Education 2020 Final Exam Review

_________is such an important factor in our immediate society that we must make concerted efforts to ensure that educators understand and respect differences and provide positive, effective learning experiences for diverse groups.
Diversity
The Conceptual Framework, ________________, reflects a centrality of affirmed principles, beliefs, and practices that guide the professional education Unit’s work with candidates, schools, and communities.
Models for Learning
is selecting from options or alternatives with the intent of facilitating student learning. Substantial content and pedagogical knowledge are essential for effective decision making. In addition, the Unit emphasizes assessment-based decision making, i.e., decisions should reflect a continuous and ongoing assessment process to gather data about students through a variety of means. Decisions may be proactive, interactive (responding to situational events), or retroactive, where reflection becomes a key component of effective decision making.
Decision Making
involves higher-order thinking skills and is a systematic, thoughtful approach to gathering information in order to make an educated decision or support a change. Numerous examples exist, but the Unit subscribes to a general problem-solving model—define the problem, develop a plan, implement the plan, and evaluate the plan. These steps may range from simple to complex, depending on the problem and context. Inherent to this general model and reflecting the Unit’s commitment to assessment and data-driven decision making is the systematic process to find, use, apply, and evaluate information for specific tasks.
Problem Solving
involves accepting ownership and responsibility for decisions and professional growth and development in order to become a life-long learner—a model for learning. In addition, responsible educators strive to help overcome biases and produce positive behaviors in a diverse society. Responsible educators engage in ethical practices to resolve conflicts or dilemmas, to make decisions, and to interact with others.
Responsibility Taking
which are interrelated and complementary processes, involve higher-order thinking skills and include both the creation or generation of ideas, processes, experiences or objects and their evaluation. Bloom’s Taxonomy of the Cognitive Domain remains the seminal tool in developing objectives, designing curricula, preparing instructional activities, and assessing student learning. However, additional taxonomies and scholarly works, such as Dimensions of Thinking and A Taxonomy of Learning, Teaching and Assessing, inform and enhance the model.
Creative and Critical Thinking
For this class, EDUC 2020, you must complement a minimum ____ hours observing ____ different teachers.
10
10
You will complete 180 hours of field experience prior to student teaching in education courses. Which of the following IS NOT a category of field experience?
Practicing
One of the requirements to be accepted for teacher candidacy is a minimum GPA. Please select the minimum GPA from the items below.
2.5
The NSU Conceptual Framework, Models for Learning, is based on the notion that all children can _____.
Learn
The NSU Conceptual Framework, Models for Learning, has a prominent picture of an item related to school. The item is a
Schoolhouse
The founding year of the university was….
1884
What was the original name of the university?
Louisiana State Normal School
Which of the following is appropriate to depict professionalism for an observation?
Business Suit
You do not have to take the Praxis I and can use your ACT score as a substitute if your score is equal to or above which of the following numbers…
22
All of the following is tested and considered a component of Praxis I except:
Science
What sparked the founding of the Normal School?
Teaching and Learning
True or False:

A form that you must include for each observation contains information such as the number of boys and girls, grade level, school name, and other pertinent information. This information is called the classroom count.

False

The form that you must include is called the classroom data sheet.

True or False:

In 1884, the parish and city of Natchitoches acquired the property of a former plantation, and that same year the state legislature chartered the Louisiana State Normal School. It offered two-year degrees for the training of teachers.

True
A research report for the NEA indicates that the most frequently cited reason teachers choose their profession is ________.
The desire to work with children and young adults.
________ refers to differences among students in regard to gender, race, ethnicity, culture, and socioeconomic status.
Student Diversity
According to the Metropolitan Life Survey of the American Teacher, 82 percent of the teachers who responded strongly agreed that they ________.
were passionate about teaching
Mr. Norton loves English literature, has a strong desire to learn more about this discipline, and wants the opportunity to share that knowledge with students. He is drawn to teaching because of a passion for ________.
the subject
Ms. Bradham has always enjoyed school and embraced the environment that encourages a high regard for education and the life of the mind. She probably chose teaching as a profession because of a passion for the ________.
teaching life
During an interview with Mr. Fanning, he states that he is attracted to teaching because of a love of the teaching-learning process. Therefore, he enjoys the ________.
live, spontaneous aspects of teaching.
Educational research supports the fact that those who become teachers are more influenced by their teachers as ________.
people
With the exception of parents or guardians, the adults who have the greatest influence on children are often their ________.
teachers
Research tells us that teachers may make up to ________ low-level decisions in a school day.
3,000
Ms. Duckworth, the adaptive physical education specialist, runs two miles every afternoon after school. Jason, a young boy with mild cerebral palsy, has been watching Ms. Duckworth for the past several weeks as she works out on the track. This afternoon Jason jogged two laps with Ms. Duckworth. This is an illustration of ________.
the drama and immediacy of teaching
Mr. Evans, a fifth-grade teacher in a suburban school, makes derogatory remarks to his class about inner-city schools. This shows that he lacks an understanding of ________.
the unpredictability of outcomes.
________ recruits graduates from some of the best colleges and universities in the United States to teach a minimum of two years in urban and rural school districts with severe shortages of science, math, and language arts teachers.
Teach for America
Jon is disturbed by the problems of contemporary America-the erosion of the family, the increasing violence in our cities, and the hardships of poverty. To make a difference, Jon has chosen to pursue teaching as a profession. His primary reason for this choice is the ________.
desire to serve others
All of the following are true of year-round schools except ________.
they are predicated on an agrarian economy and culture
All of the following are practical benefits of teaching except ________.
frequent promotions to administrative positions
According to the National Education Association, teachers’ salaries have ________ since the 1990s to the present.
increased steadily
It is a general perception that ________.
teachers’ salaries are steadily improving
All of the following statements about teachers’ salaries are true except that ________.
teacher salaries vary little by states or regions
The National Education Association (2009) reported that the average teacher’s salary was approximately ________.
$55,000
________ of the nation’s public school teachers “moonlight” or hold a second job to increase their earnings.
One-fourth
According to the U.S. Department of Labor (2010), the total number of PreK-12 teachers is expected to increase from 3.5 million teachers in 2008 by approximately ________ percent in 2018.
