Ed Psy Ch.14

stimulated recall
videotaping teachers and then asking them to view the tapes and report what the were thinking about as they tauht and what influenced their decisions while teaching
design experiments
use the relationships identified bt teaching and learning as the basis for developing teaching approachs and testing these approaches
three teacher characteristics from some of the earliest research on effective teaching based on personal qualities
clarity,warmth, and knowledge
recent research emphasizes
knowledge
Rosenshine and Furst reviewed 50 studies of teachin and concluded that
clarity was he most promising teacher behavior for future research on effective teaching; teachers who do this tend to have students who learn more and rate their teachers more positively
the clearer and less vague the teacher’s explanations and instructons, the
more the students learn
some studies have found that ratings of teachers’ enthusiasm for their subject are correlated with
student achievement gains, whereas warmth, friendliness and understanding seem to be the teacher traits most strongly associated with students’ liking the teacher and the class in general
These are CORRELATED studies, the results donttell us that teacher enthusiasm causes studet learning or that warmth causes positive attitudes, only that the two variables tend to
occur together
two possible connections are when teachers are enthusiastic they
1) capture and hold student attention
2) model engagement and interest in learning

student attention, interest, and engagement lead t learning

it’s easier to be an enthusiastic teacher when your students are
learning
knowledge is the defining characteristic of
expertise
expert teachers
experienced, effective teachers who have developed solutions for classroom problems. their knowledge of teaching process and content is extensive and well organized ; wrong answersare part of a rich system of knowledge that could include how to recognize several types of wrong answers, the isundestanding or lack of info behind each kind of mistake, best way to rteach and correct, material that work in past,several ways to test if reteaching is successful
pedagogical content knowledge
teacher knowledge that combines mastery of Academic Content with knowing How to Teach the content and how to match instruction to Student Differences (like reteaching in previus with wrong answers)
reflective
thoughtful and inventive. reflective teachers think back over situations to analyze what they did and why and to consider how they might improve learning for their students; clear goals and take individual differences into account
Shulmn’s 7 areas of professional knowledge
1) academic subjects they teach- content knowledge is deep and interconnected
2) general teaching strats apply in all subjects
3) curriculum materils and programs appropriate for their subject andgrade level
4) subject-specific knowledge for teaching: special ways of teaching certain students and particular concepts
5) characterisitics and cultural backgrounds of learners
6) settings in which students learn- pairs, small groups, team, classes, schools, and the community
7) goals and purposes of teaching
to be an expert doesn’t take a course, but
time and experience ; studying ed py has added to professional knowledge bc at heart of ed psy is a concern with learning wherever it occurs
Hill, Rowan, and Ball tested 1st and 3rd grade teachers’ specific knowledge on math concepts that they actually teach and understanding of how to teach those concepts, they found that teachers with greater
content and pedagogical content knowledge!! had students who learned more math
hs students appear to lear m math from teachers with degrees or significant coursework in math
true
studies in German hs have found that math teachers with more pedagogical content knowledge have students who are more
cognitively engaged and more supported in learning, and this higher quality instruction predicts higher student math achievement
teachers knowledge of acts and cnepts in other subjects measured by test scores and college grades, the relationship to
student learning is UNCLEAR and may be indiret
Darling-Hammond and Youngs work that the quality of teacher-measured by whether the tteachers were fully certified and have major in teaching field- is related to
student performance; when we look at scores on teacher certification tests, there is a modest POSITIVE relationship bt teachers’ scores and students achievement- the strongest evidence for this relationship is again in mathematics
indirect effects are that teachers who know more may make
clearer presentations and recognize student difficulties more easily; they are ready for any student questions and don’t have to be evasive or vague in their answers
thus, knowledge is necessary for effective teaching bc being more knowledgeable helps teachers be
clearer, more organized, and more responsive to student questions
program of large-scale, longitudinal research y Pianta has identified 3 aspects of classroom climate that are related to development and learning of prek and elem school students
these three dimensions are consistent with characteristcs of teachers identified in earlier research on teaching – cover affective, behavioral, and cognitive dimensions
affective dimension
teacher emotional support, similar to teacher warmth and enthusiasm identified in early research
cognitive dimension
instructional support, which includes concept development (activities and discussions that promote student higher-order thinking) and quality feedback that is specific ad focused on learning process ; concept development and quality feedback may be easier for teachrs with greater knowledge forteachng
classroom organization (behavioral concerns)
classroom and lesson management, with clear activities and routines that make more time fo student learning and are really engaging – similar to the teacher characteristics of clarity and organization
see chart on page
511
the first step in teaching
planning
first, planning influences what students
will learn, because planning transfms the available time and curriculum materials into activities assignments,and tasks for students – TIME IS THE ESSENCE PLANNING
planning done at the beginning of the year is particularly important bc
many routines and patterns, like time allocation, are established early
so a Little planning does go a long way in terms of what will be taught and what will be learned
true
second, teachers engaged in several levels of planning
by year, term, unit, week and day – all levels must be coordinated; hav to do this to accomplish year’s plan
for experienced techers,unit planning seems to be most impotant level, followed by weekly and daily planning. as you gain experience in teaching, it will be easier to
coordinate these levels of planning and incorporate the state and distrct curriculum standards as well
third, plans reduce but don’t eliminate uncertainty in teaching
true; planning must allow flexibility
evidence when teachers “overplan” – fill every minute and stick to the plan no matter what- their student do not learn as much as students who’s teachers ae flexible
