EDUC 300

William Bagley
popularized the term essentialism in the 1930’s and essentialism has been a dominant influence in american education since ww2.
Mary Mcleod Bethune
committed to meeting the critical need of providing education to the newly freed african americans, demonstrated commitment and effort in establishing a black college against overwhelming odds and by rising from poverty to become a national voice for african americans.
George Counts
student of john dewey, published his classic book dare the schools build a new social order, in which he outlined a more ambitious and clearly more radical, approach to education. proposed the schools focus on reforming society, an idea that caught the imagination and sparked the ideals of educators both in this country and abroad.
Kenneth Clark
First african american to receive a doctorate in psychology from columbia university. black doll study to show how racism was defined as good or bad people, used in the brown v. board of education topeka case citing the the “doll” study was deciding that separate with inherently unequal.
Prudence Crandall
allowed black girls into her school, later the school was shut down because the townspeople were afraid of interracial marriages, and then later she wrote in the liberator reopening her school with now 15 black girls as students. had interest in education, racial equality, and women’s rights.
Charles Eliot
harvard’s longest president. observed that in the learning of education there was a disconnect between spiritual and academic learning. his views included a commitment to public service, specialized training, and the capacity to change and adapt.
Paulo Freire
committed himself to the education of the poor and politically oppressed. moved literacy from an educational tool to a political instrument. denounced teacher-centered classrooms, believed that instructor domination denied the legitimacy of student experiences and treated students as secondary objects in the learning process. pedagogy of the oppressed, illustrated how education could transform society.
Emma Hart Willard
wrote and disseminated her views on opening higher education women and won favorable responses. she opened the troy female seminary, devoted to preparing professional teachers, thus providing a teacher education programs years before the first normal school was founded.
Maria Montessori
no follower of tradition, established a children’s school called the asa dei bambini, designed to provide and education for disadvantaged children from the slums of rome. observed that children have an inner need to work at tasks that interest them.
Horace Mann
profiled for establishing free public schools and expanding the opportunities of poor as well as wealthy americans, and for his vision of the central role of education in improving the quality of american life.
Rev. Samuel Hall
established a normal school that established model standards in concord, vermont. his modest normal school marked the beginning of teacher education in america.
Maxine Green
believed that teachers themselves must be deeply involved in their own learning and questioning. asserts that education should move teachers and students to “wide awakeness” the ability to discover their own truths.
Sylvia Ashton-Warner
teaching strategies with emphasis on child-centered learning and creativity in the classroom, stand in opposition to early experience. “key vocabulary” system for teaching reading to young children.
learning styles
diverse ways of learning, comprehending, and using information
cognitive domain
individuals have different ways of perceiving, organizing, retaining, and using information
affective domain
includes attitudes, values, and emotions, factors that influence curiosity, the ability to tolerate and overcome frustration, and the willingness to take risks
locus of control
some learners attribute success or failure to external (the teacher didn’t review the material well) or internal (my score was high because i made some lucky guesses) factors
physiology
a student who is hungry and tired will not learn as effectively as a well-nourished and rested child.
gender similarities hypothesis
rather than demonstrating separate learning styles and needs, males and females are actually more alike than different.