13
When comparing teacher salaries state-by-state, higher salaries are frequently linked to all of the following except ________.
the number of private schools
________ refers to job security granted to teachers after satisfactory performance for a specified period of time.
Tenure
On average, teachers work
approximately 50 hours per week
Mr. Crowe, an elementary teacher, spends approximately 40 hours at school each week. According to educational research, he will spend approximately ________ hours each week on additional nonteaching
10
________ is one of the teacher’s most time-consuming nonteaching tasks.
Keeping paperwork including detailed records of students’ academic progress, attendance, and other required documentation
Each state has mandated ________ to assess students’ mastery of academic standards.
standardized tests
In 2002, President George W. Bush signed into legislation the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act, which mandated ________.
statewide testing in reading and math each year in grades 3-8.
NCLB required that by the end of the 2013-14 academic school year public schools guarantee that ________.
all students be prepared to pass state proficiency tests
In 2011, the Obama administration reauthorized ESEA and made changes to NCLB, one of these was the provision that all students would
leave high school “college or career ready.”
Under the Obama administrations Blueprint for Reform effort, $4.35 billion was made available to states on a competitive basis as part of the ________ Program
Race To The Top
Today’s tech-savvy students spend an average of ________ hours each day using some type of media.
11
The prevailing view within our society is that teachers are ________.
public servants accountable to the people
________ is a website that allows collaborative work by various authors; it allows anyone or designated members of a group to create, delete, or edit the content on the website.
A wiki
Approximately ________ percent of the population of public school teachers in the United States are members of minority groups.
17%
All of the following statements about students and teachers with disabilities are true except ________.
teachers with disabilities are rarely capable of being effective in classrooms
The ________ teacher has a bachelor’s degree, full state certification, and subject matter knowledge.
highly qualified
Public elementary and secondary school enrollments are projected to rise in the ________ regions of the United States.
western and southern
Barb just graduated from a teacher education program. The ease with which she will find a job is closely related to her ________.
area of specialization
In analyzing the job market for teachers in the western and southern regions of the country during the next decade, the outlook is ________.
favorable
Although growth across the United States will vary widely between now and the year 2018, enrollment in elementary and secondary schools is expected to ________.
increase
Recently, there has been a steady demand for those able to teach in the following subject areas except for ________.
English and Social Studies
________, which is based on 10 principles of teaching, consists of a consortium of more than 30 states; it has developed standards and an assessment process for initial teacher certification.
INTASC
A teaching certificate usually includes ________.
the level and content areas one may teach
In order for a person to receive a teaching certificate, thirty-five states require successful completion of ________.
The Praxis Series
Leo is preparing to take the Praxis Series: Professional Assessments for Beginning Teachers for his initial teaching certification. This test will assess his ________.
academic skills, subject, and classroom performance.
The Praxis Series: Professional Assessments for Beginning Teachers includes assessments of all the following except ________.
leadership skills
Of the 43 states that include tests as part of their certification process ________ require completion of the Praxis Series: Professional Assessments for Beginning Teachers.
35
A ________ is actually a license to teach.
teaching certificate
For a person to receive a license to teach, all states require successful completion of ________.
a teacher education program with a bachelor’s degree
Currently, all states require an average of ________ semester credits of supervised student teaching.
6-8
Today, most states do not grant ________ teaching licenses.
lifetime
Licensure requirements are ________ from state to state, and they are ________ modified.
different; frequently
Bob is finishing his teacher education program in Minnesota but wants to teach in Wisconsin. Bob needs to check to see if Minnesota and Wisconsin are members of the ________.
NASDTEC Interstate Agreement
________ programs are designed for people who have at least a bachelor’s degree in a field other than education and want to become licensed to teach. These candidates tend to be older, diverse, and willing to teach in a variety of educational venues.
Alternative Teacher Certificate
Kelly has a bachelor’s degree in physics, served as a physicist for the last ten years, and wants to become licensed to teach physics at the secondary level. Kelly would be a good candidate for the ________ certification program.
alternative certification
Teaching is the largest profession in the United States with Pre-K, elementary school, middle school, and secondary school teachers (not including special education teachers) totaling about ________ teachers in 2008.
3.5 million
Today’s classrooms have teachers who are ________ and students who are ________.
predominantly white and female; culturally diverse
Compared to 1971, teachers are/have ________.
better educated
The ages included in Pre-K education (also termed early childhood education) range from ________.
birth to age 8
Elementary school teachers usually teach one class, of about 25, from ________.
kindergarten through sixth grade
An increasing number of teachers teach in ________ classrooms, with students from different grade levels.
multi-age
The majority of middle school teachers ________.
specialize in a specific subject and teach it several times a day
Most high school teachers ________.
teach four or five courses within a single content area
Teachers in ________ often have smaller class sizes and more control over determining the curriculum and standards for performance and discipline; often they are affiliated with religious institutions.
private schools
________ schools are independent public schools, often founded by teachers that are given permission to operate by a school district or by state or national governments; they are accountable for meeting predetermined outcomes.
Charter
________ schools are designed to meet the needs of students at risk of failure and dropping out.
Alternative
________ schools offer a curriculum that focuses on a specific area such as the performing arts, mathematics, science, international studies, or technology; they often draw students from a larger attendance area than regular schools and promote voluntary desegregation.
Magnet
When schools face budget cutbacks or increased pressure to prepare students for high-stakes tests, often ________ teaching positions are eliminated.
art and music
________ teachers train students to work in fields such as healthcare, business, auto repair, communications, and technology.
Vocational education
________ teachers work with children and youth who have a variety of disabilities including learning disabilities, autism, and brain injuries.
Special education
Most English Language Learners (ELLs) live in ________ and ________.
California; Texas
Approximately ________ percent of teachers who instruct ELL students have received training to teach them.