true; so Plans are not made to be broken – but sometimes they need tobe bent a bit
to plan creatively and flexibly, teachers need to have wideranging knowledge about students, their interests, and the abilities; the subjects being taught; alternatie ways to teach and assess understanding; how to apply and adapt materials and texts; and how to pull all this knowedge together in meaningful activities
true ; plans of beginng teacher sometimes don’t work bc they lack knowledge about the students or the subject- they can’t estimate how long it will take students to complete an activity or stumble when asked for an explanation or diff example
in planning, you can do it yourself, but
Collaboration is better ; working with other teachers and sharing ideas is one of best experiences in teaching
collaboratve planning used in Japan called kenshu or “mastery thru study” is one reason why
Japanese students do so well on international tests ; this process involves a small group of teachers developing a lesson and then videotaping ne of the group members teaching the lesson and then all members review the tape, analyze student responses, and improve the lesson further and then other teachers try it with revisions; at end of yr all study groups may publish the results
lesson study
in US, as a group, teachers develop, test, improve, and retest lessons until they are satisfied with the final version
some of adaption of lesson plans comes before you teach and some comes after
true; much of what experienced teachers know about planning comes from looking back – reflecting – on what worked and what didn’t, so DO look back on your plans and grow professionally in the process
collaborative reflection and revising lessons are
major components of the lesson study approach to planning
finally, there is no one model for
effective planning
One size does NOT fit all in planning
true
planning is a creative problem-solving process for experienced teachers; they know how to
complete many lessons and are able to teach segments of lessons effectively; know what to expect and how to proceed, so don’t necessarily continue to follow detailed lesson-planning models they learned during teacher prep programs
planning is more
informal- in their heads; however many experienced teachers thinkit was helpful to learn this detailed system as a foundation
no matter how you plan, you must have a
learning goal in mind
states may turn grand goals like preparing you for college or the workplace into
standards and indicators
two widely adopted technology standards are from the International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE) and the Partnership for 21st Century sills. The ISTE produced the National Education Technology standards for teachers shown below
1) Facilitate and Inspire Student Learning and Creativity
2) Design and Develop Digital-Ag Learning Experiences andAssessmnts
3) Model Digital Age Work and Learning
4) Promote and Model Digital Citizenship and Responsibility
5) Engage in Professional Growth and Leadership
see PGE 514!!!!
Gronlund and brookhart define instructional objectives as intended learning outcomes
true
instructional objectives
clear statement of what students are intended to learn thru instruction
objectives written by ppl withbehavioral viewsfocus on observable and measurable changes in the learner
true
Behavioral objectives use terms like
list, define, add or calculate
cognitive objectives emphasize
thinking and comprehension, so they are more likely to include words like understand, recognize, create or apply
Mager developed a very influential system for writng instructional objectives
true; idea was objective ought to describe what students will be doing when demonstrating their achievement ad show how teachers will know they are doing it- bevhavioral objectives
behavioral objectives
instructional objectives stated in terms of observable behaviors
Mager’s 3 parts of a good objective
describes the student behavior (what student do), lists the condition under which the behavior will occur (how will behavior be recognized or tested), gives the criteria for acceptable performance on test
ex: social studies is given a recent article from political blog (conditions), the student will mark each statement wit an F for fact or an O for opinion (observable student behavior), with 75 percent of statements correctly marked (criteria)
Mager’s system requires a very explicit statement
true; emphasison final behavior and Mager contends that often students can teach themselves if they ar given well-stated objectives
Gronlund and Brookhart is used for cognitive objectives
true
cognitive objectives
instructional objectives stated in term of higher-level thinking operations ; believe objective should be statedfirst in general terms (understand, solve, appreciate) Then, the teachr should clarify by listing a few sample behaviors that would provide evidence that the student has attained theobjective
see table 14.2
page 515; goal is comprehension of a scientific concept. a teacher could never list all the behaviors that might be involved in “comprehension” but stating an initial, general objective along with specific example makes the purpose clear
most recent research on instructional objectives tends to favor approaches similar to Gronlund’s; Popham, a former proponent of very specifi objectives recommends
a small number of intellectually manageable, broad, yet measurable objectives will not only prove helpful to you instructionally but will also help you answer what to assess question
60 yrs ago Bloom and group of experts in educational evaluation set out to improve college and university examinations and developed a
taxonomy of educational objectives ; eventually a handbook describing these was published
taxonomy
classification system,
objectives were divided into three domains:
cognitive, affective, and psychomotor
behaviors from these three domains occur
simultaneously; while students write (psychomotor), they are also remembering or reasoning(cognitive), and are likely to have some emotional response to the task as well (affective)
cognitive domain
Bloom’s taxonomy, memory and reasoning objectives ; considered one of most signitificant educational writings of 20th century
six basic objectives in Bloom’s taxonomy are
knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation
common in education to consider these objectives as hierarchy,
each skill building on thos below, but his isn’t entirely accurate
some subjects like math don’t fit this very well
true
many references to lower-level and higher-level objectives, with knowledge, comprehension and application at lower leveld other categories at higher level
true; this is helpful
taxonomy of objectives can also be helpful in planning assessments bc
diff procedures are appropriate for objectives at the various levels
2001, a group of educational researchers published the first major revision of the cognitive taxonomy and it’s the one we use today
1) remembering
2) understanding
3) applying
4) analyzing
5) Evaluating
6) creating
see page 516!!!
