Drug/Alcohol Exam 1 notes

Whether we see drug use as a prolblem depends on all of the following except: (E)
A)the reason one takes a drug
B)the quantity consumed and the manner by which one takes the drug
C)when and where the drug is used
D)the age of the individual taking the drug
E)whether the drug is natural or synthetic
In reference to psychoactive drug use, it is important to recognize that: (B)
A)drugs can have negative effects only
B)one’s history and expectations influence how one is affected by a drug
C)drugs usually have only one effect
D)legal drugs are rarely abused
E)a drug’s effects are independent of one’s attitude toward the drug
If the 1970s were the decade of the hippie, then the 1980s were the decade of the (D)
A) Aquarian ethics
B) Democratic party
C) Protestant ethics
D) Yuppie
E) Libertarian Party
With the exclusion of cigarettes, most high school seniors: (A)
A) rarely use drugs daily
B) use alcohol daily
C) use marijuana daily
D) use birth control pills daily
E) use tranquilizers daily
The highest rates of illicit drug use are in the () age group
18 to 25
Drug use is positively correlated with
rejection of traditional cultural systems
drug use by adolescents is
most affected by peer drug use
One common reason why some people begin to take illegal drugs is
that they have chosen to identify with a deviant subculture
The first of the pharmacological revolutions was associated wiht the development of
vaccines
The age group that is least likely to have used alcohol in the previous 30 days is
12 to 17
Which of the following is an example of behavioral toxicity?
driving inattentively after smoking marijuana
The acronym DAWN refers to
Drug Abuse Warning Network
The purpose of DAWN is to
collect data on drug-related crises
An experiment in which rats were allowed to self-inject drugs showed that the rats
were more likely to die form cocaine than heroin
Which of the following drugs is most clearly linked to violent crime (d)
a. heroin
b. cocaine
c. amphetamines
d. alcohol
e. LSD
Alcohol use is associated with
three-fifths of all murders
40% of all assualts
one-third of forcible rape and child molestation
50% committing violent crime when under the influence of alcohol or alcohol and other drugs
(ALL OF THE ABOVE)
The majority of narcotic addicts
begin criminal activity before becoming addicted
The number of people in the US arrested for drug-law violations each year is
1,000,000
Most legislation regarding drugs is passed in Congress based on
emotionality
(not scientific facts, rational arugments, public health needs or protecting the elderly as well as children)
About half o the emergency room episodes and three fourths of the drug related deaths are associated with
multiple drug episodes
All of the following are types of prevention except: (behavior-attitude prevention)
primary prevention
secondary prevention
tertiary prevention
The goal fo education programs is to
impart knowledge
All of the following are key elements of the social influence model except: use of scare tactics
training refusal skills
countering advertising
use of teen leaders
The Letters in DARE stand for
Drug Abuse Resistance Education
The main benefits of extracurricular peer approaches to drug prevention include:
Higher self-esteem
In the year 1989, rules went into effect requiring all companies and organizations that obtain grants from the federal government to adopt a “drug-free workplace” plan
1989
Primary prevention programs are those aimed mainly at:
people who have not yet tried the substances in question
Tertiary prevention programs are those aimed mainly at
people who have been treated for substance abuse or has stopped the substance abuse without assistance
Secondary prevention programs are those aimed mainly at
People who have tried the drug in question or a variety of other substances
In the late 1800’s prohibition was viewed as
a way of strikign back at ethnic groups undermining the good and true life
In 1918 Mississippi became the first state to ratify the Eighteenth Amendment and in 1919 Nebraska was the 36th state to ratify it
After Prohibition first went into effect
deaths from alcohol declined sharply
The last state to allow sales of liquor after prohibition ended was:
Mississippi
The minimum age to purchase alcoholic beverages was set at 21 inmost states before 1970
21
The country with the highest rate of alcohol consumption per capita is France
France
Naltrexone, a narcotic antagonist
reduces craving for alcohol
was approved by the FDA in 1994 for the treatment of alcoholism
Disulfiram (antabuse):
a) has the effects that last for only 4-6 hours
b) is a sedative used as an alcohol substitute
c) is a very safe treatment method
d) inhibits the enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase
e) prevents alcohol from having any effect on the driver
Jellinek’s theory is that alcoholism is
a progressive disease that follows seveal predictable stages
Alcoholics Anonymous believes that alcoholism
is a disease
In American beer the primary grain is
barley
the process by which alcohol concentration is increased to more than 15%
distillation
The word “brandy” is a dutch word meaning:
burnt wine
In most commercial beers today, alcohol content is a little over
4%
Between 1935 and 1980, the number of breweries:
decreased
Of the following countries, which one has the highest per capita of beer consumption
West Germany
Wines that are varietals
are named after one variety of grape which makes up 51% of the wine
When corn constitutes more than 51% of the grain in a mash, the liquore is called
bourbon
Alcohol withdrawal symptoms can include
tremors
insomnia, feelings of unreality
convulsions
hallucinations
(all of the above)
Alcohol has been shown to
decrease testosterone production
The first time a regulatory tax was placed on crude opium in the US was
1842
The problems that fueled the passage of early legislation in the US included the following except
the Whiskey Rebellion
Initially, the Pure Food and Drug act of 1906 was administered within the
Department of Agriculture
In 1912, Congress passed the Sherley Amendment, which:
outlawed false and fraudulent therapeutic claims by patent medicine manufacturers
The 1962 Kefauver-Harris amendments were approved after babies were born with deformities as a result of
Thalidomide
In what year did the FDA begin to require that a new drug be demonstrated to be effective before it coudl be marketed?