30
One major cause of teacher isolation is ________.
teaching children all day without adult interactions
________ is the joint product of wisdom about teaching, learning, students, and content.
Pedagogical Content Knowledge
________ is developed by teachers in response to specific problems of practice.
Teachers’ Craft Knowledge
The fact that only lawyers may practice law, only physicians may practice medicine, and only licensed teachers may teach in the public schools are examples of how ________.
professionals institutionalize a “monopoly” of essential knowledge and services
All of the following are reasons why the “monopoly” of services in the teaching profession is weakened except ________.
teachers will accept wages that are not in accordance with their educational attainment
Emergency certification is ________ by professional teacher organizations and several state departments of education.
strongly resisted
The widespread practice of “out-of-field teaching” weakens ________.
teachers’ monopoly of services
Compared to other professions, the professional component of the teacher education program in many states is ________.
short
It has been suggested that professions in the United States will begin to look more and more alike. For example, doctors are accepting more regulation and school teachers ________.
will slowly break out of long-established bureaucratic hierarchies
In the 1980s, the report A Nation at Risk linked the strength of our country to ________.
the quality of its schools
As principals respond to increasing pressure to become more effective at facilitating collaborative, emergent approaches to leadership, teachers should receive ________.
greater degrees of self-governance
Because the majority of decision-making power is reserved for boards of education, teachers have had little or no say over what they teach, when they teach, whom they teach, and, in extreme instances, how they teach. This is an example of ________.
lack of participation in professional governance
________ is the most prestigious credential a teacher can earn.
National Board Certification
In regard to the level of trust that the public currently extends to teachers, it is most accurate to say that it ________.
is mixed
The membership of the National Education Association is open to all of the following groups except ________.
school board members
Currently, ________ of states have passed some type of collective bargaining laws that apply to teachers; however, there is little uniformity among these laws.
two-thirds
The AFT has been critical of the NEA for ________.
allowing administrators to join the organization
A significant difference between the NEA and the American Federation of Teachers (AFT) is that ________.
membership in the AFT is not open to administrators
Many in the NEA and AFT believe that the interests of teachers and students could best be served by ________.
merging the two organizations into one
Which of the following is not one of the explicit goals of unity agreed to by the NEA and AFT “Unity Discussion Teams”?
to push for higher teacher salaries
In addition to the NEA and AFT, teachers’ professional interests are represented by more than ________ other national organizations.
500
________ is a professional organization interested in school improvement at all levels of education.
ASCD
Without a doubt, your relationships with ________ will be the most important and complex you will have as a teacher.
students
Based on interview data, all of the following statements about the impact of parental involvement on students are true except ________.
significant parental involvement results in slightly less participation in extracurricular activities
The Goals 2000: Educate America Act funded ________ in each state plus the District of Columbia.
parent resource centers
Recruiting volunteers, providing financial support for special projects, and operating homework hotline programs are examples of ________.
community support
Working together, sharing decision making, and solving problems is called ________.
collaboration
According to the text, the heart of collaboration is ________.
meaningful, authentic relationships among professionals
Which of the following statements does not represent a characteristic of collaboration?
Collaboration means that all give and receive the same amount
Andrea is team teaching this quarter with two colleagues. She was forced to join the effort by her principal and has resisted the entire process. Andrea has, however, enjoyed getting to know her colleagues and sharing their ideas. However, the characteristic of collaboration that was violated was that it ________.
is voluntary
Schools that are characterized by purposeful adult interactions about improving schoolwide teaching and learning are called ________.
collegial schools
________ is not an expression of teacher collaboration.
Faculty unions
________ is an arrangement whereby teachers grow professionally by observing one another’s teaching and providing constructive feedback.
Peer coaching
According to Joyce, Weil, and Calhoun, school faculties should be divided into coaching teams that regularly observe the teaching of others and learn from watching. They refer to this as ________.
coaching environments
The opportunity to meet with other teachers for the purpose of sharing ideas, strategies, and solutions to problems is an example of ________.
staff development
Bryan meets once a month with other science educators in the region to discuss educational research and practice. This is an example of ________.
staff development
In ________ arrangements, teachers share the responsibility for two or more classes, dividing the subject areas between them.
team teaching
In ________ arrangements, two or more teachers teach together in the same classroom.
co-teaching
While there is widespread debate about what academic content the schools should teach, ________.
the public supports the teaching of prosocial views
Schools are places where the young learn to participate intelligently and constructively in American society emphasizing education for ________.
socialization
In regard to equal educational opportunity, evidence exists to demonstrate ________.
that certain groups are denied equality
Students enter the school as raw material, move through the curriculum in a systematic way, and exit the school as a finished product. This is a metaphor describing schools as ________.
factories
The effective school is a caring community of adults who attend to the academic, emotional, and social needs of the children and youth entrusted to its care. This is a metaphor describing schools as ________.
families
An organization established by society to maintain and improve its way of life is ________.
an institution
Groups that see the school as a means of perpetuating their preferred way of life include all of the following except ________.
public schools
Schools that are often the focal point for community life and reflect values and beliefs that tend to be fairly conservative are typically ________.
rural schools
All of the following are influences on the culture of school except ________.
tax-based programs
Mr. Fineday teaches in an elementary school where students do most of their work independently, with a number of teachers providing individual guidance as needed. His teaching area is also large and has movable walls and furniture that can be rearranged easily. Mr. Fineday teaches in a(n) ________.
open-space school
The organizational arrangement whereby academic subjects are taught by teachers who specialize in those areas and students move from classroom to classroom for their lessons is called ________.
departmentalization
Tyrone graduated from a high school known for the quality of its academic programs and for the number of students who go on to college. This is an example of ________.
school tradition
In a classroom, the physical characteristics of the setting and the social dimensions of the group interact to shape ________.
the classroom culture
Measures of success for schools include all of the following except ________.
fewer numbers of children enrolled in special education
Research has documented that the characteristics of successful schools include all of the following except ________.
school boards with representation from the student body
All of the following are characteristics of students at risk for dropping out of school except ________.
performance at or above grade level
According to education data, the ethnic group that consistently has the lowest high school completion rate is ________.
Hispanic
Teachers can rely on identifying at-risk factors as good indicators of ________ in their students.
potential academic problems
The incidence of child abuse, poor health, underachievement in school, and attendance problems is higher among children who ________.
are homeless
About ________ percent of all homeless children do not attend school regularly.
50
The National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect reported that state Child Protective Service agencies investigated approximately ________ allegations of child maltreatment in 2008.
3 million
Stress within the family can have a significant negative effect on students and their ability to focus on learning while at school. All of the following are associated with stress except ________.
vocational choices
Between ________ is the most likely time for youth to engage in risk-taking or delinquent behaviors or to be victims of a crime.
3 p.m. – 8 p.m.
survey, middle and high school students reported that it was “very easy” or “fairly easy” to obtain ________.
marijuana
According to the Indicators of School Crime and Safety (2009), the rate of victimization in U.S. schools has ________ since 1992.
decreased
According to The National Gang Threat Assessment (2009), approximately ________ percent of public school students ages 12 to 18 reported that there were gangs in their schools.