2001revision of bloom’s taxonomy added a new dimension- to recognize that cognitive processes must process something –
you have to remember or undertand or apply some form of knowledge (table 14.3 on 516!!)
6 processes of
remembering, understanding, applying, analyzing, evaluating and creating acting on four kinds of knowledge – factual, conceptual, procedural, and metacognitive
objective that targets analyzing conceptual knowledge is
after reading an historical account of the battle of the Alamo, students will be able to explain the author’s point of view or bias
an objective for evaluating metacognitive knowledge might e
students will reflect on and describe their strats for identifying the biases of the author
see chart on 516!!
true
affective domain
objectives focusing on attitudes and feelings , domain of emotional response; objectives in taxonomy have not been revised from original version
run from least to most committed and at lowest level student would simplypa attention to a certain idea and at highest level, student would adopt an idea or a value andact consistently with that idea; 5 basic objectives
receiving, responding, valuing, organization, characterization by value (see 517!!); these very general like cognitive domain
to write specific learning objectives, you must state what students will actually be doing when they are receiving, responding, valuing and so on
true; ex: for nutrition class at valuing level (showing involvement or commitment) might be stated: after completing the unit on food contents and labeling, at least 50 percent of classs will commit to junk food boycott project by giving up fast food for a month
psychomotor domain
physical ability and coordination objectives ; used to be overlooked by teachrs not involved with physical educatin, but recently they do ; several taxonomies generally move from basic perceptions and reflex actions to skilled, creative movements
Cangelosi provides a useful way to think of these as either
1) voluntary muscle capabilities that require endurance, strength, flexibility, agility or speed
2) ability to perform a specific skill
in psychomotor domain, objectives should be of
interest to a wide range of educators, like those in fine arts, vocational-technical education, and special education; other subjects like chem, phusics, and bio also require specialized movements and well developed hand-eye coordination (lab equipment, mouse on computr, or art materials for new physical skills)
2 psychomotor objectives
four min after completing a one mile run in 8 min or under, heart rate below 120
use a computer mouse effectively to drag and drop files
TenBrink’s instructional objectives criteria
1) student oriented
2) descriptive of an appropriate learning outcome
3)clear and understandable
4) Observable
see page 517!!! and Guidelines on 518 to help you use objectives for every lesson or even for just a few assignments
constructivist approaches
view that emphasizes the active role of the learner in building understanding and making sense of info ; teacher and students Together make decisions about content, activities and approaches
rather than having specific studet behaviors and skills as objectives, the teacher has overarching goals-
big ideas or themes tht guide planning; these goals are understandings or abilities that the teacher returns to again and again ; for last 10 yrs – been major elements in planning and designing lessons and units from kinder to hs
ex: Elaine Homestead and Mcginnis (ms teachers) and Pate (college professor) designed unit on Human Interactions that included studying racism, world hunger, pollution, and air and water quality
true; students researched issues by reading textbooks and outside sources, learning to use databases, interviewing local officials and inviting guest speakers to class – students had to develop knowledge in science, math, and social studies, learned to write and speak persuasively and raised money for hunger relief in Africa
elem students can benefit from
integrated planning too; no reason to work on spelling skills, then listening skills then writing sklls, then social studies or science. all these abilities can be developed together if students work to solve Authentic problems ; some topics include friendship, communictions, habitats, communities, and patterns for younger children; examples for older children in chat on page 519!!
you need to design teaching that is
appropriate for the objectives
explsion of research in 1970s and 1980s that focused on more traditional forms of teaching
true; results of all work identified a model that improved student learning- direct instruction/explicit teaching
direct instruction/explicit teaching
systematic instruction for mastery of basic skills, facts, and info by Rosenshine and Stevens
active teaching
by Tom Good; like direct instruction, but teaching characterized by high levels of teacher explanation, demonstration, and interaction with students
direct instruction model fits a specific set of circumstances
true; focused on existing practices in American classrooms, focus on traditional forms of teaching, research coulnt identify successful innovations; effectiveness was usually define as average in standardized test scores for a whole class or school; results hold for large group, but not necessarily every student in group — even when average achievement of a group improves, the achievement of some individuals may decline
basic skills
clearly structured knowledge that is needed for later learning and that can be taught step by step (vocab, math computations, grammar rules); Unambiguous tasks, evaluated by standardized tests; direct instruction applies to this
Weinert and Helmke describe direct instruction having the following
a) teacher’s classroom amangement is especially effective and rate of student interruptive behaviors is very low
b) teacher maintains a strong academic focus and uses available instructional time intensively to initiate and facilitate students’ learning activities
c) teacher insures that as many students as possible achieve good learning progress by carefully choosing appropriate tasks, clearly presenting subject matter info and solution strats, continuously diagnosing each student’s learning progress and learning difficulties and providing effective help thru remedial instruciton
Xin Ma adds
moving at a brisk pace and having a warm and accepting classroom climate
Rosenshine’s 6 teaching functions based on research on effective instruction (PAGE 520)
1) review and check the previous day’s work
2) present new material
3) provide guided practice
4) Give feedback and correctives based on student answers
5) provide independent practice
6) review weekly and monthly to consolidate learning
continue guided practice until students answer
80 percent of questions correctly
success rate during independent practice should be about
95 percent
these six functions aren’t steps to be followed in a particular order, but all of them are
elements of effective instruction
ex: feedback, review, or reteaching should occur whenever necessary and should match abilities of the students & keep in mind age and prior knowledge of students–younger or less prepared your students are, the briefer your explanations should be & use more and shorter cycles of presentation, guided practice, feedback and correctives
advance organizer
statement of inclusive concepts to introduce and sum up material that follows; often use this to begin with direct instruction
these organizers have three purposes:
direct your attention o what is important in coming material, highlight relationships among ideas that will be presented, and remind you of relevant info you already have
advance organizers are:
comparative or expository