neuroplasticity
the ability of our brain to change itself and create new neural pathways
howard gardner
broadened the concept to define intelligence as “the capacity to solve problems or to fashion products that are valued in one or more cultural settings”
multiple intelligences
captures the diverse nature of human capability
gardener’s eight intelligences
1. logical-mathematical
2. linguistic
3. bodily kinesthetic
4. musical
5. spatial
6. interpersonal
7. intrapersonal
8. naturalist
portfolio
approach is an example of a more comprehensive assessment, which includes student artifacts (papers, projects, dads, mp3, recordings, photo exhibits) that offer tangible examples of student learning
Five Minds of the Future, Gardner
suggests new directions for schools; pointing that memorizing and cramming for standardized testing is not effective
ethical mind
not cheating, and being honest with school work and lifestyles that do not focus on personal wealth
respectful mind
honoring people with different ideas, cultures, and belief systems
disciplined mind
masters a field of study, like literature, history, art, science, math, or even a craft
synthesizing mind
we need to develop the ability to sort through this information, to figure out what is important and how best we can use the data
creating mind
discovers new ways of looking at the world, offering new insights and a fresh way of thinking
emotional intelligence quotient
offers another perspective of learning
daniel goleman
wrote emotional intelligence, argues that when it comes to predicting success in life, emotional quotient may be a better predictor than iq
exceptional learners
learning disabilities, developmental/intellectual disabilities, emotional disturbances or behavior disorders, hearing impairments, communication disorders, visual impairments, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder, other health and physical impairments, and severe and multiple disabilities
giftedness
five elements of giftedness: artistic and creative talents intellectual and academic abilities, and leadership skills
advanced placement
program that offers college-level courses for high-achieveing high schoolers and the international baccalaureate program.
accelerate programs
allow gifted students to skip grades or receive college credit early
special education
educational rights of these children have been mandated by courts of law and are being put into practice in classrooms across the nation.
individuals with disabilities education act
not only provides a more sensitive description of the act’s purpose but also extends coverage to all disabled learners between the ages of 3 and 21, including individuals with autism and traumatic brain injuries.
zero reject
asserts that no child with disabilities may be denied a free, appropriate public education
appropriate education
implies that these children have the right to an education involving the accurate diagnosis of individual needs, as well as responsive programs keyed to those needs.
nondiscriminatory education
based on the 5th and 14th amendment of the us constitution, mandates that children with disabilities be fairly assessed so that they can be protected from inappropriate classification and tracking.
least-restrictive environment
protects children with disabilities from being inappropriately segregated from their age-group peers
mainstreaming
placing special needs students in regular classroom settings for at least part of the day
inclusion
reflects an even stronger commitment to educate each student in a least-restrictive environment to the maximum degree possible
procedural due process
upholds the right of those with disabilities to a protest a school’s decision about their education
individualized education program
requires that a “free appropriate public education” be defined on an individual basis
learning disabilities
constitutes the largest group of students with special needs
adaptive technology
can provide a real boost for students in and beyond the classroom. ex: wheelchairs, voice commands
race
a group of individuals sharing a common socially determined category often related to genetic attributes
ethnicity
shared common cultural traits such as language, religion, and dress.
culture
set of learned beliefs, values, symbols, and behaviors, a way of life shared by members of a society
multiracial
claiming ancestors from two or more races
expectation theory
believe that some children do poorly because their teachers do not expect much of kids from certain racial and ethnic groups
deficit theory
certains students do poorly in school because of their cultural, social, or linguistic background
cultural difference theory
asserts that academic problems can be overcome if educators study and mediate the cultural gap separating school and home
assimilation (enculturation)
groups incorporated into the mainstream culture
cultural pluralism
recognition that some groups, voluntarily or involuntarily,have maintained their culture and their language
bilingual education
use of two languages for instruction
language submersion
students either learned to speak english as they sat in class or they failed in school
lau v. nichols
chinese students from the san francisco area who were failing their courses because they could not understand english
english language learners
enrolled in public elementary and secondary schools, non-english-speaking
transitional approach
use the native language as a bridge to english language instruction
maintenance or developmental approach
designed to help children develop academic skills in both their native language and english
dual-language
instruction occurs in both languages to create a truly bilingual student
immersion
instruction is exclusively in english
english as a second language
supplements immersion programs by providing special pull-out classes for additional instruction in reading and writing english
english-only movement
