DSST-Organizational Behavior-Theories

Robert House-leaders role is to help employees understand
Path-goal
Fiedler-Proper match between leader & situation
Fiedler Contingency
contingency theory focused followers readiness
Situational leadership
Because time pressures leader establishes relationship small group
LMX-Vertical dyad linkage
Victor Vroom & Phillip Yetton-Employee Participation in decision making
Expectancy theory
Leadership is attribution people make about other individiuals
Attribution
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Followers make attributions of heoric or extraordinary leadership attributes
Charismatic leadership
Leaders who provide individualized consideration & intellectual stimulation & possess charisma
Transformational leaders
French & Raven-5 sources of power
Coercive, reward, legitimate, expert, & referent
Charasteristics & relationship to persons and work outcomes-Skill variety, task identify, task significance, autonomy, and feedback
Job characteristic model (JCM)
Kurt Lewin-Unfreezing, moving, refreezing
Three step change model
Robert Katz-3 essential mgmt skills
Technical skills, human skills, and conceptual skills
Mgmt that is driven by constant attainment of customer service thru improvement of Organizational processes
Total quality management (TQM)
5 traits of personality-openness, conscientiousness, extroversion, aggreeableness, & neuroticism
Big 5 (also called OCEAN)
4 charasteristics classify people in 1 of 16 types
Myers-Briggs Personality tests (MBTI)
6 personality types fit between personality & occupational environment
Personality-Job Fit (John Holland)
Ivan Pavlov-Individuals respond to stimulus they would not ordinarily respond to.
Classical conditioning
B F Skinner-conditioning in which undesired behavior leads to reward or punishment
Operant conditioning
People learn thru observation & direct experience
Social-learning
Occurs when one person inaccurately perceives another resulting in 2nd person behaving in way of the original perception.
Self-fulfilling or Pygmalion
Milton rokeach-2 sets of values with each containing 18 individual value items
Rokeach value study (RVS)
Leon Festinger-any incompatibiliity between 2 or more attitudes or behavior
Cognitive dissonance
Attitudes used after the fact 2 make sense out of what happened
Self-perception
Abraham Maslow-Physiological, safety, love, esteem, & self-actualization
Hierarchy of needs
Clayton Aderefer-Existence, relatedness, & Growth.
ERG theory (reworked Maslow’s theory of needs)
Douglas McGregor
Theory X(lazy) and Theory Y (likes work)
Frederick Herzberg-intrinsic factors are related job satisfaction while extrinsic related dissatisfication.
Motivation-hygiene
David McClelland
acuired needs=achievement, power, & affiliation
Allocates extrinsic rewards for behavior that had previously intrinsically rewarded
Cognitive Evaluation theory
Specific & difficult goals lead to higher performance
Goal setting
Behavior is function of its consequences (counterpoint to goal-setting)
Reinforcement
Concerned not only amount reward they get but what others get (John S. Adams)
Equity
Victor Vroom-Motivated to exert high levels of effort when think lead good performance/reward.
Expectancy theory
Herber Simon-Pick first choice that meets predetermined criteria
Bounded rationality(heuristics)
Drucker-Encompasses specific goals set for explicit time period with feedback on goal progress.
Management by objectives (MBO)
5 stages group
Forming, storming, norming, functioning, & disbandment
Attempts to explain & predict how behavior is aroused, sustained, started, and stopped
Motivation theory
Long periods of inertia with brief change triggers primary members awareness of time & deadlines
Puncutated-equilibrium model
Decision making model chooses the first solution that is good enough or satisficing & sufficient
Satisficing model
Leader obtains effective group performance by first making effective plans, decision, & strategies then communicating them thru directive behavior.
Cognitive resource theory
Allport-cardinal trait, central trait, secondary trait, genotypes, & phoneotypes
Trait theory
Blade & Mouton-Managerial Grid
concern for people & concern for production
Gilbreath-Scientific
Science of Bricklaying
Gantt
Gantt charts-scheduling
Wrote “The Human side of Enterprise”
Douglas McGregor
Referent power
French & Raven
360 degree feedback
Look at Entire picture of employee
Mintzberg-managerial roles
Informational, interpersonal, decisional
Bureaucracy
Weber
Humanistic
Rogers
Father of scientific management
TAYLOR
Father of modern management
Fayol-classical/administrative
Mayo & Roethlisberger
Behavioral/human relations-Hawthorne studies
Rensis Likert
SYSTEM 4 (participative)
Chester Barnard
systems-inputs/transformations/outputs-everything effects everything else
Drucker
productivity (output dividied by input)
Moreno
Sociometry
Ringelmann
Social loafing
Grid 1,1
Indifferent (improverished) evade & elude
Grid 1,9
accommodating (country club) yield & comply
Grid 9,1
dictatorial (produce or perish) control & dominate
Grid 5,5
status quo (middle of road) balance & compromise
Grid 9,9
Sound (team style) contribute & commit
Opportunistic style
exploit & manipulate
Paternalistic style
prescribe & guide
Power to change
managers use to praise & support
Initiative
taking action, driving & supporting
Inquiry
questioninb, researching, & verifying understanding
Advocacy
Expressing convictions & championing ideas
Decision making
Evaluating resources, choices & consequences
Conflict resolution
confronting & resolving disagreements
Resilience
Dealing with problems, setbacks & failures
Critique
Delivering objectives, candid feedback