comparative organizers
activate (bring into working memory) already existing schemas; remind you of what you already know, but may not realize is relevant; for a history lesson on revelotions might be a statement that contasts military uprsings with the physical and social changes involved in Industrial Rev, you could compare common aspects of French, English, Mexican, Russian, etc revolutions
expository organizers
provide new knowledge tat students will need in order to understand the upcoming info; in an English class you might begin with large thematic unit on rites of passage in literature with broad statement of why it’s central in lit like in Huck Finn “central character must learn to know himself…)
general conclusion of research on advance orgaizers is that they
do help students learn, especially wen the material to be learned is quite unfamiliar, complex or difficult as long as two conditions met
2 conditions
1) to be effective, organizer must be understood by studnets (demonstrated by Dinnel and Glover and found instructing students to paraphrase an advance organizer which requires them to understand its meaning increased effectiveness)
2) organizer must really be an organizer: it must indicate relations among the basic concepts and terms that will be used (concrete models, diagrams, or analogies)
well organized presentations with clear explanations, use of advance organizers, explanatory links and reviews can all help students
perceive connections among ideas ; if done well, direct instruction lesson could be a resource to construct understanding
ex: reviews and adv organizers activate prior knowledge so student ready to understand
brief clear, presentations and guided practice avoid overloading the students info processing systems and taxing working memories
true ; plus guided practice can give teacher a snapshot of students’ thinking as well as their misconceptions, rather than simply “wrong answers”
every subject, even English or chemistry, requires some
direct instruction
Noddings reminds teachers that students mayneed some direct instruction in how to use
various manipulative material so they can actually learn from (not just play with) the materials; students working in cooperative groups may need guidance, modeling and practice in how to ask questions and give explanations and to solve diff probs may need some direct instruction in possible problem solving strats
some studies have found teachers’ sttrats take up
one sixth to one fourth of all classroom time
teacher explanation is appropriate for communicating a topic, giving background info, or motivating students to learn more on their own
true; teacher presentations therefore are more appropriate for cognitive and affective objectives at lower levels of the taxonomies described earlier: for remembering, understanding, applying, receiving, responding, valuing
direct instruction disadvantages
some students have trouble listening for more than a few minutes and tune out, presentations can put students in a passive position by doing much of cognitive work for them- prevents students from asking or even thinking of questions
scripted cooperation
one way of incorporating active learning into lectures; learning strategy in which 2 students take turns summarizing material and criticizing the summaries ; teachers ask students to work in pairs for 2 partners where one is summarizer and other critiques the summary and then switch roles – helps check understanding, organize their thinking and translate ideas into their own words
see pages 522 and 523!!
true
critics claim direct instruction is based on the wrong theory of learning
true; teachers break material into small segments, present each segment clearly and reinforce or correct, thus transmitting accurate understandings from teacher to student – student is viewed as “empty vessel” waiting to be filled with knowledge rather than active constructor of knowledge – echo criticisms of behavioral learning theories
ample evidence that direct instruction and explanation can help students learn actively, not passively
true; younger and less prepared learners – student controlled learning without teacher direction and instruction can lead to systematic deficits n the students knowledge. w/out guidance, understandings that students construct can be incomplete and misleading
Harris and Graham describe the experiences of their daughter Leah in whole-language/progressive ed school where teacher developed daughters creativity, thinking and understanng
true – assessment done on leah for learning disability when didn’t have much progress reading; test indicated no learning disability, strong comprehension abilities, poor word attack skills and her parents knew how to teach those — direct teaching of these skills helped her become an avid and able reader in 6 weeks
deep understanding and fluid performance – whether in reading or dance or math prob solving or reading – require models of
expert performance and extensive practice with feedback
guided and independent practice with feedback are at the heart of the direct instruction model
true; see guidelines on 522 for more ideas about teaching effectively
seatwork
independent class work – this technique is overused
ex: summary of research rom 1975 to 200 found students with learning disabilities, who often have trouble improving without teacher guidance, were spending about 40% of their time on individual seatwork
seatwork should
follow up a lesson and give students supervised practice – should not be the main mode of instruction, but many workbook paes and wksheets do little to support the learning of important objectives
students should see connection bt seatwork and lesson- tell them why they are doing the work and objectives should be clear and all materials provided and wrk should be easy enough that students can succeed on their own
true; success rates should be high near 100%; if too difficult, students often resort to guessing or copying just to finish
alternatives to workbooks and wksheets
reading silently, reading aloud to partner, writing for a real audience, writing letters or jounals, punctur
Alternatives to workbooks and worksheets
Reading silently, reading aloud to someone, writing to real audience , write letters or journals, long term projects, reports, brain teasers
Group story
Where two students begin a story on the computer and two more add paragraph and story keeps growing , let’s kids be creative with so many diff authors
Any independent work requires careful
Monitoring
Being available to students doing seat work is more effective than offering students help before they ask for it
True, short frequent contacts are best , if working with small group make sure students know what to do if doing individual help during if they need help
Weinsteinm Romano, and mignano taught students the rule
Ask three, then me. Students consult three classmates b4 asking the teacher and this teacher also spends time at beginning of year showing students how to help each other – and how to ask questions and how to explain
educators ave been studying the effects of hw for over
75 yrs
to benefit from hw, students must understand the assignment
true; may help to do the first few questions as a class, clear up any misconceptions; especially important for students who mayhave no one at home to consult if they have probs with assignment
2) hold students accountable for filling in work correctly, not just filling in the page – means work should be checked, the students given a chanc to correct errors or revise work and results counted toward the class grade
expert teachers often have ways of correcting hw quickly during first min o class by having students
check each other’s or their own work — see point counterpoint on 525!!