24
All of the following are strategies for reducing the impact of gang activities on schools except ________.
retaining graffiti on school property as a symbol of gang destructiveness
The National Gang Intelligence Center estimates that nearly 1 million gang members belong to more than ________ gangs in the 5 U.S. states and the District of Columbia.
20,000
Immediate warning signs of violence include all except ________.
increased absenteeism
According to a survey of 4,400 students in 37 schools in one district, approximately ________ percent of Internet-using adolescents revealed that they had experienced cyber bullying.
20
Each year nearly 750,000 teenagers between the ages of 15 and 19 become pregnant. Approximately ________ percent of these pregnancies are unintentional.
75
All of the following statements concerning teen pregnancy are true except ________.
most teen mothers return to high school within two years of having their child
The offspring of pregnant teenagers are most at risk for all of the following except ________.
financial stability
Since 1990 the teenage pregnancy, birth, and abortion rates have ________.
declined
All of the following are true of female and male involvement in suicide except ________.
students in grade 12 are the most likely to attempt suicide
The National Institute of Mental Health reported in 1999 that the third leading cause of death among youths ages 15 to 24 is ________.
suicide
Schools that serve their communities by integrating educational, medical, and social and/or human services are called ________.
full-service community schools
An intervention approach based on a comprehensive service delivery network of teachers, social agencies, and health service agencies is ________.
the case management approach
A federally funded program established in 1965 to improve the basic skills of low-ability students from low-income families is called ________.
Title I
A small, highly individualized school separate from the regular school is typically called a(n) ________.
alternative school
All of the following are types of community-based partnerships developed by some schools to prevent social problems from hindering students’ learning except ________.
No Child Left Behind teacher training workshops
Having a clear educational philosophy can help teachers to ________.
make appropriate decisions in the middle of a lesson
An understanding of philosophy of education is important for all of the following reasons except ________.
to help you enhance your professionalism in teaching
When Dewey refers to the general theory of education, he is referencing ________.
the philosophy of education
Most schools have a statement of philosophy, which is best described in all of the following ways except ________.
to guarantee full accreditation
According to the text, your behavior as a teacher is strongly connected to your beliefs about all of the following except ________.
administrators
Philosophy is concerned with ________.
identifying the basic truths about being, knowledge, and conduct
What teachers believe about students is based on ________.
their unique life experiences
Students who spend a great deal of time learning by rote memorization likely have a teacher who views knowledge as ________.
the sum total of small bits of subject matter
The authors purport that learning occurs when ________.
a student’s personal experience leads to changes in thoughts and behaviors
Teachers’ beliefs about students are based on all of the following except ________.
their studies of the brain and cognitive changes
The transmission of knowledge refers to all of the following except ________.
to test the cognitive ability of students
Self-directed learners can be referenced as ________.
constructivist
A teacher who views knowledge conceptually might request that students learn all of the following, except ________.
the recitation of all fifty state capitals
The transmission view of teaching includes all of the following except ________.
students learn by applying thinking to projects
A constructivist teacher would expect all of the following learnings from students except ________.
learning how to ready themselves for work
One example of a metaphysical question is ________.
What is reality?
Metaphysics has important implications for education because ________.
the school curriculum is based on what we know about reality
Epistemological questions focus on ________.
knowledge
Knowledge based on “empiricism” is the same as “knowing” based on ________.
experience
Axiology highlights the fact that teachers have an interest not only in how much students learn, but also in the ________.
quality of life that comes from knowledge
All of the following areas of philosophy are of central concern to teachers except ________.
cosmology
Jimmy has submitted a term paper that his teacher suspects was copied from the Internet. In deciding whether to give Jimmy a grade of “F” or have him attempt the assignment a second time, the teacher is confronted with a(n) ________.
ethical dilemma
The branch of axiology known as aesthetics is concerned with ________.
values related to beauty
Logic is the area of philosophy that deals with ________.
the process of reasoning
The most definitive description of the Socratic method can be said to consist of ________.
holding philosophical conversations
According to the text, all of the following are major philosophical orientations to teaching except ________.
behaviorism
Perennialism views truth as ________.
constant
A perennialistic curriculum should stress ________.
students’ intellectual growth in the arts and sciences
The Great Books of the Western World curriculum is most closely associated with the philosophy of ________.
perennialism
Organizing the Great Books of the Western World is attributed to ________.
Adler
Essentialism is most accurately characterized as a ________ philosophy of education.
conservative
An essentialistic curriculum would most likely emphasize ________.
basic skills
John Dewey (1859-1952) believed that ________.
public school curriculum should derive from the students’ interests and needs
In the progressively oriented classroom, the teacher serves as ________.
a guide whose primary responsibility is to facilitate student learning
Progressivism is based on the belief that education should be student-centered and adhere to all of the following assumptions except ________.
curriculum should focus on the enduring disciplines of knowledge
Existential philosophy is unique in that it ________.
focuses on the experiences of the individual
The idea that every individual first exists, and then decides what that existence means, is most closely associated with ________.
Jean-Paul Sartre
An existentialist is most likely to believe that ________.
freedom has rules
A social reconstructionist curriculum would likely feature all of the following except ________.
a study of the Great Books
According to the authors, critical pedagogy focuses on ________.
how education can promote social justice
Psychological orientations to teaching are concerned primarily with understanding the ________.
conditions associated with effective learning
In the 1950s and 1960s, humanistic psychology became the basis of educational reforms that sought to enhance students’ ________.
achievement of their potential through self-actualization
John B. Watson (1878-1958) and B. F. Skinner (1904-1990) are most closely associated with the ________ branch of psychology.
behavioristic
Skinner’s operant (or type R) conditioning advances all of the following ideas except ________.
teachers should withhold reinforcers until students have reflected on their behaviors
Constructivism is based on the notion that ________.
knowledge is constructed by learners
Constructivists believe all of the following except ________.
student knowledge is little influenced by previous experience
Our understanding of learning has been extended as a result of ________.
advances in cognitive science by neurologists
The professional goals a teacher sets are influenced by all of the following factors except ________.
college degrees
The current system of public and private education in the United States is a representation of ________.
a reflection of the country’s historical foundations and values
All of the following are true of education in colonial America except ________.
it supported the separation of church and state
Education in colonial America reflected a ________.
concern for religious objectives
The Puritan view of the child included the belief that ________.
people are inherently sinful
All of the following are true of dame schools except ________.
