal (ends) to be attained, the current situation, and what needs to be done (means) to reduce the difference between the two conditions
in which two or more individuals suggest as many solutions to a problem as they can think of, no matter how seemingly ridiculous
instrumental enrichment
a thinking skills program in which students work through a series of paper and pencil exercises that are designed to develop various intellectual abilities
what type of instruction is emphasized by constructivist approaches
top down
a student knows how to break complex problems into simpler steps, how and when to skim, and how and when to read for deep understanding. What key concept of constructivist theories of learning defines this student
self regulated learner
which of the following statements best characterizes scaffolding
the teacher gradually assigns students more responsibility for their learning
in assisted or mediated learning who is the primary cultural agent guiding instruction
the teacher
which of the following best describes reciprocal teaching
the teacher asks a small group of students questions about material they have just read. Later, the students model the teacher’s behavior, generating their own questions for the groups
a teacher is initiating reciprocal teaching with a group of six students of high, averages, and low ability. who should be the teacher for the first segment of learning
the teacher
learning together, a model of cooperative learning developed by David and Roger Johnson, involves students working in four-or five member:
heterogeneous groups, on assignments
given a problem to solve, beginners tend to jump right into proposing solution, while experts tend to spend time thinking about the underlying causes of the problem and interpreting it from different perspective. Which step is the IDEAL model are the beginners neglecting
define goals and represent the problem
the question “what is the difference between where I am now and where I want to be?” is a critical step in
means-ends analysis
during the incubation period teachers should value
ingenuity and careful thought
the instrumental enrichment program is meant to be administered over a period of at least two years at the rate of how many hours per week
3-5 hours
Studies of the instrumental enrichment treatment have found that the program has positive effects on
tests of aptitude, but generally not achievement
which of the following is NOT a critical grouping component when mixing learners together to create a successful student Team-Achievement Division
students mixed in age
several studies reflecting on the successful creation of Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC) programs identify which of the following as essential components of the learning together model
use of four or five heterogeneous groups, assessment based upon a completed group project
the constructive conflict is best exemplified by the following
students debating controversial topics with each other.
in the 21st century of learning, which of the following skills has not been identifies as an advantage of cooperative learning
to provide for self-reflection
QAIT Model
a model of effective instruction that focuses on elements teachers can directly control: Quality, Appropriateness, Incentive and time
Quality of instruction
the degree to which presentation of information or skills help students easily learn the material. Quality of instruction is largely a product of the quality of the curriculum and of lesson presentation
appropriate levels of instruction
the degree to which the teacher makes sure that students are ready to learn a new lesson ( that is, have the necessary skills and knowledge to learn it) but have not already learned the lesson, In other words, the level of instruction is appropriate when a lesson is neither too difficult nor too easy for students.
the degree to which the teacher makes sure that students are motivated to work on instructional tasks and to learn the material being presented.
the degree to which students are given enough time to learn the material being taught
curriculum sequences to which students of specified achievement of ability level are assigned.
between-class ability grouping
the practice of grouping students in separate classes according to ability level.
within-class ability grouping
a system of accommodating student differences by dividing a class of students into two or more ability groups for instruction in certain subjects.
a method of ability grouping in which students in mixed-ability classes are assigned to reading or math classes on the basis of their performance levels
a focus on having students in mixed-ability groups and holding them to high standards but providing many ways for students to reach those standards
Joplin Plan
regrouping method in which students are groups across grade lines for reading instruction
nongraded programs
programs, generally at the primary level, that combine children of different ages in the same class. Also called cross-age grouping programs.
differentiated instruction
an approach to teaching that adapts the content, level, pace, and products of instruction to accommodate different needs of diverse students in regular classes.
James Comer’s school development program
emphasizes building connections with parents and communities and organizing school staff into collaborative teams to create engaging, effective instruction
interactive whiteboard
large touchscreen that teachers can use to display and modify digital content for an entire class
electronic response devices (clickers)
electronic devices on which students enter answer to question and have them registered on a computer or interactive whiteboard
word processing or desktop publishing
a computer application for writing compositions that lends itself to revising and editing
computer programs that convert data into tables, charts, and graphs
computer programs that contain large volumes of information, such as encyclopedias and atlases
hypertect and hypermedia
related information that appears when a computer user clicks on a word of picture
computer assisted instruction
individualized instruction administered by computer
drill and practice
application of computer technology to provide students with practice of skills and knowledge
tutorial programs
computer programs that teach new material, varying their content and pace according to the students responses
instructional games
drill and practice exercise presents in a game format
a large and growing telecommunications network of computers around the world that communicate electronically
a website, such as wikipedia, containing content to which the user can add or make modifications.