if students get stuck on hw, they need help at home, someone who can scaffold their work without just “giving the answer”; but many families doesn’t know how to help
see guidelines on page 526 to provide ideas for helping families deal with hw
recitation
teachers pose questions, students answer; been around for many years; teachers questions develop a framework for the subject matter involved
pattern for the teacher’s pint of view consists of initiation (teacher asks questions), response (student answers), and evaluation/reaction (praising, correcting, probing or expanding) or IRE and these steps are
repeated over and over
the heart of recitation
the soliciting or questioning phase; effective questioning techniques may be among the most powerful tools that teachers employ during lessons; an essential element of contemporary learning techniques is keeping students cognitively engaged- where skillful questioning strats are especially effective
questions play several roles in cognition
they can help students rehearseinfo for effective recall, identify gaps in students knowledge base, provoke curiosity and long term interst, initiate cognitive conflict and promote disequilibrum that results in a changed knowledge structure, serve as cues, tips or reminders as an expert guides a novice in a learning experience
students and teachers should learn to
question effectively — first step in doing a good research project is asking a good question
a typical teacher asks between 30 and 120
questions an hour or about 1,500,000 questions over a teaching career– many questions are categorized in terms of Bloom’s taxonomy of objectives in the cognitive domain– see table 14.6 on page 527
convergent questions
questions that have a single correct answer
divergent questions
questions that have no single correct answer
questions about concrete facts are
convergent; who ruled England in 1540?
questions dealing with opinions or hypotheses are
divergent; which character is most like you and why?
questions can be categorized as either
convergent or divergent
all kinds of questions can be effective
true ; diff patterns seem to be better for certain types of students, but best pattern for young and lower-ability students of all ages is SIMPLE questions that allow high percentage of correct answers, ample encouragement, help when the student doesn’t have the correct answer and praise!!!
for high ability students,
the successful pattern includes harder questions at both higher ad lower levels and more critical feed back
whatever age or ability, all students should have some experience with
thought provoking questions and if necessary elp in learning how to answer them
classic research shows teachers wait an average of only
one second for students to answers
when teachers learn to pose a question, then wait at least 3 to 5 seconds before caling on a stdent to answer, students tend to give
longer answers; more students are more likely to participate, ask questions and volunteer appropriate answers; students comments involving analysis, synthesis, inference, and speculation ten to increase and the students generally appear more confident in their answers
5 seconds of silence isn’t easy to handle
true; takes practice – might try asking students to jot down ideas or even dscuss question with another student and formulate an answer together– makes wait more comfortable and gives students a chace to think
if it is clear that students are lost or don’t understand the question, waiting will
NOT help; if get blank stares, rephrase question or ask someone to clarify it —there is evidence that extending wait time at university does not affect learning, so with advanced hs students, you might conduct your own evaluation of wait time
if you call only on volunteers, then you may get the wrong idea about how well students understand material
true; also same ppl volunteer over and over again
many expert teachers have some systematic way of making sure they call on everyone:
they pull names from a jar or check names off a list as each student speaks; another possibility is to put each student’s name on an index card, then shuffle the cards and go thru the deck as you call on ppl– you can use the card to make notes about the quality of students’ answers or any extra help they seem to need
most common response, occurring 50 percent of the time in most classrooms is simple accpetance
ok or uh-huh; but there ar better reactions, depending on whether th students answer is correct, partially correct, or wrong
if answer is quick, firm andcorrect, simply
accept the answer or ask another question
if the anwer is correct, but hesitant, give the student
feedback about why the answer is correct
if student is unsure, others may be confused as well
true; if answer is partially or completely wrong but the student has made an honest attempt, you should probe for more info, give clues, simplify the question, review the previous steps, or reteach the material
if students answer is silly or careless, it is better simply to
correct the answer and go on
Hattie and Timperley reviewed several decades of research on feedback and constructed a model to guide teachers and had three feedback questions
Where am I going? How am I going? Where to next?
first is on goals and clarity, second is about progress-movement toward goals and third is about moving forward to improve understandings when goas are not met yet or to build on attained goals
Hatie and Timperly model considers focus on feedback on 4 levels:
task, process, self-regulation, self-feedback
see examples on 528!!