they featured basic and advanced curricula
The “horn book” was ________.
made from cow’s horn
All of the following are true of “reading and writing schools” except ________.
they prepared students for the dame school
Dame schools provided ________.
the only schooling for girls
The primary purpose of parochial schools was to ________.
promote religion and prepare children for further education
Students usually attended dame schools no longer than ________.
a few weeks and only rarely for longer than a year
The primary purpose of the Latin grammar school was to ________.
prepare students for college
The Massachusetts Act of 1642 was significant in that it made education a responsibility of the ________.
state
At the close of the American Revolution, literate Native Americans and Mexican Americans usually received their training from ________.
missionaries
Education during the Revolutionary period (1750-1820) was characterized by ________.
a waning of European influence
Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) designed the Philadelphia Academy, which featured all of the following characteristics except ________.
it was the first free and open-to-all school
Benjamin Franklin’s proposals for educating youth reflected the philosophically of ________.
essentialism
The Philadelphia Academy, which opened in 1751, would say that its curriculum ________.
was broader and more practical than that of earlier Latin schools
During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the education of girls ________.
focused on the duties of the home
The organizations established in the early nineteenth century to train women for higher education and public service outside the home were ________.
female seminaries
Thomas Jefferson believed that ________.
a country that wished to remain free had to provide an education for the people
The book that was given the name “the old blue-back” and sold over 24 million copies was ________.
Noah Webster’s American Spelling Book
The Boston English Classical School, renamed the English High School in 1824, signaled the beginning of the struggle for ________.
state-supported common schools
Those in favor of free common schools tended to be ________.
nontaxpayers
Horace Mann is probably best known as a promoter of the ________.
common school
“It knows no distinction of rich and poor, of bond and free, or between those, who, in the imperfect light of this world, are seeking, through different avenues, to reach the gate of heaven.” In the preceding statement, Horace Mann is referring to ________.
a system of universal free schools for all
Stories such as “The Wolf,” “Meddlesome Matty,” and “A Kind Brother” are examples of the ________.
McGuffey Readers
The Morrill Land Grant Act of 1862 provided ________.
federal land for states to sell or rent in order to raise money for the establishment of colleges
In 1869-1870, the approximate percentage of 5- to 17-year-olds attending public schools was ________.
65%
During 1865-1920, the operating procedure in schools was primarily ________.
a scientific system of management
One of the country’s first institutions of higher education for African Americans was ________.
Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute
A “garden where children grow” described by Friedrich Froebel illustrates ________.
the kindergarten
A professional organization for teachers founded in 1857 is the ________.
National Education Association
In progressive schools, teachers ________.
functioned as guides rather than taskmasters
An emphasis on using a prescribed set of materials and physical exercises to develop students’ knowledge and skills is ________.
the Montessori Method
Education of immigrants and minorities often included all of the following except ________.
attempts by educators to teach about all cultures
During the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the diversity of America’s school population increased dramatically. The goal of immigrant education at this time was ________.
promotion of the use of non-English languages in public schools
A landmark report on Native-American education issued in 1928 proposed ________.
that school curricula be revised to reflect tribal cultures
The three general patterns of trends in American education during the twentieth century include all of the following except ________.
standardization
The aims of education based on moral didacticism and pragmatism, relating to child development and child welfare, and emphasizing citizenship in a democracy are patterns of trends in ________.
Americanization
The National Defense Education Act of 1958 sponsored all of the following except ________.
research and innovation in social studies
The legislation passed in 1958 that provides funding for research and development in science, mathematics, modern foreign languages, and guidance is the ________.
National Defense Education Act
In 1954, the Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka decision provided ________.
rejection of the “separate but equal” doctrine
All of the following characterize American education in the 1960s except ________.
an assertive swing toward more perennialistic curricula
Team teaching, individualized instruction, the integrated-day concept, flexible scheduling, and nongraded schools were innovations of the ________.
1960s
The education act passed in 1965 that allocated funds based on the number of poor children in school districts is called the ________.
Elementary and Secondary Education Act
“No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation, be denied benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance” describes ________.
Title IX of the Education Amendments Act
The law established to provide children with disabilities equal access to educational opportunities is ________.
Public Law 94-142
Which of the following represents an educational reform that grew out of the turbulence of the 1960s and 1970s?
More teachers received advanced training
The education reforms that grew out of the student protests of the 1960s and 1970s led to many positive changes, but also tended to alienate all of the following groups except ________.
progressive educators
The 1983 publication generally recognized as beginning the “great debate” on how to improve schools in America was ________.
A Nation at Risk
Responses to the “great debate” of the 1980s included all of the following except ________.
mandatory all-day preschool for all students
The arena of educational politics refers to how people use all of the following except ________.
emotion
Concerning political interest groups, professional teachers recognize that ________.
they have much to gain from becoming politically involved
According to the text, all of the following are groups that have a keen concern for shaping educational policies except ________.
textbook publishers
Since the 1939-1940, the number of school districts in the United States has ________.
decreased steadily
The responsibility for maintaining schools is primarily a function of the ________.
states
Which of the following statements is true about the organizational structure of schools?
The larger the district, the more office administrators and support personnel are needed.
All of the following are true of the New York City school system except ________.
only the Los Angeles Unified School system is larger
All of the following would be a function of the school board except ________.
evaluating probationary teachers
A national survey of the characteristics of school board members revealed all of the following except ________.
most members were poorer than the general population
Critics of school boards point out that school boards are best described as agencies that ________.
are reluctant to communicate a vision of educational excellence
Ensuring that schools operate in accordance with federal and state guidelines is the responsibility of the ________.
superintendent
All of the following statements are true about the relationship between school boards and superintendents except ________.
the relationship between the board and the superintendent is dependent upon the existing leadership style
One characteristic of successful schools is ________.
close working relationship with parents
Shared governance, administrative decentralization, teacher empowerment, professionalization, bottom-up policy-making, school based planning, and school-based management are all examples of ________.
school restructuring
In a recent synthesis of research on school restructuring, all of the following structural conditions were found to enhance a school’s “professional community” and increase students’ learning except ________.
large schools in which communications and trust are less important to students’ lives
According to the text, which of the following statements best describes the school-based management experiences of the City of Chicago Public Schools?
The overall effectiveness of this effort has been mixed.