those who support this movement feel that english is unifying national bond that preserves our common culture
multicultural education
expanding the curriculum to reflect america’s diversity, using teaching strategies that are responsive to different learning styles, supporting the multicultural competence of teachers so they are comfortable and knowledgable working with students and families of different cultures, and a commitment to social justic
james bank
focuses specifically on developing a multicultural curriculum. believes that one way to achieve greater understanding and more positive attitudes toward different groups is to integrate and broaden the curriculum to make it more inclusive and action oriented
bank curriculum levels
1. the contributions approach, focuses on heroes holidays, and discrete cultural elements
2. the additive approach, content, concepts, themes, and perspectives are added to the curriculum without changing its structure
3. the transformation approach, structure of the curriculum is changed to enable students to view concepts, issues, events, and themes from the perspectives of diverse ethnic and cultural groups
4. the social action approach, students make decisions on important social issues and take actions to help solve them
culturally responsive teaching
focuses on the learning strengths of students and mediates the frequent mismatch between home and school cultures
stereotypes
absolute beliefs that all members of a group have a fixed set of characteristics
stereotype threat
a measure of how social context, such as self-image, trust in others, and a sense of belonging, can influence academic performance
generalizations
recognize that there are trends over large numbers of people
philip w. jackson
suggests that whereas teachers are typically very busy, students are often caught in patterns of delay that force them to do nothing
john goodlad
found a fair degree of consistency in how time is spent in different activities as children go through the grades
gatekeeping
teachers must determine who will talk, when and for how long, as well as the basic direction of the communication
tracking
students with different abilities are assigned to different tracks of courses and programs.
jeannie oakes
she found that race more than ability determined which students are placed in which tracks: black, hispanic, and native american students with similar test scores as their white peers are three times more likely to be enrolled in low-track classes
detrack
eliminate tracking practice from the nation’s schools
ability grouping
sorts students based on capability, but the groupings may well vary by subject
sociograms
provide insights into the social life of a class
alternative families
refers to family lifestyles other than a married able and female living with their children, these consist of a single parent with children; biological parents who are not married..
latchkey
coined to describe children who carry a key on a cord or chain around their necks to unlock their home door
mckinney-vento homeless assistance act
providing the homeless with emergency food services, adult literacy programs, access to schooling, job training, and other assistance
dame schools
when women would convert their homes into schools and taught reading, writing, and computation
in loco-parentis
many colonies required that masters teach reading and writing as well as vocational skills, served in place of the child’s parents
old deluder satan law
the puritan’s attempt to thwart satans trickery with scripture reading citizens
latin grammar school
boys who could afford to pay for their education
thomas jefferson
wanted go beyond educating a small elite class or providing only religious instruction
benjamin franklin
penned proposals relating to the youth of pennsylvania suggesting a new kind of secondary school to replace the latin grammar school with the academy
common school (elementary school)
open to all students, instilling common and humane moral values could reduce such social disharmony
normal schools
school devoted to preparing teachers in pedagogy- the best ways to teach children
gendered career
where a specific was dominantly one specific gender
english classical school
the site of the first free secondary school established in boston in 1821
kalamazoo michigan case
the courts ruled that taxes could be used to support secondary schools
progressive education
broadened the school program to include health concerns, family and community life issues, and a concern for vocational educational
national defense education act
in 1958 to enhance the security of the nation and to develop the mental resources and technical skills of its young men and women
tenth amendment
any area not specifically stated in the constitution as a federal responsibility is automatically assigned to the states
land ordinance act and northwest ordinance
required townships in the newly settled territories bounded by ohio and mississippi rivers and the great lakes to reserve a section of land for educational purposes
plessy v ferguson
segregation became a legally sanctioned part of the american way of life with black people allowed in all white schools
separate but equal
initially legalized separate railway passenger cars for black and white americans and was also used to justify a legally segregated school systems, which in many states lasted for more than half a century
de jure segregation
segregation by law or by official action
de facto (unofficial) segregation
occurred as the result of segregated residential patterns, patterns that were often prompted by discriminatory real estate practices
brown v. board of education of topeka
the court ruled unanimously that in the field of public education the doctrine of separate but equal has no place
second-generation segregation
in the same school building, black students and white students found themselves separated by tracking, treated differently by teachers and administrators, and even gravitating to different areas of the school