Hattie and Timperley aruge feedback about Process and Self-regulation is the MOST powerful because it helps
students move toward deep undersnading, mastery and self-direction in learning; feedback about self (usually praise) is common in classes, but is not effective unless the praise provides info about how effort, persistence or self-regulation moved he student forward “You are terrific – you stuck with this, revised again, and now this essay makes a powerful argument”
group discussion
conversation in which the teacher does not have the dominant role; students pose and answer their own questions–in some ways similar to recitation strategy ; students askquestions, answer each other’s questions and respond to each other’s answers
advantages to group discussions
students are directly involved and have chance to participate, learn to express themselves clearly, to justify opinions, tolerate different views, give students a chance to ak for clarification, examinetheir own thinking, follow personal interests, assume responsibility by taking leadership roles in group
group discussions help students
evaluate ideas and synthesize personal viewpoints; also useful when students are trying to understand diff concepts that go against common sense– by thinking together, challenging each other and suggesting and evaluating possible explanations, students are more likely to reach a genuine understanding
disadv to group discussions
unpredictable and may easily digress into exchanges of ignorance, may have to do good deal of preparation to ensure that participants have enough background knowledge for discussion; some members of group may have great diff participating and may become anxious if forced to speak. large groups are often unwieldly- a few students ill dominate the discussion while others daydream
research in 1964-2003 on value of discussing texts for improving student comprehension, Murphy reached some surprising conclusion
Research in 1964-2003, on value of discussin texts for improving student comprehension, Murphy reached surprising conclusions
Examined wide range of discussion formats including instructional conversations, junior great books shared inquiry, book club, literature circle (capitalize all) and found many of these approaches were successful in increasing student talk, limiting teacher talk, and promoting students literal interpretations of text, but getting them to talk more didn’t necessarily promote critical thinking, reasoning or argumentation skills
Discussion more effective for students with comprehension abilities below average bc average, higher-ability students already have skills to comprehend texts
True
A few discussion structures like Junior Great Books Shared Inquiry used over a longer period of time seemed to support both comprehension of text and critical thinking
True ; “simply putting students into groups and encouraging them to talk isn’t enough to enhance comprehension and learning ; it is but a step in the process”
Guidelines on 530!!
Give some ideas for facilitating a productive group discussion
First questions should be
What should students learn? What is worth knowing today? Then, we can match methods to goals; see Kuhn quote on 530- challenge is to formulate what want direct instruction to be
There is no best way to teach
True, diff goals and students needs require diff teaching methods
Direct instruction often leads or better performance on achievement tests whereas the open, informal methods like discovery learning or inquiry approaches associated with better performance on tests of creativity, abstract thinking and prob solving
True, open methods better for improving attitudes toward school and stimulating curiosity, cooperation among students and lower absence rates
According to these conclusions, when the goals of teaching involve prob solving, creativity, understanding and mastering processes, many approaches besides direct instruction should be
Effective – these guidelines are in keeping with Good’s conclusion teaching should become less direct as students mature and when goals involve affective development and prob solving or critical thinking
Every student may require direct, explicit teaching for some learning goals some of the time, but all students also need to experience more
Open, constructivist, student-centered teaching too
We have talked about approaches to teaching –
General strategies
But in today’s diverse classrooms, one size does not fit all
True, within the general approach, teachers have to fit their instruction to the needs and abilities of their students – they have to differentiate instruction
differentiated instruction
a flexible approach to teaching that matches content, process, and product based on student differences in readiness, interests, and learning needs ; Quintilian from 5th century “some students need encouragement, other need free reign…”
Quintilian appreciated need for fitting instruction to student and one way teachers did this isthrough
grouping
NOT unusual to have 3 to 5 year ability differences in any given classroom
true ; differences in students prior knowledge are a major challeng for teachers, especially in subjects that build on previous knowledge and skills like math and science
Within-class ability grouping
system of grouping in which tudents in a class are divided into two or three groups based on ability in an attempt to accommodate student differences ; superior to other approaches
in random sample of primary grade teachers in US
63% reported using within-class ability groups for reading
students in lower-ability groups were less likely to be asked critical comprehension questions and were given fewer opportunities to make choices about what to read
true; for schools with lower-SES studets, grouping often means that these students are segregated into lower-ability tracks (paul George – division of students on race, ethnicity and social class when homonogenous group)
thoughtfully constructed and well taught ability groups in math and reading can be
effective, but point of any grouping strat shuld be to provde appropriate challenge and support to reach children within their “zone of proximal development”
flexible grouping
grouping and regrouping students based on learning needs ; assessment continuous so students are always working within their zone of proximal development; small groups, partners, individual or even whole class depending on academic contet ; includes High level instruction and high exepectations of all students regardless of placing
5 yr longitudinal study of flexible grouping in a high needs urban elem school found
10 to 57 percent increase in students who reached mastery level, depeding on subject area and grade level; teachers received training and support in the assessment, grouping and teaching strats needed and by end of study 95 percent of teachers used flexible grouping bc believed that some of gains came bc students were more focused on learning and more confident
in a nongraded elem school (flexible grouping is good) with students of several ages like 6, 7, 8 are together in one class, bu they are flexibly grouped within the class forinstruction based on
achievement, motivation or interest in diff subjects – this cross grade grouping seems to be effective for students of all abilities as long as the grouping allows teachers to give more direct instruction to groups
however, need to be Sensible about cross age grouping; mixing 3rd, 4th and 5th grader for math or reading class based on what they are ready to learn makes sense
BUT sending a large 4th grader to 2nd grade, where he is the only older student and stands out like a sore thumb, wont work out well
when cross-age classes are created just bc there are too few students for one grade and not in order to better students learning needs, the results are
NOT positive ; working at a challenging level, but one you can master with effort and support is more likely to encourage learning and motivation
see guidlelines and charts on pages
532-533!!