simiulation software
computer programs that model-real-life phenomena to promote problem solving abilities and motivates interest in the areas concerned
problem-solving program
program desgined specifically to develop students critical-thinking skills
cd rom
a computer database designed for “read-only memory” that provides massive amounts of information, including pictures and audio; it can be a particular importance to students doing projects on research activities.
digital video and potographs
video and photographs that can be loaded into a computer and shared electronically
integrated learning systems
commercially developed comprehensive, multipurpose packages of interlinked management instructional software, running on a computer network.
in order to bring about effective instruction, excellent lesson preparation is not sufficient. Teachers must also accomplish all of the following except
make the correct assumptions about what students know coming into a lesson
which of the following strategies would be the most direct application of carroll’s model
make is possible for students to work at their own pace
how does a low-ability student benefit when a school uses a regrouping strategy, rather than tracking
the student has less chance of losing self-esteem, than with all day between class grouping.
A student reads far below grade level. If the Joplin plan is used at a student’s school which of the following is most likely to occur
the student will take reading in the same-ability class, and most other subjects in mixed-ability classes
typical uses of within-class ability grouping reflect the tendency of teachers to
allow the groups to proceed at their own pace, so high performing groups cover more material.
in recent years, which of the following was true regarding retention rates in school
new york city failed 16,000 third graders in recent years
cross-age tutoring is
recommended by researchers more often the same-age tutoring
a particular one to one tutoring program, in which highly trained certified teachers work with first graders who are at risk for failing to learn to read is called
reading recovery
these programs are not considered compensatory
remediation and enrichment
this program will present new material and provide correction based upon student responses
tutorial programs.
the influence of needs and desires on the intensity and direction of behavior
deficiency needs
basic requirements for physical and psychological well-being as identified by maslow
growth needs
needs for knowing, appreciating, and understand, which people try to satisfy their basic needs are met
a person’s ability to develop his or her full potential
attribution theory
a theory of motivation that focuses on how people explain the causes of their own success and failures
locus of control
a personality trait that determines whether people attribute responsibility for their own failure and success to internal or external factors.
engagement an investment
describe motivation that leads students to engage in self regulated learning, rather than simply doing the work and following the rules
describe a set of successful strategies for building self-determination among individuals with disabilites
expectancy theory
a theory of motivation based on the belief that people’s effots depends on their expectations of reward
expectancy-valence model
a theory that relates the probability and the incentive value of success to motivation
achievement motivation
the desire to experience success and to participate in activities in which success depends on personal effort and abilities.
learning goals
the goals of students who are motivate primarily by desire for knowledge acquisition and self improvement. Also called mastery goals.
performance goals
the goals of students who are motivated primarily by a desire to gain recognition from others and to earn good grades
learned helplessness
the expectation, based on experience, that one’s actions will ultimately lead to failure
intrinsic incentive
an aspect of an activity that people enjoy and therefore find motivating
extrinsic incentive
a reward that is external to the activity such as recognition or a good grade
information on the results of one’s efforts
contingent praise
praise that is effective because it refers directly to specific task performances
to praise students for specific behaviors, not for general “goodness”
Which of these is not true regarding motivation
motivation varies according to many factors
nicole was kept awake half the night because her brother and parents were fighting. Nicoles motivated to perform school tasks will be low today, not only because she is upset about her family but because her___needs have not been met.
Maslow’s deficiency needs are those that are crtical to physical and psychological weel being when they are satisfied
motivation to satisfy them decreases
according to attribution theory, people are most likely to attribute
successes to their own abilities and failures to (bad) luck.
A student says, “I did well because of some lucky guessing” the types of attribution being demonstrated is
external, unstable
a student believes that her reason for success in reading is the effort put into the task the student’s locus of control is
ice skating was a new experience for Leonard. He found that he has trouble keeping up with his friends who has skated a lot before. After his first evening on the ice a friend asked him to go skating again. Leonard flatly refused, insisting that “It’s not for me-I stink at skating” which of the following best describes the attribution leaonard is making to explain his skating failure
internal stable
studies have shown that the most successful students
tend to overestimate the degree to which their own behavior leads to success
students who are highly motivated to learn are more likely than other student to consciously do which three things
plan their learning, carry out a learning plan, retain the information they obtain
the expectancy valence model views motivation as dependent on the person’s expectation of reward and
the value placed on success
Which of the following does NOT reflect a classroom climate with performance goals
mistakes are viewed as part of learning
teachers can help counter learned helplessness by using which of the following general principles
accentuate the positive, eliminate the negative, and create challenges that actively involve students’ capabilities
teachers can enhance intrinsic motivation by
personalizing lesson material
research on feedback would support the practice of
giving many brief quizzes rather than a few long tests.
which of the following typifies an element of effective praise
show signs of credibility
the school and teacher policy helps build an environment of acceptance and appreciation for all students
this strategy is a key component to self-regulated learning