1962
Who was the Commissioner of the Bureau of Narcotics for over 30 years
Harry Anslinger
The Drug Abuse Control Amendments of 1965 was designed to control the following except
alcohol
Most drug screening programs test
urine
Thirty years ago, when people spoke of addiction they were most likely thinking of
Heroin
The three basic processes related to the concept of addiction are
tolerance, physical dependence, reinforcement
Tolerance refers to
the diminishing effect of a drug as a result of repeated exposure to the same dose of the drug
Withdrawal syndrome refers to
a set of symptoms that appear when drug usage stops
The driving force behind narcotic addiction, according to the authors is
the reinforcing effect of a drug rather than fear of withdrawal
In relation to physical dependence, psychological dependence is
a greater problem, since many addicts have gone through withdrawal will later relpase
Which of the following statements is true
Some drugs are more likely than others to result in addiction
There is no clear distincition between drugs tha tare addicting and those that are not
It is wrong to conclude that any activity by its nature is always addicting
Those seeking prohibition of drugs tend to demonize drugs they want prohibited
Synanon believes that narcotic addicts
are never cured
If one beleives alcoholism is a disease, then the only acceptable goal is
total abstinence
Syanon
maintains an open-door policy
Hormones are carried by the blood to distant
target cells
Hormones are released into the blood, and neurotrnasmitters are released into the synapse
blood and synapse
Chemicals released from neurons (nerve cells) are called:
neurotransmitters
Gama-aminobutyric acide is an inhibitory neurotransmitter
gama-aminobutyric acid
The central nervous system consists of
the brain and spinal cord
The neurotransmitter at the neuromuscular juncitons in the somatic system is
acetylcholine
the basal ganglia is important for
maintaining proper muscle tone
Patients who died from Alzheimers disease were found to have less than a ormal amount of
acetylcholine
the neurotransmitter(s) believed to play a role in pain relife is/are:
endorphins
Both the synthesis and metabolism of a neurotransmitter is carried out by means of
enzymes
The sales of pharaceutical industry exceeds 40 billion per year
40 billion
A substance canb e patented when
it has a new chemical structure
a chemical is manufactured in a new way
a new use for a chemical is discovered
At moderate doses, stimulants can produce
wakefulness and a sense of well-being
at low doses, opiates can produce
a relaxed dreamlike state
major tranquilizers are nwo referred to as
antipsychotics
the therapeutic index is
always greater than one
LD50/ED50
The safety margin of a drug is measured by the:
difference between the effective dose level and the lowest toxic dose
Drug absorption is most rapid when the intramuscular injection is given into the
deltoid muscle
The fastest method by which the drug is delivered to the brain is
inhalation
The reduced effect of a drug that may result from more rapid metabolism or excretion of the drug is referred to as
drug disposition tolerance
The widespread introduction of cocaine into West Europe and the US first occurred
in the last century
The scientist who experimented with the ability of cocaine to produce local anethesia
W.S. Halstead
Speedball is generally the combination of
heroin and cocaine
IN the 1960s, cocaine became popular again because
amphetamines became harder to obatin
In South America, a popular way to use cocaine is
coca paste
Crack is
cocaine mixed with baking soda
Cocaine’s behavior effects are believed to depend on blocking the reuptake of
dopamine and serotonin
Animal experiments with rats and monkeys have demonstrated that
cocaine has powerful reinforcing properties
these animals will rapidly learn to press levers to receive cocaine
A smokeable form of methamphetamine is referred to as
ice
the current drug of choice for treating attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is
methylphenidate
the most widely-used sedative-hypnotic drug is alcohol
alcohol
the nonbarbiturate paraldehyde is not used because
it has a noxious taste and odor
Drugs used to induce sleep are called
hypnotics
a popular sedative that was introduced in 1960
chlordiazepoxide
Antianxiety drugs became very popular in the 1950’s. One extremely popular antianxiety drug was Miltown, generically known as
meprobamate
Quaalude and Sopor were brand names for
methaqualone
Methaqualone is now listed as a Schedule I drug
Schedule 1: Methaqualone
The combined sales of the benzodiazepines make them easily the most widely prescribed drug class
benzodiazepines
If one has trouble falling to sleep, one should
exercise regularly
The following are abused as inhalants except
detergents