An approach to school improvement in which teachers, principals, students, parents, and community members manage individual schools and share in the decision-making process is known as ________.
school-based management
Most school-based management (SBM) programs have all of the following components except ________.
final decisions of major issues rest with the local school board
All of the following are powers of the states to maintain and support schools except ________.
the right to fire teachers within local bargaining units
The body that determines how taxes will be used to support schools, what will or will not be taught, and the length of the school day and year is the ________.
state legislature
As a result of the Kentucky Education Reform Act (KERA), ________.
teachers’ salaries and student/teacher ratios improved compared to national averages
In one of the nation’s most dramatic education reform efforts, the Kentucky Education Reform Act (KERA) required each of the state’s schools to form a school-based management council to set policy in each of the following areas except ________.
teachers’ salaries
Should a dispute arise within a state regarding a law related to education, the body charged with the power to decide on the reasonableness of the law is the ________.
state legislature
The governor has the power to do all of the following except ________.
determine the cap on teacher salaries
The highest educational agency in a state is the ________.
state board of education
Within a state, the body usually charged with managing state monies appropriated for education is the ________.
state board of education
All of the following are advisory functions performed by state boards of education except ________.
selecting state department of education personnel
Within a state, the body usually charged with the day-to-day implementation of educational policies is the ________.
state department of education
All of the following are responsibilities of the state department of education except ________.
passing legislation related to education
In most states, the head of the state board of education is the ________.
chief state school officer
All of the following are responsibilities of the chief state school officer except ________.
supervising superintendents throughout the state
The role of the regional educational service agencies is to provide assistance directly to districts and includes all of the following except ________.
contract negotiations
An intermediate or regional unit may provide all of the following services except ________.
site-based administrative services
According to the text, all of the following are accurate descriptions of regional educational service agencies except ________.
nearly all states have some form of intermediate or regional educational service agency
The federal government initiative known as the Lanham Act provided funding for all of the following except ________.
postsecondary schooling for workers
The executive, legislative, and judicial branches of the federal government influence education in all of the following ways except ________.
providing funding to schools when they fail to adopt federally endorsed programs, methods, or curriculum
An influential and extensive federal education program signed into law by President Roosevelt in 1944 is the ________.
G. I. Bill of Rights
During President Clinton’s term of office (1992-2000), the federal government ________.
assumed a more active role in ensuring equal educational opportunity
Funding for schools has often been offset by all of the following except ________.
rising student dropout rates
By 2008, the total expenditure for public elementary and secondary schools in the United States was approximately ________.
$596 billion
The majority of funding for schools is provided by the ________.
states
All of the following statements concerning the financing of education in the 50 states are generally correct except ________.
the states have similar regulations for funding schools
At the local level, most funding for schools comes from ________.
property taxes
At the state level, most funding for schools comes from ________.
sales taxes and income taxes
Supplemental programs to help meet the needs of special school populations are called ________.
entitlements
A federal program designed to provide preschool experiences to poor children is ________.
Head Start
Programs in which states set the same per-pupil expenditure level for all schools and districts are called ________.
full-funding programs
Allocating funds according to legitimate educational needs such as low-income students or students with limited English proficiency is called ________.
vertical equity
State-appropriated funds to cover the costs of educating students with special needs are known as ________.
categorical aid
According to the 2007 Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup Poll, public attitudes toward school choice programs that would allow parents to choose a private school to attend at public expense revealed ________.
a significant majority in opposition
An approach whereby parents are given money by the state to enroll their children in the school of their choice is called a(n) ________.
voucher system
Over the past decade, corporate contributions to education have ________.
significantly increased
Which of the following is considered to be one of the most controversial educational issues of the twenty-first century in the United States?
for-profit schools
Advantages of for-profit schools that proponents advocate include each of the following except ________.
better public relations
Under the provisions of educational laws, teachers are most likely to face professional challenge when ________.
all of the above
One of the following is true about a professional code of ethics for teachers, specifically ________.
at present, the teaching profession does not have a uniform code of ethics
Teachers often find it necessary to take action in situations in which all the facts are not known or for which no single course of action can be called right or wrong. These situations are often referred to as ________.
ethical dilemmas
Behaving ethically as a teacher is determined to be all of the following except ________.
enforcing rules at all costs
All of the following characteristics delineate a “good” ethical decision except ________.
decision comes directly from administration
An important part of a teacher’s response to an ethical dilemma is ________.
identifying possible consequences of one’s actions
Legal rights that concern teachers include all of the following except ________.
philosophical beliefs
Ms. Tamarack was fired from her teaching position because of her political position on such issues as abortion, right to die, and gays and lesbians in the military. This case illustrates ________.
a violation of due process
For a teacher’s certificate to be revoked, the reason must ________.
clearly hinder the teacher’s ability to perform satisfactorily
For initial certification, nearly all states require ________.
applicants to pass a test of basic skills, professional knowledge, and academic subject areas
For a contract between a teacher and a school district to be valid, it must have all of the following elements except ________.
the school board establishes clearly its criteria of employment, emphasizing those elements different from state requirements
Nichie, the fifth grade teacher at Pine Elementary, goes to court to protest the fact that she was assigned by her principal to sponsor the high school chess club. Nichie’s contract made no reference to this assignment. The court is most likely to decide that Nichie ________.
cannot be required to sponsor the chess club
In regard to the assignment of additional duties or responsibilities, it is most accurate to say that ________.
a teacher may be assigned certain responsibilities not outlines in the contract
Doreen, a high school English teacher, filed suit to protest the fact that she was assigned by her principal to sponsor the high school newspaper and her contract made no reference to that assignment. The court is most likely to decide that Doreen ________.
must accept the assignment her principal has given her
A policy that provides teachers with job security is known as ________.
tenure
According to the tenure laws, a teacher may be dismissed for ________.
using obscene, racist language in the presence of students
To dismiss a teacher, a district must follow a step-by-step process known as ________.
due process
All of the following are procedures that most states adhere to in dismissing a teacher except ________.
students must be used as witnesses to demonstrate the effect of the behavior on teaching ability
Mr. Green is a tenured faculty member and is well respected by students. After a recent divorce, he moved in with Ms. Flowers, the secretary to the superintendent. At the end of the year, Mr. Green was notified that he was being dismissed because of immoral conduct; that is, living with a woman he was not married to. In order for this action to be supported by the court, it would have to be demonstrated that ________.