adaptive teaching
by Corno; provides all students with challenging instruction and uses supports when needed, but removes these supports as students become able to handle more on their own ; addresses learner differences “teachers see learner variation as opportunity for learning from teaching rather than obstacles being overcome”
when students are novices and have litte prior knowledge and skills, teaching is more
direct and includes well designed motivational strts to keep them engaged
at same time, students are taught how to apply appropriate cognitive strats to give them skills to learn
true ; there are short cycles for teaching, checking for understandingand reteaching and as stuents develop aptitudes in the subject, teaching moves to modeling, guided practice, and coaching and by this time, students should have improved their cognitive “skills” strats, so teaching can also focus on motivational and volitional strats – the “will” to learn
finally, as students gain more knowledge and skills, teaching can move to guided discovery, independent study and peer tutoring with an emphasis on self-regulated learning (need this learning for rest of lives)
ex: of adaptive teaching being challenged
one teacher at a magnet school described how he “iced” his curriculum with some content “just beyond reach” of even his most advancedstudents and wanted to make sure all of his students found some assignments difficult bc believed everyone needs to stretch in his class
teaching for students with disabilities does not require a unique set of skills
it’s a combo of good teaching practices and sensitivity to all your students; students with disabilities need to learn the academi material and need to be full participants in day to day life of the classroom
to accomplish first goal of academic learning- students with learning disabilities appear to beneft from using
extended practice distributed ver days and weeks and from advanced organizers like focusing students on what they already know or stating clear objectives
Friend and Bursuck recommend INCLUDE strat for second goal of integrating students with disabilities
Identify the environmental, curricular, and instructional demands of class
Note students learning strengths and needs
Check for potential areas of student success
Look for potential problem areas
Use info gathered to brainstorm instructional adaptations
Decide which adaptations to try
Evaluate student progress
See table 14.7 on page
535
sometimes after kids refers to school psy, sped teachers or going to child study, the outcome includes prep of an IEP
true; may help to develop these prgrams for students in your classes, well-designed programs should provide guidance for you in planning and teaching
IDEA requires all students eligible for sped services must be considered for
assistive technology
assistive technology
devices, systems, and services that support and improve the capabilities of individuals with disabilities ; for studets who require small steps and many repetitions to learn a new concept, comps are perfect patient tutors, repeating steps and lessons as many times as needed
well-designed comp instructional program is
engaging and interactive (two important qualities for students who have probs paying attention or a history of falure that eroded motivation) ex: math or spelling program might use images, sounds and gamelike features to maintain the attention of a student with an attention-deficit disorder, teach hearing ppl sign language, hearing impairments can benefit if no sound, speak word to students with trouble reading, convert printed pages and typed texts to spoken words for those blind or benefit from hearing info, help those who have poor handwriting from learning disability to produce perfect penmanship
are barriers with new technology
many comps have graphic interfaces, manipulating the programs require precise mouse movements and can be difficult for students with motor probs or visual impairments and the inf on the Internet is often unusable for students with visual probs – researchers are trying to work on prob and devise ways for ppl to access info nonvsually
2010, the learning management syste called Canvas was awarded
the national Federation of the Blind- Nonvisual Accessibility Gold Level Certification bc the system is equally accessible to blind and sighted users
universal design
considering the needs of all users in he design of new tools, learning programs, or Web sites
for gifted students, computers can be a connection with databases and computers in univesitis, museums and research labs
true; computer networks allow students to work on projects, share info with others and have GT write programs for students and teachers ; a few principals around country rely on students to keep tech networks in their schools working smoothly ; see guidelines and figure 14.2 on pages 536 and 537
one way to make all instruction more appropriate and effective is to
know your students and develop trusting relationships with them ; knowledge you gain about the students shuld help in adapting your teaching and positive relationship you establish will help students stay engaged in learning
no matter how you differentiate instruction, there is one part of your teaching that should be the same for all your students-
appropriate high expectations
40 yrs ago, study by Rosenthal and Jacobson captured attention of national media in a wa few studies by pss have since then and caused great controversy within the professional community
randomly chose several students in number of elem school classrooms and told teachers that these students probably would make significant intellectual gains during the year and they did — presented data suggesting existence of a “Pygmalion effect or self-fulfilling prophecy
Pygmalion effect
exceptional progress by a student as a result of high teacher expectations for that student; named for mythological king, Pygmalion who made a statue then caused it to be brought to life
self-fulfilling prophecy
groundless expectation that is confirmed bc it has been expected
ex: false belief that a bank is failing; this leads o a rush of patrons withdrawing money, which then causes the bank to fail as expected
two kinds of expectation effects can occur in classroom
self fulfilling prophecy (teachers beliefs about the students abilities have no basis in fact, but student behavior comes to match the initially inaccurate expectation and sustaining expectation effect
sustaining expectation effect
student performance is maintained at a certain level because teachers don’t recognize improvements; chance to raise expectations, provide more appropriate teaching and encourage greater student achievement is lost
self fulfilling prophecy effects seem to be stronger in
early grades and sustaining effects are more likely in later grades
possible sources of teachers expectations
intelligence tests, gender (more behavior probs with boys), notes from previous teachers, med or psychological reports in students permanent files, prior knowledge about older bros and sis, appearance (higher expectations for attractive students, previous achievement, socioeconomic status, race and ethnicity, actual behaviors of the student, students after school activities (higher expectationsfor those in extracurriculars than those who do nothing)