The DSM-IV nwo refers to neurosis as
anxiety disorder
Bipolar depression is a mood disorder
characterized by manic-depressive
General paresis refers to
a syphilitic infection of the nervous system
IN 1933 to help schizophrenic patients, Sakel used
insulin
Ugo Cerletti introduced electroconvulsive therapy (ECT to treat
schizophrenia
Phenothiazines are now referred to as
Antipsychotics
Indivdiuals who use antipsychotic drugs may
exhibit photosensitivity and jaundice
More than half of hte prescribed antidepressants
are prescribed by nonpsychiatrists
Lithium was demonstrated to be effective on
manic patients
About 33% of the homeless people in the US have some form of mental illness
33%
“The way to tell whether a man is having drinking problems is to ask…”
The BEST answer is “whether he has tried several times without success to reduce his drinking.” Having trouble controlling or cutting down on use appears in the textbook definition of drug dependence, page 6, the chapter 1 summary, page 23, and the chapter 1 study guide. No number or type of drinks is a reliable gauge of whether a person is having drinking problems. The absence of numbers of drinks or doses of drugs can also be seen in the criteria used to diagnose substance disorders, page 38.
The statement that psychoactive (or mood-altering) drugs in any form are bad is erroneous. Drugs are “good” or “bad” not exactly because of their chemical properties but rather because of their actual effects in users and other people. For example, alcohol helps Mary with her shyness in social settings while it leads Sam to miss an exam because of a hangover. Review the four principles of psychoactive drugs in chapter 1.
Psychoactive drugs have effects not only on the brain but also on other body organs. For example, smoking tobacco harms the lungs, smoking marijuana increases the heart rate, and drinking alcohol impairs the liver. On page 10 of the text glossary, psychoactive drugs have their principal effect on the central nervous system (CNS), which includes the brain and spinal cord.
Although we may think that drug users are “ignorant” of risks, they are actually more likely to downplay the risks of drug use. Most people tend to think they drive better than everyone else does, for example. Review the role of “risk perception”, which was mentioned in chapter 3 study guide, in human behavior.
While some people assume that the dependence potential is high for all psychoactive drugs, it is not rated as “high” for alcohol, marijuana, or hallucinogens. See text table 2.3 and the chart inside back cover.
Withdrawal symptoms in a drug quitter are a sign of physical rather than psychological drug dependence. Review pages 37-39.
Despite years of much effort and expense, the US national drug control policy has been unable to reduce the overall amount of drug abuse significantly.
When 2 or more psychoactive drugs are consumed together, the most serious risk from their “interaction” is on breathing, which can slow down to the point of starving the brain of oxygen. Blood pressure or circulation may also be at risk, but respiration is the function in the most danger. See text page 117.
Impairment during drinking and driving incidents can decrease over time because of increased tolerance. This statement assumes that persons continue to drink and drive during long periods, which is a reasonable assumption to make. Tolerance is the reduced effectiveness of a drug after repeated use. Think of the person who “can drink me under the table.” As drinkers gain more “tolerance” to alcohol over time, the negative effects of drinking on their driving can decline. See text page 119
hol does not distribute much into fatty tissues, as stated in the textbook and the chapter 9 study guide. This physiologic fact helps to explain why people with a “skinny” appearance generally become intoxicated slower than people with a “fatty” one.
As explained in the textbook section on blood alcohol concentration and metabolism, a standard drink has ½ ounce of ethanol, and the body eliminates ¼ ounce of ethanol per hour. Therefore, in the words of the text author, “If you drink faster than one drink every two hours, your BAC will climb.”
Overall, the dependence risk from alcohol use is MODERATE, as stated in the textbook inside back cover, the chapter 9 study guide, and elsewhere. It is neither low nor high but moderate.
When US deaths are classified and ranked according to the contributions of alcohol and other drugs, tobacco causes the most deaths, followed by alcohol, and then all other drugs. Some of the “all other drugs” are cocaine, heroin, and tranquilizers. This information is available in the textbook (page 32) and the chapter 9 study guide.
Alcohol ranks second after tobacco and before drugs in annual deaths – after tobacco and other drugs