Mr. Green’s lifestyle had a negative effect on his teaching
One of Mr. Brouse’s seventh-grade students broke his arm while on a field trip to the zoo. The boy’s parents claimed that Mr. Brouse was negligent and took the matter to court. In regard to a case such as this, the court would ________.
try to determine whether Mr. Brouse exercised reasonable care
The process through which school boards negotiate contracts with teacher organizations is known as ________.
collective bargaining
Some authorities suggest that academic freedom is a less powerful legal defense than it was in the past. When basing a defense on academic freedom, one of the following must be true if the defendant expects to prevail, namely ________.
it must be demonstrated conclusively that the teacher did not defy legitimate state and local curriculum directives
Teachers are afforded the greatest protection under the concept of academic freedom if ________.
the controversial content is related to legitimate educational objectives
Which of the following statements best describes application of the principle of “academic freedom”?
The U.S. District Court (Murray v. Pittsburgh Board of Public Education, 1996) ruled that a teacher could not claim academic freedom in using a teaching methodology rejected by the school board.
In regard to the rights of student teachers, it is most accurate to say that they ________.
may have legal rights depending on the state
Depending on the statutes in a particular state, a student teacher may act as a substitute teacher under all of the following conditions except ________.
when the student teacher is paid at professional rates
All of the following represent good advice for student teachers except ________.
the best time to learn emergency procedures is when an emergency occurs
Which of the following is not a legal responsibility of a teacher?
student behavior to and from school
A civil wrong that “arises out of a breach of duty that is imposed by law” is known as ________.
a tort
The branch of law concerned with compensating an individual who suffers losses resulting from another’s negligence is known as ________.
tort liability law
In tort law, harm inflicted on the injured party may be the result of all of the following except ________.
prudent behavior by a reasonable person
According to tort liability law, an individual who is negligent and at fault in the exercise of his or her legal duty may ________.
be required to pay monetary damages
Which of the following is not true?
A teacher’s liability extends to any and all injuries that students might suffer.
The parents of Britany are seeking $500,000 from the local school district because Britany graduated from high school with a fourth-grade reading level. This type of lawsuit is called ________.
an educational malpractice suit
When a court considers a case involving tort liability, all of the following must be present except ________.
appropriate written documentation of the events that resulted in litigation
Most of the court cases involving tort liability of teachers focus on all of the following except ________.
inadequate preservice preparation
Behavioral indicators of child abuse and neglect among students include all of the following except ________.
refusal to cooperate
In regard to reporting child abuse, teachers are ________.
required by law to report any suspected child abuse
All of the following are physical indicators of physical abuse except ________.
lags in physical development
________ is not an indicator of sexual abuse.
frequent upper respiratory infections
________ may be a physical indicator of emotional maltreatment.
Failure to thrive, or lags in physical development.
Teachers may use multiple copies of copyrighted material if that use meets the tests of ________.
brevity, spontaneity, and cumulative effect
In 1976, Congress revised the Copyright Act by adding the doctrine of ________.
fair use
When material is published without restrictions on the Internet, teachers may assume that the author ________.
does not expect to be paid for using the work
A “site license” is a commercial software agreement that permits installation on ________.
any and all computers owned by the institution specified in the license
When teachers view a home page on the Internet they are viewing a published copy of an original document and should remember that ________.
a fair use doctrine applies
Addressing computer software, the Copyright Act was amended in 1980 to state that teachers ________.
may make one backup copy of a software program
When establishing home pages on the Internet, teachers should be careful not to include information that would identify ________.
children in the class
Among the rights guaranteed by the First Amendment is freedom ________.
of speech
Prior to 1988, school officials could censor student literature before publication only if it was ________.
necessary to maintain order in the school
Courts have suggested that schools may have dress codes if they are ________.
all of the above
To protect themselves from legal challenges brought on by searches, teachers and other school authorities should do all of the following except ________.
waive the requirement of a search warrant when police are in the school
Short-term school suspension is usually defined as ________.
10 days or less
All of the following criteria are generally adhered to in expulsion cases except ________.
the right to a hearing by a jury
A superintendent unknowingly violates the constitutionally guaranteed right to due process of a student whom she expels for violating the rule against using alcoholic beverages at a school function. The superintendent ________.
could be held liable for expelling the student
Ms. Lochwood, a high school principal, suspects that a student has a gun in his locker. According to law, Ms. Lochwood ________.
can search the student’s locker without a search warrant
Under the provisions of the Family Education Rights and Privacy Act, the penalty for giving out personally identifiable information without prior written consent is ________.
loss of federal funds
According to the Buckley Amendment, parents do not have a right to examine ________.
gradebooks that belong to their children’s teacher
Schools are legally bound to avoid discriminating against students on the basis of all of the following except ________.
sexual preference
In rulings on HIV/AIDS-related cases, the courts have stated that ________.
students with AIDS pose no significant risk of spreading the disease
There is considerable evidence to suggest that corporal punishment is ________.
ineffective in changing behavior of students
The Supreme Court in Davis v. Monroe County Board of Education ruled that school districts can be sued under Title IX in cases involving student-on-student sexual harassment if the district ________.
acts with deliberate indifference
According to a survey by the American Association of University Women, the percentage of teenagers in school affected by sexual harassment is ________.
80%
A 1996 verdict by a U.S. district court awarding almost $1 million to a gay student was the first time a federal jury found ________.
school officials responsible for anti-gay harassment committed by students
The separation of church and state is addressed in the ________.
First Amendment
In the landmark case Engel v. Vitale, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that recitation of a prayer in the presence of a teacher at the beginning of each school day was ________.
unconstitutional
All of the following are true about home schooling except ________.
all states require regulation of home schooling
All of the following are issues motivating the “new breed” of home schoolers except ________.
strict religious doctrine
________ is the way of life common to a group of people consisting of their values, attitudes, and beliefs.
Culture
A(n) ________ is made up of individuals within a larger culture who share a self-defined racial or cultural identity and a set of beliefs, attitudes, and values.
ethnic group
Possible elements that might shape a person’s ________ include customs, age, racial identity, exceptionalities, language, gender, sexual orientation, income level, beliefs, values, and customs.
cultural identity
________ is not a purpose of bilingual education.
Eliminating the use of home language
________ students have limited ability to understand, read, or speak English, and they have a first language other than English.
Limited English Proficient
Using two languages as the medium of instruction is an example of ________.
bilingual eduation
A report states that over ________ languages are spoken by LEP students with approximately 75 percent claiming ________ as their first language.