research shows that some teachers may even hold expectations at the class level, they have higher or lower expectations for all students in a
particular class
some students are more likely than others to be recipients of sustaining expectations
true; ex: withdrawn children provide little info about themselves, so teachers may sustain their expectations about these children for lack of new input and self-fulfilling prophecy effects tend to be stronger for students from lower SES familes and for blacks
over 50 studies, Tenenbaum and Ruck found teachers held higher expectation for and directed more positive questions and encouragement toward Euro Americans compared to blacks
true; also appears early childhood teachers may hold higher expectations for students more socially competent
another study of 110 students whose development was followed fr age 4 to 18, Alvidrez and Weinstein found teachers tended to overestimate the abilities of prek children they rated as independent and interesting and to underestimate abilities of children perceived as
immature and anxious
expectations and beliefs focus attention and organize memory, so teachers may pay attention to and remember info that fits their
initial expectations
even when student performance doesn’t fit expectations, the teacher may
rationalize and attributethe performance to external causes beyond te student’s control
ex: a teacher may assume that the low-ability student who did well on a test must have cheated and that the high ability student who failed must have been upset that day –both cases behavior that seems out of character is dismissed and may take instances of supposedly uncharacteristic behavior to change the teacher’s beliefs about a particular student’s abilities and thus expectations often remain in the face of contradictory evidence
two ways to investigate if teachers expectations really affect students achivement
give teachers unfounded expectations about their students and note if these baseless expectations hve effects or identify the naturally occurring expecations of teachers and study effects of them
-answer to the question of whether they affect depends on which approach is taken to study question
original Rosenthal and Jacobson experiement used first approach- giving teachers groundless expectations and noting effects
true; careful analysis of results revealed that even tho 1st thru 6th grade students participated in the study, the self-fulfilling prophecy effects could be traced to dramatic changes in just 5 students in grades 1 and 2
Raudebush concluded that these expectations have only small effect on student IQ scores and only in the early years of a new school setting – in the
first years of elem school and then again in first years of ms
research shows that teachers do indeed form beliefs about students’ capabilities and many beliefs are
accurate assessments based on the best available data and are corrected as new info is collected ; but inaccuracies can make a difference, in longitudinal study by Alvidrez and Weinstein,teachers’ judgments of student ability at age 4 predicted student grade point average at age 18. strongest predictions were for students whose abilities were UNDERESTIMATED
if teachers decide that some students are less able, and if teachers lack effective strats for working with lower-achieving students, then students may experience a double threat-
low expectations and inadequate teaching
even tho its clear that teacher expectations can affect student achievement, the effects are
modest on average and tend to dissipate somewhat over the years; the power of the expectation effect depends on the age of the students (generally speaking, younger students are more susceptible) and on how differently a teacher treats high vs low expectation students; teachers may use different instructional strats and have diff relationships with students based on expectations
different grouping processes may have a marked effect on students bc different groups get
different instruction & some teachers leave little to imagination, make their expectations all too clear
exL Alloway recorded comments directed to low-achieving groups “ill be over to help you slow ones in a min” “blue group will find this hard”-teacher not only tells the students they lack ability, but communicates that finishing the work, not understanding is the goal
once teachers divide students into ability groups, usually differentiate by assigning diff learning activities and to extent that teachers choose activitisthat challenge students and increase achievement, these diffences are probably necessary-
activities become inappropriate when students who re ready for more challenging work aren’t given th opportunity to try it bc teachers believe they can’t handle it (sustaining expectation effect!!!! example)
the quantity and quality of teacher-student interactions are likely to affect the
students, however the class is grouped and whatever asignemtns are
students expected to achieve tend to be asked more and harder questions, given more chances and longer time to respond, be interrupted less often than students who are expected to do poorly
true; teachers also give these high-expectation students cues and prompts, communicating their belief that students can answer the question, tend to smile at those students more often and show greater warmth thru such nonverbal response like learning toward students and nodding heads as students speak
with low-expectation studets, teachers
ask easier questions, allow less time for answering, less likely to give prompts,more likely to resond with sympathetic acceptance or even praise for inadequate answers from low-achieving students, but criticize same students for wrong answers, may get less praise than high achieving for similar correct answers, inconsistent feedback like this can be very confusing for them
imagine how hard it would be to learn if your wrong answers were sometimes praised, sometimes ignored, sometimes criticized and your right answers received little recognition
even tho effects of these communicatins may be small each day, there can be huge effects as the expectation differences build year after year with many teachers
true
not all teachers form inappropriate expectatons or act on their expectations in unconstructive ways
true; guidelines on 540!! may help you avoid some of these probs, but avoiding prob may be more difficult than it seems
generally, low-expectation students also end to be the most
disruptive students (low expectations can reinforce desire to disrupt or misbehave); teachers may call on students less, wait shorter time for their answers, and give them less praise for right answers to avoid the wrong, careless or silly answers that can cause disruptions, delay and digressions
challenge is to deal with these real threats to classroom management without
communicating low expectations to some students or fostering their own low expectations of themselves and sometimes low expectations become part of the culture of the school- beliefs shared by teachers and administrators alike