Earth Space Science ch 19

earth is known as the what
the water planet
3 quarters of earth’s surface lies beneath a body of salt water called
global ocean
Name the five major divisions of the global oceans
Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Arctic, and the Southern Ocean
The Pacific Ocean is
the largest and deepest ocean
The Arctic Ocean
the smallest ocean that surrounds the North Pole
The 2nd Largest ocean is
the Atlantic Ocean
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A large commonly saline body of water that is smaller than an ocean and that can be partially or completely surrounded by land
Sea
Name the 3 major seas
Caribbean sea, Mediterranean Sea, and South China Seas
Oceanography
The Scientific Study of Earth’s oceans
One of the first ships to cross the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific oceans by the British navy, which laid the foundation for the modern science of oceanography
HMS Challenger
What is the world’s largest and most sophisticated scientific drilling ship?
JOIDES Resolution
The current most advanced drilling ship is…
The Japanese ship SHIKYU
The system that uses acoustic signals and returned echoes to determine the location of objects or to communicate is….
Sonar
Underwater research vessels are called
Submersibles
name 2 submersibles that are piloted by people
Bathyscaph, and Bathysphere
A submersibles that is not piloted by people is called
submarine robot
What is the difference between a sea and an ocean?
A sea has land surrounding it whereas an ocean does not.
Describe two ways that oceanographers study the ocean?
They use submersibles and sonar.
Sound, navigation, and ranging is the breakdown of what name?
Sonar
Describe two aspects of the ocean that submersibles are used to study.
They can study ocean depths, take photographs, and collect mineral samples.
Name the three things that oceanography studies?
life-forms of the ocean, chemical composition, physical characteristics
What is the difference between a bathyscaph and a bathysphere?
A bathyschaph is a self-propelled free-moving submarine, whereas a bathysphere is a diving vessel that connects to research ship and is used for communication and life support.
The ocean floor can be divided into 2 major areas, which are…
deep-ocean basin, and continental margin
the part of the ocean floor that is under deep water beyond the continental margin and that is composed of oceanic crust and a thin layer of sediment, is known as…
Deep-Ocean Basin
The shallow sea floor that is located between the shoreline and the deep-ocean basin, is known as…
Continental Margin
The part of the continent that is covered by water is called…
Continental Shelf
The continental shelf is part of the ____, but not the ____.
continental margin, deep ocean basin
A steep slope at the seaward edge of a continental shelf is called what?
continental slope
Deep V-shaped valleys that cut the continental shelf and continental slope are called what?
submarine canyons
Canyons form over time as very dense currents carry sediments down the continental slopes. These currents are called what?
Turbidity currents
A raised wedge at the base of the continental slope is called a
Continental rise
Long narrow depressions located in the deep-ocean basins are called…
Trenches
What is the deepest place in Earth’s crust?
The Mariana Trench
List 2 of the 3 things that form near ocean trenches
Volcanic mountains, volcanic island arcs, and Earthquakes
What three things determine the thickness of sediments?
1) age of oceanic crust
2) distance from continental margin to abyssal plain
3) location near trenches makes sediment thinner, whereas sediment is thicker when not bordered by trenches
Prominent feature of ocean basins that form underwater mountain ranges are called what?
mid-ocean ridges
Fault-bounded blocks of crust that form parallel to the ridges as the lithosphere cools and contracts are called?
abyssal hills
Areas of rough topography that run perpendicular across the ridge
fracture zones
_____ forms where plates pull away from each other.
Mid-ocean ridges
Mid-ocean ridges rise above sea level in a few places. One of these is _____.
Iceland
Describe the three main sections of the continental margin?
1) Continental shelf
2) Continental slope
3) Continental rise
Describe where the boundary between the oceanic crust and the continental crust are located.
offshore, under the ocean and sediments of the continental margin
List the four main features of the deep ocean basins.
trenches, abyssal plains, mid-ocean ridges, and seamounts
What are Core Samples?
a piece of solid that is collected by drilling
Almost all of the sediments on the ocean floor are what?
biogenic, which means that the remains were from living organisms
The two most common compounds that make up organic sediments are what?
silica(microscopic organisms) and calcium carbonate(skeletons of tiny organisms)
When substances that are dissolved in ocean water crystallize, these materials can form a mineral deposit called what?
Nodules (located on the abyssal plains)
The ocean floor sediments can be classified into what two types?
Muds and Oozes
What are the three types of sediments?
1) inorganic sediments
2) biogenic sediments
3) chemical deposits
Describe the formation of two different types of ocean floor sediments.
Inorganic sediments are formed when rivers deposit rock particles through turbidity currents or when icebergs melt and the rock sinks to the bottom. Biogenic sediments come from the remains of plants and animals sinking and depositing themselves in the ocean.
What is mud according to scientists?
Fine silts and clay-sized particles of rock
What is the difference between calcareous ooze and siliceous ooze?
Calcareous ooze is mostly calcium carbonate, but is never found below a depth of 5 km because it would dissolve.

Siliceous ooze is mostly silicon dioxide, found anymore but mostly in the cool, nutrient-rich water around Antarctica.