400; Spanish
Students’ language patterns became a topic of national debate in late 1996 when ________.
the Oakland, California, school district recognized “ebonics” as a primary language of some children
Self-expression, task orientation, self-determination, and self-esteem are characteristics of ________ cultures.
individualistic
According to the textbook, students at Indiana University can choose to student teach in all of the following settings except ________.
in an inner-city school
________ is a set of beliefs based on the importance of seeing the world from different cultural frames of reference and on recognizing and valuing the rich array of cultures within our nation and global community.
Multiculturalism
Ms. Bird has developed “cultural immersion” experiences within several cultures to develop an increased understanding and appreciation for others. This is an example of ________.
multiculturalism
________ refers to a shared feeling of common identity, based on a “common ancestry, culture, history, tradition, and a sense of peoplehood.”
Ethnicity
________ is a subjective concept that is used to distinguish among human beings on the basis of biological traits.
Race
It is estimated that the number of multiracial Americans is increasing at ________ times the rate of the white population.
10
Which of the following statements is true?
Every person belongs to at least one ethnic group.
Any group numbering less than half of the total population is called a(n) ________.
minority
Minorities are ________ among students who have not mastered minimum competencies in the “basics.”
disproportionately represented
According to research, ________ contributes most strongly to students’ achievement in school.
socioeconomic status
The term that describes uneven education progress between White and Hispanic, Black, and American Indian/Alaska Native is called the ________.
achievement gap
According to the National Center for Education Statistics, the relationship among minority group membership, social class, and academic achievement shows ________.
as socioeconomic status increases, academic achievement increases
Ethnic and racial minorities have traditionally ________ power in the public life of the United States.
lacked
“Individual racism” is the prejudiced belief that ________.
one’s ethnic or racial group is superior to others
________ is the process of attributing behavioral characteristics to all members of a group.
Stereotyping
The federal poverty level is approximately ________ a year for a family of four.
$22,000
A(n) ________ is passed on from generation to generation because of the increasing difficulty for children of the poor to receive adequate education and job training.
culture of poverty
A 1999 report on “resegregation” reported that ________ attend the most severely segregated schools.
Latinos
The Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka decision in 1954 declared that ________.
segregated schools were inherently unequal
Research indicates that teaching strategies that emphasize ________ often result in higher achievement among African-American and Mexican-American students.
cooperation
Ms. Delayne has recently been hired to teach in a Afrocentric school. What would the focus of her school be?
history and culture for African-American students
By 2050, the Latino population in the United States is expected to be approximately ________ percent, or more than 100 million.
25
Black Academies have sprung up across the country in recent years, many supported by the growing number of African Americans who practice ________.
Islam
The dropout rate among all migrant workers is 90 percent, and ________ percent leave school before finishing the ninth grade.
50
The three largest Asian groups are ________, ________, and ________.
Chinese; Filipinos; Japanese
Kim is an Indochinese-American student in a California high school. She is doing well academically but her parents worry about the cultural conflicts that she is experiencing. All of the following may be cultural conflicts for Kim except ________.
the focus on academic performance in society
According to the text, most Native Americans consider a person with ________ tribal heritage to be a Native American.
25%
According to Bennett (2006), native nations hosting Native Americans have been recognized as independent, self-governing territories since the ________.
1930s
Native-American children raised in traditional settings generally do all of the following except ________.
approach new tasks by asking questions
Frank has two Native-American students in his classroom. According to the text, which of the following classroom strategies may be difficult for Native-American children because of the differences in cultures?
all of the above
Marco teaches in a secondary school where subjects are taught in both Spanish and English. This curriculum is called ________.
bilingual education
Jose is encouraged to be able to function effectively in two or more linguistic and cultural groups. The term used to describe this is ________.
biculturalism
Programs designed to meet the learning needs of students whose first language is not English by providing instruction in two languages are called ________.
bilingual education
All of the following are arguments in favor of bilingual programs except ________.
the cost of bilingual education is low, therefore the time spent is beneficial
All of the following are arguments opposed to bilingual programs except ________.
the research is clear that bilingual programs are not effective.
________ is committed to the goal of providing all students, regardless of socioeconomic status, gender, sexual orientation, or ethnic, racial, or cultural backgrounds, with equal opportunities to learn in school.
Multicultural Education
According to James Banks, multicultural education consists of all of the following except ________.
a series of events
________ is not a dimension of multicultural education.
Immersion Programs
The multicultural curriculum should enable students to do all of the following except ________.
speak fluently in at least one second language
Sam is working to make his curriculum multicultural. According to Banks, he should focus on ________.
a range of groups that differ in their characteristics, experiences, and values
According to James Banks, teachers who create a curriculum that is truly multicultural ________.
understand that multicultural education is a way of viewing reality and a way of thinking
To create classrooms that are truly multicultural, teachers must select instructional materials that are all of the following except ________.
written in several different languages
Which of the following is not a guideline for selecting books for a multicultural classroom?
Selections should be politically correct.
Some guidelines for selecting multicultural instructional and technological materials were set forth to offset materials that might be considered all of the following except ________.
humorous in nature
According to Oakes, and Lipton, gender should be a dimension of ________.
multicultural education
________ conveys to students certain expectations about the way boys and girls are “supposed” to act.
Sex Role Socialization
Sex role socialization conveys to students all of the following expectations except ________.
girls are to be assertive
The guarantee of equal educational opportunity for women was a result of ________.
Title IX
Title IX has had the greatest impact in ________.
athletics
The expanded math, science, and technology programs for females is an example of the passage of the ________.
Women’s Educational Equity Act
Ms. Williams wants to create a gender-fair classroom whereby the girls in her third-grade class have the same educational opportunities and experiences as the boys. According to the general guidelines, Ms. Williams should do all of the following except ________.
provide special tutoring for the girls
AAUW’s (2008) Where the Girls Are: The Facts About Gender Equity in Education found that over the past 35 years that ________, not ________, is (are) most closely associated with academic success.
family income; gender
A study of lesbian and gay youth reported that ________ percent of participants believed that their teachers had negative attitudes about homosexuality.
80
Subtle favoritism or discrimination on the basis of gender is called ________.
gender bias
A strategy for creating a gender-fair classroom is ________.
encourage more competition between boys and girls
The National Institute of Mental Health reported in 1999 that the third leading cause of death among youths ages 15 to 24 is ________.
suicide